Qualitative Analysis of Triglycerides in Cooking Oil Using GC/MS
- The following examples illustrate the use of the
combined data from EI and CI for the triglyceride
analysis of a butter sample by GC/MS.
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Analysis of Low Concentration BPA in Consumer Products by GC/MS without Derivatization
- The following poster discusses the analysis of low concentrations of Bisphenol A in conumser products by GC/MS without derivatization.
- View here (2061275 KB)
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in Saliva
- The National Institute on Drugs of Abuse [NIDA] and The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMSHA] determine appropriate detection levels for GCMS confirmation
- View here (29 KB)
GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database
- This Application News introduces the usefulness of the forensic substance library in this GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database.
- View here (2237759 KB)
Applications of Comprehensive GCxGCMS Using a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer With Ultra-high Scan Speed
- A new quadrupole GCMS system, capable of scanning 20,000amu/sec and 100Hz has
been developed that meets the data acquisition requirements of the comprehensive
GCxGCMS technique. In this study, complex naturally-occurring products will be
analyzed that demonstrate the utility of this new GCMS.
- View here (906625 KB)
Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 1
- Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 1, GCMS in drug screening and clinical chemistry, TLC/MS offline coupling, Higher speed through Fast-GCMS, Determination of oil in water according to DIN H53
- View here (2651777 KB)
Analysis of Fatty Acids in Butter Using GC x GC-MS
- Analysis of Fatty Acids in Butter Using GC x GC-MS
- View here (133841 KB)
Analysis of Ethylene in Food Using GC/MS
- Ethylene is a type of plant hormone. It promotes the growth of fruits and vegetables, and suppresses the sprouting of potatoes. This experiment details the analysis of ethylene produced by apples.
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Analysis of Detergent in Diesel Fuel by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)
- Despite initial concerns regarding volatilization of the detergent, high-temperature GCMS chromatographic analysis is a valid technique for determining the concentration of detergent in diesel fuel. The goal of a lower quantitation limit of 125 ppm was exceeded by demonstrating linearity down to 50 ppm.
- View here (2329284 KB)
Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 2
- Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 2. Fast GC and GC/MS using narrow-bore columns: Principles and Applications, Basics of separation in fast GC
- View here (3186649 KB)
Analysis of Gasoline Utilizing a GC × GC-MS System
- When petrochemical products such as gasoline are analyzed using a GC-MS, a number of paraffin
hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons are detected. Since their peaks overlap, qualitative and
quantitative analysis of the respective components can be difficult. Analysis of such samples using a GC ×
GC-MS system, on the other hand, results in comprehensive 2-dimensional separation, simplifying
qualitative and quantitative analysis.
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Analysis of Opioids Using Isotope Dilution with GCMS-TQ8030 GC/MS/MS
- This application note presents instrument configuration, operating parameters, and analytical results for analysis of a common narcotic, hydrocodone, using the isotope dilution technique paired with the specificity of the MRM analysis mode of the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS. Internal standard calibration of codeine and oxycodone was also included in the study.
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Evaluation of Sample Pretreatment Procedures for the Determination of Phthalate Esters in Child Care Products and Children’s Toys by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)
- The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA-USA) requires testing of child care products and toys in the US for specific phthalate esters by GCMS. The CPSC test method specifies solvent extraction and subsequent GCMS analysis for specific phthalate esters. In this study, analysis by pyrolysis GCMS was investigated as a technique to simplify sample preparation and improve analytical precision. The analyses were conducted on a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra equipped with a Frontier PY-2020is pyrolyzer, shown in the figure below.
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Analysis of Detergent Residues on Clothing Using DMI-GC/MS
- This datasheet investigates the effectiveness of using GC/MS to analyze non-volatile matrices, by using
DMI-GC/MS to analyze detergent residues on clothing.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Vegetable Juice
- Amino acids contained in vegetable juice were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
- View here (114827 KB)
Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Miso Soup
- Amino acids contained in miso soup were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
- View here (181894 KB)
Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Green Tea
- Amino acids contained in green tea were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
- View here (109441 KB)
Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in a Sports Drink
- Amino acids contained in a sports drink were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
- View here (104884 KB)
Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Soy Sauce
- Amino acids contained in soy sauce were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy
pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
- View here (108321 KB)
Analysis of Adipose Fatty Acids in Human Serum
- Adipose extracted from human serum was converted to fatty acid methyl ester, and then analyzed with a
GC-MS system. This analysis was performed in conjunction with representatives from Shimane University.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in a Grain of Rice
- Amino acids contained in a grain of rice were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
- View here (94048 KB)
Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Dashi (Japanese Soup Stock)
- Amino acids contained in dashi were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy
pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
- View here (94666 KB)
Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Alcohol
- Amino acids contained in alcohol were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
- View here (118220 KB)
Analysis of Inorganic Gases and Hydrocarbons by GC-MS
- This shows an example of analyzing inorganic and hydrocarbons gases using a PLOT (porous layer
open tubular) column.
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Analysis of Glycolysis Metabolites in Human Embryonic Stem Cells using GC-MS/MS
- This Application Data Sheet presents the results of the analysis of glycolysis metabolites extracted from human
embryonic stem cells using an MRM method file included in the Smart Metabolites Database.
- View here (246123 KB)
Analysis and Quantitation of Cocaine on Currency Using GC-MS/MS
- This application note describes a method for extraction, identification, and quantitation of cocaine on paper money from nine different geographical areas around the globe, including five samples from the United States, using the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8040 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) monitoring mode.
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Automated Preparation of Calibration Curve Samples in the Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods
- The AOC-6000 multifunctional autosampler is equipped with a function to automatically exchange syringes with
different capacities, as well as a function to stir the samples. This Application Data Sheet reports on the
automated preparation of a series of standard pesticide samples to which an internal standard and pseudo
matrix were added using these functions, and the results of their analysis with the triple quad GCMS-TQ8040.
- View here (256125 KB)
Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Milk Using SPME and GC-MS/MS
- This application note describes development of a fully automated SPME extraction method combined with GC-MS/MS analysis for detection and quantitation of OP pesticides in a complex milk matrix. The Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8040 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer used for this application note is shown in Figure 1. The SPME method development and validation were fully automated using the Shimadzu AOC-6000 Multifunctional Autosampler.
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Introduction of a New Fast Scanning, Highly Sensitive Single Quadrupole GCMS: A Platform for Modern Chromatography Techniques
- A quadrupole GCMS system, capable of scanning 20,000amu/sec and 100Hz, has been developed that meets the data acquisition requirements of the comprehensive GCxGCMSand Fast-GC techniques. In this study, complex natural product extracts will be analyzed that demonstrate the utility of this new GCMS.
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Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Baby Foods Using a Triple-Quadrupole GC/MS/MS System
- A Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 system operated in the MRM mode was shown to be a rapid, sensitive, and selective technique for analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in baby foods. Reliable, precise measurements were obtained at 1 ng/mL for all 24 OP pesticides. The Shimadzu AART function and GC/MS/MS Pesticide Database simplified development of the MRM method.
- View here (1437548 KB)
Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System - TBBPA and BPBPE
- This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing
TBBPA and BPBPE in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47
using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra systems
- View here (139887 KB)
Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System (3) - HBCDD
- This Application Data Sheet
shows the results from analyzing HBCDD in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in
Application Data Sheet 47 using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra.
- View here (128381 KB)
Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Activie Pharmaceutical Ingredients (2)
- This Application Datasheet introduces evaluation results with respect to quantification in the GC/MS analysis of sulfonate esters, so-called PGI (potential genotoxic impurities), in active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Please refer to GC-MS Application Datasheet No. 18, “Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients,” for the analysis conditions and the total ion current chromatogram for the sulfonate esters.
- View here (82517 KB)
Analysis of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by GC-MS Using Hydrogen Carrier Gas
- This data sheet presents the application of hydrogen carrier gas to the analysis of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate using
the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a Dual Inlet Turbo Molecular Pump.
- View here (126741 KB)
Simultaneous Analysis of 66 Pesticides by GC-MS Using Hydrogen Carrier Gas
- This data sheet presents the application of hydrogen carrier gas to the simultaneous analysis of a standard
sample of 66 pesticides using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a Dual Inlet Turbo Molecular Pump.
- View here (129580 KB)
Analysis of a Benzodiazepine-Based Drug Using GC-MS
- Benzodiazepine drugs are commonly used in sleeping aids and tranquilizers, and sometimes in crimes or suicide.
Therefore, these chemical substances are often analyzed by forensic laboratories for criminal or academic
investigations. This datasheet shows the results from using GC-MS to measure 9 types of benzodiazepine drugs.
- View here (123635 KB)
Analysis of Gasoline Using a GC-MS
- Regular gasoline was analyzed utilizing a GC-MS. To minimize gasoline fuel consumption, the average boiling point
is adjusted to about 100oC. In addition, as adjustment to the optimal boiling point depends on the air temperature, the
composition will differ between summer and winter, and between cold areas like Hokkaido and hot areas like
- View here (167316 KB)
Analysis of Soft Drinks Utilizing Headspace GC-MS
- With the headspace method, samples are inserted into vials, and the headspace gas is introduced into a GC column,
enabling simple measurement of fragrant components. This article introduces the results of the measurement of
various soft drinks using Headspace GC-MS.
- View here (536129 KB)
Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants Using a Pyrolysis GC-MS System
- This datasheet introduces a sample measurement of Decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca BDE), a
brominated flame retardant, using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.
- View here (61035 KB)
Analysis of Adipose Fatty Acids in Blood Utilizing a GC × GC-MS System
- This application datasheet investigates the separation of the C18 fatty acids: oleic acid and gammalinolenic
acid. These substances could not be separated using only a 1-dimensional column, but could be
separated 2-dimensionally using a GC × GC-MS system.
- View here (117832 KB)
Analysis of Impurities in Tests for Residual Solvents in Pharmaceuticals Using GC-MS
- This Data Sheet presents an example of the analysis of unknown peaks in a test for residual solvents in
pharmaceuticals, using analysis columns that complies with USP467 Procedure A for residual solvents, utilizing the
Shimadzu HS-20 Trap headspace sampler, which features a trapping function, and the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.
- View here (364914 KB)
Analysis of Inorganic Gas by GC-MS
- Currently, inorganic gases are typically analyzed using a gas chromatograph – thermal conductivity detector system. This method usually involves using a packed column as the separation column. If a PLOT (porous layer open tubular) column with packing particles fixed to the column interior wall is used instead, however, similar results can be achieved using a gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer (GC-MS) system.
- View here (135362 KB)
Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water-based Paints and Varnishes Using GC-MS
- A general GC-MS method was developed, using the Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, for determination of 35 VOCs commonly found in water-based paints and varnishes. A wide range of calibration was established with good correlative coefficient, as well as good repeatability. The results even demonstrated the capability of using this instrument for the determination of compounds which were not calibrated, in preparation to fulfil the requirements of any possible future regulations.
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Improvement of ASTM D-5769 by GCMS High Concentration Tuning and Automated Data Processing
- Method ASTM D-5769 is a standard GCMS method to determine aromatics in finished motor gasoline or ethanol blends. However, the intrinsic high sensitivity of mass spectrometry usually gives rise to a limited linear range that makes it difficult to meet method requirements. GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, a new single transmission quadruple GCMS, allows for tuning the instrument in a “high concentration” mode that is suitable for ASTM D-5769 type of analysis without making any hardware compromises. In addition, newly improved Shimadzu aromatics report software is now capable of conducting automated data acquisition, processing and reporting. These new features have greatly enhanced method robustness and efficiency, providing a total solution of running ASTM D-5769.
- View here (1961086 KB)
Polymer Analysis Using TGA-GC/MS with CI
- In mass analysis, a sample is ionized, the mass numbers are measured and qualitative analysis
is performed on the basis of the obtained mass spectra. The ionization methods include
electronic impact ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI).
- View here (272 KB)
Analysis of 2-Alkylcyclobutanones by GC/MS: Detection of Irradiated Foods
- In this Application News, we introduce an example of fat can be extracted (beef, pork, chicken, salmon, and Camembert cheese , etc . )
- View here (1184397 KB)
Analysis of Compounds Related to Musty Odor Regulated in Drinking Water Using Headspace - GC/MS
- This Application News pertains to the measurement of substances (2-methylisoborneol and geosmin) responsible for the musty (mold-related) odor in tap water.
- View here (226620 KB)
GCMS-TQ8040 Application Solutions brochure
- A general interest brochure that explains the product package solutions available for different application areas such as Food, Environment, Life Science, and Forensics.
- View here (1784001 KB)
High-Sensitivity Analysis of Phenols in Drinking Water Using Nitrogen Carrier Gas
- With the sudden rise in the price of helium in recent years, carrier gases that can be used in place of helium are sought after.
Hydrogen and nitrogen are potential substitute gases for helium. Though nitrogen is safer than hydrogen and easier to handle,
there is a reduction in the sensitivity compared to helium and that makes it difficult to maintain analytical precision for trace
The GCMS-QP2020, however, features a large-volume differential vacuum system that is able to minimize the reduction in
sensitivity caused by using nitrogen as a carrier gas.
This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the advantages of the GCMS-QP2020 by reporting the results of analyzing phenols
in drinking water using nitrogen as a carrier gas.
- View here (161253 KB)
EPA Method 8270D Analysis Using Narrow-bore GC Columns and Fast Data Acquisition with a Quadrupole GCMS System
- The goal of this study was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new, sensitive, fast-scanning
GCMS system to optimize productivity for EPA Method 8270D, while maintaining the strict QC
measures of the method, optimizing sensitivity, and expanding the dynamic range.
A new, sensitive, fast-scanning quadrupole GCMS system was used to significantly reduce the
run time for a mixture of 81 analytes. Excellent sensitivity and chromatographic resolution were
demonstrated with a significantly reduced run/cycle time.
- View here (3448416 KB)
GC-MS High Sensitivity Technology Using Overdrive Lens
- The effects of increased signal intensity and improved signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were investigated by eliminating noise with the installation of an overdrive lens in the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, and verifying the effectiveness using simulation and experimentation by GC-MS. The results confirmed that S/N improved through application of the optimum voltage on the overdrive lens. In addition, it was verified from the results of analysis of 5 ppb chlorpyrifos-methyl by the full-scan method that high-sensitivity analysis is possible using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra equipped with this technology.
- View here (948770 KB)
Methods 8260C and 8270D on a Single GCMS without Changing Columns
- The Twin Line MS Kit allows the user to install two chromatographic columns in the same mass spectrometer, providing greater flexibility for those laboratories wishing to perform volatile and semi-volatile analyses on a single GCMS unit without breaking the MS vacuum. This configuration incorporates two injection ports and two chromatographic columns simultaneously connected to a single MS. With this configuration, the user can easily switch between volatile and semi-volatile applications without venting the MS vacuum system to change the analytical column.
- View here (1042412 KB)
Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods Using Twin Line GC-MS
- To obtain highly reliable data from analyzing residual pesticides in foods by GC requires confirmation tests using
columns with different liquid phases. In contrast, with GC-MS, confirmation is possible by using not only retention
times, but also m/z values. Therefore, normally only one type of column is used for tests. However, due to the
increased number of pesticides and the diversification in substances subject to inspection, users are demanding
higher reliability by using columns with different liquid phases, even for GC-MS analysis.
Therefore, a Twin Line MS Kit, which enables the installation of two types of columns with different liquid phases in one MS, without the use of splitters or flow restrictors, was used to analyze residual pesticides in food.
- View here (128800 KB)
Paint Thinner Analysis Utilizing Headspace GC-MS
- Paint thinners, which are utilized to lessen the viscosity of paints, consist primarily of toluene, and contain
other substances such as ethyl acetates and alcohols. As these compounds have anesthetic and
excitatory properties, “paint sniffing”, or abuse by intentional inhalation, has become a social problem,
leading to regulations targeting the inhalation of paint thinner for such purposes [1, 2]. Since GC-MS
systems are often utilized in place of GC in scientific crime detection, this experiment investigated the
ability of Headspace GC-MS to measure ethyl acetate, toluene, and methanol.
- View here (139423 KB)
Measurement of Ethanol in Blood Using Headspace GC-MS
- Ethanol in blood is analyzed in the context of scientific crime detection with respect to traffic accidents caused by drinking, and violence, injuries, and homicides associated with alcohol[1,2]. The concentration of ethanol in blood is an important factor in understanding the extent of intoxication. Under the Road Traffic Act and the Order for Enforcement of the Road Traffic Act, an individual is considered to be under the influence of alcohol if the blood ethanol level is 0.3 mg/mL or more. While packed column GC-FID and capillary GCFID are recognized measurement methods, a GC-MS is often used instead. This datasheet investigates the ability of Headspace GC-MS to measure ethanol in blood.
- View here (90548 KB)
Analysis of Pesticides in Baby Foods Using a GCMS-TQ8030 GC/MS/MS, Part II
- This application note presents instrument configuration, operating parameters, and analytical results for analysis of 36 pesticides from various chemical classes in a QuEChERS extract of baby food using the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS. Results were evaluated for calibration linearity, analytical precision, and accuracy in a baby food matrix. Selectivity as a function of variable mass spectral resolution settings on the two sets of quadrupoles, Q1 and Q3, is also discussed.
- View here (1209665 KB)
Analysis of Pesticides in Citrus Oil Using a Shimadzu GCMS-TQ 8030
- Detection of pesticides was demonstrated at low
ng/mL (ppb) levels in orange oil using a Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 GC-MS/MS. Calibration was conducted using the matrix-matched internal standard procedure. Nine calibration standards were prepared and analyzed in diluted organic orange oil over the range of 5-5000 ng/mL (ppb), although some compounds could not be accurately quantitated at the low concentrations due to matrix interference. Precision and accuracy were demonstrated by replicate analyses of matrix spiked aliquots at 5, 10 and 50 ng/mL.
- View here (1052545 KB)
A Pyrolysis-GC/MS Screening System for Analysis of Phthalate Esters and Brominated Flame Retardants
- The Py-Screener method package was used to investigate the phthalates and PBDEs content in three polymer samples. Experimental conditions and data processing method are described in detail. The LabSolution Insight program was used to review multiple data and flag outliers based on defined QAQC parameters.
- View here (939546 KB)
Screening Medical Marijuana for Pesticides by GC-MS/MS
- Triple-quadrupole GC-MS/MS operated in MRM mode provides significant sensitivity and selectivity, but
method development can be expensive and time consuming. This poster describes streamlined method
development process for analysis of pesticide residues in MM using a QuEChERS sample preparation
method, followed by GC-MS/MS detection and quantitation.
- View here (2179545 KB)
Analysis of Food Additives – Food Antioxidants
- This Application News introduces the results of
analysis of the antioxidants BHA, BHT and TBHQ
using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer
(GC/MS). The antioxidants were added to a butter
sample, and then extracted using a simple
pretreatment process. In this analysis, the backflush
technique was employed to prevent high-boiling point
substances in the actual sample from being introduced
into the detector.
- View here (341190 KB)
Application of Metabolomics Techniques using LC/MS and GC/MS Profiling Analysis of Green Tea Leaves
- This Application Note presents the profiling of green tea
leaves as an example of one application of the metabolome
analysis technique using LC/MS and GC/MS. A search of
the substances believed to play roles in product quality was
conducted, and a quality prediction model was constructed
based on the results.
- View here (677759 KB)
Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC/MS
- This Application News introduces an example of GC/MS analysis of 6 phthalate esters in toys. For an example of GC-FID analysis of the same sample, refer to Shimadzu Application News No. G275 "Analysis of 6 Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC-FID."
- View here (1749965 KB)
Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Whole Blood Utilizing Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurements (1)
- When analyzing medicinal toxicants using GC-MS, the presence of fatty acids and cholesterol, which exist in large quantities
in whole blood, can interfere with detection. In fact, profiles for triazolam and etizolam, benzodiazepine psychotropic drugs,
overlap with the cholesterol chromatogram, making data analysis difficult with a single GC-MS system.
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Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Oral Fluids
- The methods in this booklet are a compilation of work collected from working forensics laboratories. Each of these labs is a Shimadzu customer and all of the data was generated using the GCMS-QP2010 series of instruments. Analytes include: Opiates, Cocaine, BZE, Phencyclidine, THC, Methadone
- View here (2788569 KB)
Analysis of Aroma Components in Peach Juice by GCMS Using the OPTIC-4 Multimode Inlet and Mono Trap
- The OPTIC-4 is a multimode injection system with a thermal desorption function that enables performing
thermal desorption by placing an adsorbent in the injection port liner cup. In combination with the new
MonoTrap adsorbent, the system enables analyzing aroma components with high sensitivity.
- View here (203974 KB)
Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC-MS/MS (1)
- This Application Datasheet introduces results from the measurement of metabolites extracted from rat urine,
utilizing Scan/MRM mode with 5 component MRM measurements added to a Scan measurement method from the GC/MS Metabolites Spectral Database.
- View here (167233 KB)
Analysis of Automobile Cabin Air by Thermal Desorption GCMS Using the OPTIC-4 Multimode Inlet
- This datasheet shows the results where volatile organic compounds in automobile cabin air were
adsorbed using Tenax TA (2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide), a sorbent material commonly used for
atmospheric analysis, and analyzed by TD-GC-MS.
- View here (234569 KB)
Analysis of Metabolic Components Contained in Dog Cerebrospinal Fluid
- Dog cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed with a GC-MS system after pretreatment and trimethylsilylation (TMS). This
analysis was performed in cooperation with Dr. Shigeo Takenaka from the Graduate School of Life and Environmental
Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University.
- View here (152762 KB)
Analysis of Light Oil Using a GC x GC-MS System
- GC x GC, the latest in chromatographic technology, achieves high-level separation through direct connection of 2
different types of columns. The following shows an example of light oil analysis using a GC x GC system.
- View here (406981 KB)
Analysis of Metabolic Components Contained in Puffer Fish Blood Serum
- Puffer fish blood serum was analyzed with a GC-MS after pretreatment and trimethylsilylation (TMS). This analysis
was performed in cooperation with Dr. Shigeo Takenaka from the Graduate School of Life and Environmental
Science, Osaka Prefecture University.
- View here (165570 KB)
Application of Metabolomics Techniques using LCMS and GCMS Profiling Analysis of Green Tea Leaves
- This Application Note presents the profiling of green tea leaves as an example of one application of the metabolome analysis technique using LC/MS and GC/MS. A search of
the substances believed to play roles in product quality was conducted, and a quality prediction model was constructed based on the results.
- View here (677590 KB)
Analysis of Fatty Acids Using PCI-GCMS/ MS
- This application data sheet introduces the results of an investigation of sensitivity based on the EI-SIM, PCI-SIM, EI-MRM, and
PCI-MRM methods. In addition, in Application Data Sheet No. 86, we introduce the results of an investigation of separation
from impurities in the analysis of fatty acids in foods.
- View here (122070 KB)
GC/MS Quantitative Analysis of Allergens in Cosmetics Using OPTIC-4
- Because an estimated 1 to 2 percent of the population has allergies, in 2003 the EU began regulating the use of perfumes and flavour materials that can cause allergic reactions. These substances are restricted to 0.01 % for cosmetic products that are rinsed away (such as shampoo) and 0.001 % for products that are left applied (such as hand creams). Due to these regulations, manufacturers now must quantitatively analyze the concentration of such
- View here (573640 KB)
Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Methods 524.3 and 524.4 for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water
- Due to advances in analytical instrumentation the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) introduced a new drinking water method in June 2009. US EPA Method 524.31 allows laboratories to modify purge and trap and GCMS conditions in order to accommodate instrumental advances and shorten sample preparation time. The US EPA also investigated the option of using nitrogen as the purge gas in an additional drinking water method, US EPA Method 524.42. This application note will compare analytical results when using helium and nitrogen purge gases.
- View here (929546 KB)
Determination of N-Nitrosamines by USEPA Method 521 using Triple Quadrupole Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
- This paper describes development of a Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) instrument method using a commercially available triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS for detection and quantitation of N-nitrosamines after extraction as described by USEPA Method 521. GC/MS/MS in MRM mode produces significant improvements in selectivity and specificity, as well as dramatically lower detection limits than single quadrupole GC/MS, especially in complex matrices producing background interferences. In addition, this paper presents final instrument configuration and operating conditions, as well as instrument validation results, including estimated MDLs, and precision & accuracy as evaluated using standards at various concentration levels. Method 521 tandem MS with CI results are compared to the electron impact ionization triple quadrupole results.
- View here (986526 KB)
Analysis Using UV/Py -GC/MS System
- Methods used for weather-induced degradation testing
of polymeric materials include outdoor exposure
methods and weather meters, however, measurement
using such methods can take weeks or months to
complete. Using a system consisting of a combination
of a micro-UV irradiator (UV-1047Xe) and a GC/MS
makes it possible to observe degradation products
generated due to photo/thermal-oxidative degradation
processes in a short period of time. Chemical changes
in polymeric materials following these degradation
processes can also be determined.
- View here (533267 KB)
Quantitative Analysis of Stable Isotopes of Glucose in Blood Plasma Using Quadrupole GC-MS
- In order to investigate the dynamics of glucose in living
organisms, a stable isotope of glucose is administered, and its
concentration in blood and tissues is measured with quadrupole
GC-MS. In this study, we conducted a comparative investigation
of the influence of the derivatization method on the results
obtained in the quantitative analysis of D-glucose-13C6 using
quadrupole GC-MS. As a result, it was discovered that
aldonitrile-pentaacetylation gives a single derivatization product,
and in mass separation performed with MS, it yielded good
quantitative results with little influence by the natural isotopes of
glucose that are present at high concentrations in living
- View here (1127587 KB)
Reduction of Emissions and Operating Costs of GCMS Usage with a New Ecology Mode
- In this work, daily electrical power consumption was measured and compared to that of typical GCMS operation. Measured power correlated to predicted energy savings and emission reductions very closely.
A new feature in GCMS software called “Eco-mode” automatically performs the power- and gas-saving functions at the end of an analytical batch. Eco-mode is used to reduce gas flow and turn off unnecessary heated zones, projecting an estimated 35% in energy savings as well as reduction of carbon emissions by up to 1.1 tons per year.
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Utility of a System Consisting of EGA/PY-3030D and GCMS-QP2010 Ultra: Analysis of Eyeliner and Pyrolysis of a Mural Paint at 1000°C
- The analysis of eyeliner and museum quality paint are used to demonstrate the capabilities of a system consisting of an EGA/PY-3030D pyrolyzer and a GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. The eyeliner was first analyzed using evolved gas analysis (EGA-MS). The EGA thermogram shows that the eyeliner contains compounds with a wide range of properties – from volatile organic solvents to nonvolatile polymers. The compositional analysis of each temperature zone on the EGA thermogram was determined using a high-resolution capillary column interfaced to the GC-MS. The high temperature
pyrolysis of an ancient mural paint illustrates of the value of pyrolysis-GC-MS to characterize a material of interest.
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Automatic Identification and Semi-quantitative Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Serum Using “GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database”
- A sample consisting of serum extract from a patient administered with psychotropic drugs was analyzed by GC/MS; identification and semiquantitation of the substances were conducted using the “GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database”. All three administered substances were identified, and their semi-quantitative values were calculated. The results indicated that it is possible to qualitatively and semi-quantitatively determine drugs using this database.
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Aroclors in Human Blood Serum by Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS
- The Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS simplifies detection and quantitation of PCBs at sub-ppb concentrations in complex human blood serum with virtually no interference from the background matrix. Ability to independently optimize each instrument parameter, such as MRM transition, collision energy, and quadrupole resolution, produces the level of sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy required for TEQ measurements and related programs. The method can be used to screen complex biological samples for individual PCB congeners or Aroclor mixtures, and to estimate total PCB concentrations.
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Evaluation of Hydrogen as a Carrier Gas for Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry
- The Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 SE, with its inert, low-nickel source, was used for analysis of a wide range of compound classes using hydrogen as the carrier gas without requiring any changes to the instrument hardware. Chromatography with hydrogen carrier gas was excellent, and retention times were easily reproduced using the constant linear velocity feature of the GCMSsolutions software. MS tuning was essentially equivalent, and passed all acceptance criteria with both hydrogen and helium.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (4) - Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol, Part 2
- This Application Data Sheet reports on results with respect to a method for quantitating haloalcohols (2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, and 2-iodoethanol) and glycidol in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) utilizing the GCMS system. For the analysis conditions as well as the total ion current chromatogram and mass spectra for the haloalcohols and glycidol, refer to GCMS Application Data Sheet No. 41, "Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (3), Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol Part 1."
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Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Cheese
- Volatile compounds, including aroma compounds, in Parmesan and Blue cheese were analyzed using
adsorption and thermal desorption GC/MS (TD-GC/MS). MonoTrap was used as adsorbant. It is a state-of-theart silica monolithic and hybrid adsorbent having a large surface area and properties based on silica, activated carbon (graphite carbon for Mono Trap TD) and the octadecyl functional group. GC-MS equipped with the OPTIC-4 multi-purpose injector was used for thermal desorption. The OPTIC-4 allows direct introduction of desorbed gas into a capillary column without re-adsorption.
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Analysis of Light Oil Utilizing a GC x GC-MS System
- GC x GC systems use the latest chromatographic technology to achieve high-level separation through direct
connection of 2 different types of columns. This method is optimal for the separation of target substances from
complicated matrices that are problematic for ordinary GC or GC-MS systems, and for analysis by type from 2-
dimensional chromatogram patterns. It can be used for analysis in a variety of fields, including natural products,
foodstuffs, fragrances, environmental science, and petro chemistry.
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Analysis of Metabolites Extracted from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using GC-MS
- Metabolome analysis, a comprehensive analysis of the various metabolites generated as biological functions are
maintained, is widely used in disease biomarker searches and other investigations. To conduct these
investigations, it is necessary to identify the metabolites contained in biological samples.
This application data sheet introduces the results of identifying metabolites extracted from human embryonic
stem (ES) cells utilizing the GC/MS Metabolite Database Ver. 2, which contains metabolites detected in
biological samples, such as serum, urine, and cells.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Serum Using GC-MS/MS
- Single quadrupole GC-MS provides excellent chromatographic resolution and enables stable measurements,
and is therefore widely utilized for metabolome analyses involving the comprehensive analysis of in vivo
metabolites. However, biological samples contain many metabolites and various matrices, so separation with
single quadrupole GC-MS can be difficult. With triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS MRM, MS separation is performed
twice, with Q1 and Q3. This helps remove the impact of overlapping peaks due to interfering components in
comparison with scan mode, in which MS separation is performed with a single quadrupole, and thus enables
the acquisition of accurate quantitative results with high-sensitivity detection.
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Analysis of metabolites in human serum using GC-MS
- Metabolome analysis, a comprehensive analysis of the various metabolites generated as biological functions are
maintained, is widely used in disease biomarker searches and other investigations. To conduct these
investigations, it is necessary to identify the metabolites contained in biological samples.
This application data sheet introduces the results of identifying metabolites in human serum utilizing the GC/MS
Metabolite Database Ver. 2, which contains metabolites detected in biological samples, such as serum, urine,
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Easy Screening for Residual Pesticides in Foods using GC-MS
- In recent years, with increases in the number of pesticides and the diversification of substances under investigation, there have
been calls for quick and high-accuracy screening for residual pesticides in foods using GC-MS.
The Quick-DB database contains a variety of information on 478 pesticide components (mass spectra, retention indices, and
calibration curves). It can be used to quickly calculate semi-quantitative values without using standard samples. A pesticide
surrogate is used as the internal standard for the calibration curves. Favorable quantitative accuracy is achieved through
quantitative analysis in accordance with the physical properties of each pesticide.
In this Data Sheet, residual pesticides in soya beans are analyzed using Quick-DB.
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GC-MS Application for Artificial Photosynthesis Research
- A variety of analytical methods are utilized to measure reaction products in research into artificial photosynthesis, in which high-energy substances are manufactured using photo catalysts and solar energy. These methods include GC, HPLC, and absorption photometry. Experiments utilizing isotope-labeled samples are an effective way of confirming and clarifying reaction mechanisms. Mass spectrometers demonstrate their worth in such measurements. This Data Sheet presents an example of the use of GC-MS to measure carbon monoxide, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, and other substances generated in carbon dioxide photo catalytic reduction under a methanol environment.
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Shimadzu Guide to BFB Tuning for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds
- The recommended tune conditions shown here easily meet all BFB Tune Evaluation criteria defined in all US EPA methods for analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds by GCMS. A single tune file produced BFB data that met the criteria for all sequences run over at least three months. During the evaluation period, a validation study for US EPA Method 624 met all defined method criteria, producing stable IS and SS peak areas and passing BFB Tune Evaluations. The instrument did not require re-tuning at any time during the validation study.
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Analysis of Metabolites Extracted from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using GC-MS
- Metabolome analysis, a comprehensive analysis of the various metabolites generated as biological functions are maintained, is widely used in disease biomarker searches and other investigations. To conduct these investigations, it is necessary to identify the metabolites contained in biological samples. This application data sheet introduces the results of identifying metabolites extracted from human embryonic stem (ES) cells utilizing the Smart Metabolites Database, which contains metabolites detected in biological samples, such as blood, urine, and cells.
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Analysis of Food Preservatives by GC/MS
- Food preservatives are used to prevent adverse changes and rotting of foods by suppressing the proliferation of microorganisms; they are used in accordance with the properties of the food to which they will be added. Many of the analytical methods used for analyzing food preservatives employ extraction of the compounds of interest by the steam distillation technique, followed by quantitative analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gas chromatography can also be used for measurement of many compounds used as food preservatives, including benzoic acid, sorbic acid, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA methyl), ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA ethyl), propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA propyl), and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA butyl), and therefore, gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer (GC/MS) is an effective analysis technique for verifying the detection results obtained by HPLC. This Application News introduces an example of GC/MS analysis of six types of food preservatives.
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GC-MS Analysis of Catalytic Reaction Products of Glucose in Biomass Research
- This report presents results obtained by adding a solid acid catalyst to an aqueous glucose solution, heating the
solution, and then directly analyzing the resulting reaction solution using GC-MS without pretreatment.
At present, in the utilization of woody biomass, the cellulose that comprises approximately 60 % to 70 % of the
material can be converted to glucose. The analysis of the catalytic reaction presented in this report revealed that
primarily hydroxymehylfurfural is further generated from glucose used as a raw material. Hydroxymehylfurfural is a
compound with considerable added value as a raw material for pharmaceuticals and chemicals. The analysis also
revealed the existence of lactic acid and other low-grade organic acid compounds. In addition, utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a differential vacuum system, enabled acquisition of favorable results even when directly injecting the sample aqueous solution into the GC-MS.
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GC-MS Analysis of Catalytic Degradation Products of Lignin Model Compounds in Biomass Research
- This report presents an example of degrading a lignin model compound with a solid acid catalyst in an aqueous
solution and directly analyzing the resulting solution using GC-MS without pretreatment.
Lignin accounts for 20 % to 30 % of woody biomass. However, it is only weakly reactive because of its strong
macromolecular structure, and therefore difficult to degrade. Since anisole, phenol, guaiacol, and other lignin
degradation products are useful materials, though, research is progressing into degradation methods that provide a
high conversion yield. The analysis of the catalytic degradation reaction presented in this report revealed that
guaiacol is mainly produced from lignin model compounds. In addition, utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a differential vacuum system, enabled the acquisition of favorable results even when directly injecting the sample aqueous solution into the GC-MS.
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Agreement between GC and GCMS Chromatograms (Chromatograms obtained at same linear velocity using AFC)
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Research on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetables by online GPC‐GC/MS
- 7 kinds of PCBs in two complicated matrix–carrot and ginger were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GPC–GCMS), which could remove majority of macromolecules such as oil and pigment.
- View here (847546 KB)
Rapid Screening for Drugs of Abuse Using Higher Column Flow Rates in Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
- The need to run more samples in the same amount of time with the same data quality has increased; this poster addresses how certain modifications can be made to increase throughput while retaining high-quality data
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (5): Analysis of Alkyl Halides
- Alkyl halides are used as an alkylating agent for raw ingredients in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals or are generated as a byproduct of drug synthesis. They have been identified as potential carcinogens or genotoxins. This Application Data Sheet shows an example of analyzing 18 alkyl halides using headspace-GC-MS.
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Determination of pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicinal materials Milkvetch Root
- In this paper, using the SHIMADZU three triple quadrupole GC-MS realized the determination of multiple trace pesticide residues in Milkvetch Root by instrument GCMS-TQ8040, the method has high sensitivity and good accuracy
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GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database
- In recent years, abuse of stimulants and other illegal drugs, particularly hallucinogens, shows no signs of
abating; crime and poisoning events due to medicines, agricultural chemicals, and psychotropic drugs are on
the increase, presenting a growing and serious social problem. In crime laboratories and forensic research
laboratories, these chemicals are analyzed using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS).
The detection of these harmful drugs by GC-MS requires investigation to determine the optimum
analytical conditions and data processing conditions specific to each of the drugs. To eliminate the need to
conduct these cumbersome operations, Shimadzu has developed its own proprietary "GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database," which contains critical information for more than 1000 drugs*, including psychotropic drugs, narcotics, stimulants, and pesticides. With emphasis on harmful drugs of abuse, difficult-to-obtain standard samples of these drugs and their metabolites are registered in the library, making the library ideal for forensic toxicological analysis. In addition, the database contains a library of mass spectra, method files containing the names, quantitation and reference ions, standard mass spectra, and retention indices specific to each of these
drugs of abuse. Here we introduce quick and easy techniques for detecting and conducting semi-quantitation of harmful drugs using method files.
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Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Foods by GC-MS/MS
- In recent years, there has been a trend toward viewing high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs) in foods (particularly smoked products) as a problem. In 2009, the Codex Alimentarius Commission
issued standards for reducing the PAH contamination level in smoked and directly dried foods. In addition,
Europe, Canada, South Korea, China, and others established food standards for benzo[a]pyrene. This
Application Data Sheet describes using a GC-MS/MS system to analyze the PAHs in "katsuobushi" (dried,
smoked, and fermented skipjack tuna, which is very popular in Japanese cuisine).
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Compound Identification Procedures Combined with Quick-CI
- The Quick-CI function is enable easy and simple use of the EI and PCI (Positive ion chemical ionization) mode using an NCI
ion source without venting the MS. PCI can be obtained as a simple method of confirming molecular weight by molecule
protonation and the combination of EI and PCI is a powerful identification technique when a compound cannot be identified
based on its EI mass spectrum alone. Also, since the selected ionization mode is saved in a method file, the user can switch
between EI and PCI for consecutive analyses.
This Application Data Sheet presents a compound identification performed by combining the mass spectrum information
obtained by the EI and the PCI using an NCI ion source.
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Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Using GC/MS/MS Operated in the MRM Mode
- This paper describes use of a triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS method using Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode for sensitive and selective detection and quantitation of Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. A database with optimized MRM transitions for all of the OCPs and PCBs, including relative retention times for all components, makes method setup possible within minutes. The use of GC/MS/MS MRM mode provides enhanced selectivity, specificity and sensitivity in complex matrices with potential co-eluting interferences.
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An Improved Method of Updating Retention Times for GCMS
- A new technique has been developed to update retention times automatically in the data processing software. The technique is based on the use of retention indices, referenced to a hydrocarbon standard (series of n-alkanes). This is a multipoint correction method, so target analytes will always be bracketed by the retention index marker compounds to ensure accuracy of updated retention times for target compounds. Examples illustrate the accuracy of this technique using a subset of US EPA Method 8270D analytes.
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Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Children's Toys Using GC-MS
- As of February 2009, the US Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, Section 108, mandated that all manufacturers of children’s toys
analyze their products for Phthalate Esters. The method to be used is in accordance with the US Consumer Product Safety Commission
(CPSC). In this study, six phthalate esters in children's toys were measured using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. The simultaneous Scan/SIM
data acquisition technique was utilized, with the SIM data used for quantitation. The data showed excellent calibration curve linearity and
repeatability. In two of the toy samples, unregulated plasticizers were identified by scan data, illustrating the efficiency of simultaneous
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters In Polymers Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GC-MS System (1): PBBs and PBDEs
- In recent years, an analysis method is required to determine not only polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are regulated under the RoHS Directive, but also phthalate
esters and other brominated flame retardants not governed by the directive (such as tetrabromobisphenol A,
hexabromocyclododecane, and bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane). The method was developed to analyze those
compounds under the same analytical conditions using EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMSQP2020
Ultra systems. This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing the brominated flame
retardants PBB and PBDE using the developed method.
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High-Sensitivity Analysis of 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Wine Using Headspace-Trap GC/MS
- 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) emitted from wine corks can taint wine and cause an objectionable odor. Due to the low threshold value for sensing the odor, highly sensitive measurements are required for monitoring. Conventionally, TCA was measured using methods such as purge and trap, which is very effective in concentrating samples, or thermal desorption. The HS-20 headspace sampler includes a trap function that is able to concentrate headspace gases. This Data Sheet describes an example of high-sensitivity measurement of TCA in wine using an HS-trap GC/MS system.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (3) - Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol, Part 1
- Haloalcohols are used as synthetic materials in pharmaceuticals, and are considered potential genotoxic impurities (PGI). In addition, glycidol has been identified as a cancer-causing agent, and has been assigned to Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) in terms of carcinogenic risk by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This Application Data Sheet introduces analysis of haloalcohols and glycidol in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) using the GC-MS.
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Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using GC-MS
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are byproducts of burning fuels, such as mineral oils, and are
known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. These compounds are regulated in many
countries as harmful pollutants in environmental water and the atmosphere. In Japan, the "Measuring
method manual for toxic air pollutants" and "Measuring method manual for polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust gas emissions" were revised in March 2011. In addition, environmental
standards, including fine particle regulations (PM2.5) and fine particles, can include PAHs. Consequently,
there is an increasing need to measure PAHs. This application datasheet introduces an example of
measuring 36 PAHs.
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Flavor/Fragrance Analysis by Fast-GC/MS
- Fast-GC/MS is an effective way to improve laboratory productivity by shortening analysis cycle times. Fast-GC/MS
methods require a system with a high-performance AFC controller that is compatible with narrow bore capillary
columns and high-speed data acquisition technology. Shimadzu GCMS systems offer the high-performance levels
necessary to satisfy these requirements. This Application Datasheet shows results from analyzing lavender oil using
conventional methods and Fast-GC/MS methods.
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Analysis of Specific Aromatic Amines Formed From Azo Dyes and Pigments
- Reductive cleavage of azo radicals from azo dyes and azo pigments comprising azo radicals (-N=N-) can
form aromatic amines that are suspected carcinogens. Of these aromatic amines, 22 are designated as
specific aromatic amines in Europe (EN 14362:2003) and 24 in China (GB/T 17592-2006), and the use of
azo dyes and pigments that form these specific aromatic amines are regulated. The total ion current
chromatogram (TIC) obtained from using GC-MS to measure a standard sample of the specific aromatic
amines is shown here.
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Analysis of Gas Generated from Lithium Ion Rechargeable Battery Cells
- Electrolytic solutions in lithium ion rechargeable batteries consist of organic solvents (mainly composed of the
carbonate series), electrolytes, and additives.
GC-MS systems are effective for the analysis of the denatured components of electrolytic solutions resulting from the charging and discharging of batteries. This article introduces a sample analysis of gas produced from a lithium ion rechargeable battery cell stored for 5 days at 80oC.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
- Methanesulfonic acid (mesylate), benzenesulfonic acid (besilate), and p-toluenesulfonic acid (tosylate),
chemicals used in the process of synthesizing active pharmaceutical ingredients, are likely to generate
sulfonic acid ester (Fig. 1) as a reaction byproduct. These compounds are known as potential genotoxic
impurities (PGI) and are a significant cause for concern among pharmaceutical manufacturers. This
article introduces the analysis of sulfonic acid esters utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.
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Analysis of Least Volatile Compounds through Direct Sample Introduction
- Direct sample introduction (DI) is a method of directly introducing a sample to an ion source without passing
it through a gas chromatograph (GC).
DI is an effective method for mass spectral measurements of synthesized materials. The Shimadzu GC-MS
can use direct sample introduction without having to remove the column.
This application datasheet introduces the results of measurements of vitamin C and reserpine, which are
usually difficult to analyze with a GC.
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Analysis of Fatty Acids in Food Using PCIGC- MS/MS
- While some fatty acids, such as the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, are beneficial to human health because they
lower the amount of blood-borne neutral fat, too much intake of saturated fatty acids raises the risk of some
diseases. For this reason, there is a need for the batch analysis of these fatty acids in the life sciences and food
engineering sectors. Despite requiring methylation, GC-MS has gained attention because of its suitability for
multicomponent batch analyses.
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Determination of Fatty-acid Composition of Lipids in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using GC-MS
- The cellular lipids were extracted from frozen pellets of human ES (embryonic stem) cells, and the constituent fatty acids were esterified to form fatty acid methyl esters. GC/MS analysis of the methylated fatty acids resulted in identification of 19 types of fatty acids. This report introduces
the pretreatment protocol used to extract the lipids from the cells, and the fatty acids that can be analyzed by this process.
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Easy Screening for Residual Pesticides in Processed Foods Using GC-MS/MS
- This data sheet reports on the results of applying Quick-DB and the Twin Line MS system to the analysis of residual pesticides
in curry. Please also refer to Application Data Sheets No. 91 and No. 92. Application Data Sheet No. 91 introduced an example of easy
screening for residual pesticides in foods using GCMS, while No. 92 introduced an example of using two columns with different separation patterns for easy screening of residual pesticides in foods.
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Analysis of Blood Alcohol by Headspace with Simultaneous GC-FID and MS Detection
- Determination of Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) has been a standard analytical method in criminal labs for many years. The typical instrument configuration consists of a static headspace instrument for sample introduction, followed by gas chromatography (GC) with two dissimilar capillary columns for separation, and two Flame Ionization Detectors (FIDs) for detection and quantitation. Two sets of data are obtained simultaneously, and the quantitative results from the two FIDs are compared for confirmation of the reported BAC levels.
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Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Method 624 for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Wastewater
- The instrumentation and analytical conditions shown here have been demonstrated to provide outstanding results for US EPA Method 624, far exceeding all existing method criteria. The narrow-bore capillary column and Constant Linear Velocity mode provided outstanding chromatography for all compounds, including the early-eluting light gases, in less than 10 minutes. Calibration curves over narrow or wide ranges can be used to meet the project or contract needs. MDLs are easily 10-fold lower than the MDLs cited in the method, and a high level of precision and accuracy can be expected across any calibration range, particularly at the lower concentrations.
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Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Method 8260 for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water and Solid Waste
- The instrumentation and analytical conditions shown here have been demonstrated to provide outstanding results for US EPA Method 8260C, far exceeding all existing method criteria. The narrow-bore capillary column and Constant Linear Velocity mode provided outstanding chromatography for all compounds, including the early-eluting light gases, in less than 13 minutes. Calibration curves over narrow or wide ranges can be used to meet the project or contract needs. MDLs are easily well below 0.5 μg/L for all compounds when measured at either 0.5 or 1.0 μg/L, and a high level of precision and accuracy can be expected across any calibration rage, particularly at the lower concentrations.
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Analysis of Phthalate Esters Using the Py-Screener (1)
- In the RoHS directive (directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and
electronic equipment), four phthalate esters: diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl
phthalate (BBP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), will be added to the six conventionally limited
substances starting in 2019.
Of these, the substances that can be measured with GC-MS are the brominated flame retardants, PBBs and
PBDEs, and phthalate esters. The Soxhlet extraction-GC/MS method, while an accurate quantitation method,
requires time-consuming pretreatment and uses organic solvents. In contrast, the pyrolysis-GC/MS (Py-GC/MS)
method does not require complicated pretreatment and is therefore expected to be used as a screening method.
The “Py-Screener” is a screening system for phthalate esters using Py-GC/MS. It consists of polymer standard
samples containing phthalate esters, a sample preparation sampling kit, and Py-GC/MS analysis files.
This Application Datasheet introduces measurements of phthalate ester standard samples using the Py-
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Analysis of Phthalate Esters Using the Py-Screener (2)
- In the RoHS directive (directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment), four phthalate esters: diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), will be added to the six conventionally limited substances starting in 2019.
Of these, the substances that can be measured with GC-MS are the brominated flame retardants, PBBs and PBDEs, and phthalate esters. The Soxhlet extraction-GC/MS method, while an accurate quantitation method, requires time-consuming pretreatment and uses organic solvents. In contrast, the pyrolysis-GC/MS (Py-GC/MS) method does not require complicated pretreatment and is therefore expected to be used as a screening method.
The “Py-Screener” is a screening system for phthalate esters. It consists of resin standard samples containing phthalate esters, a sample preparation sampling kit, and Py-GC/MS analysis files.
This Application Datasheet introduces an example of the analysis of phthalate esters and brominated flame retardants using the Py-Screener.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters In Polymers Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GC-MS System (2): Phthalate Esters
- In recent years, an analysis method is required to determine not only polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are regulated under the RoHS Directive, but also phthalate esters and other brominated flame retardants not governed by the directive (such as tetrabromobisphenol A,
hexabromocyclododecane, and bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane). Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate
(DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and bis(2-ehtylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are specified in the REACH SVHC (Substance of Very High Concern) list. This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing seven phthalate esters in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra systems.
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Analysis of Hydrocarbons Using PCI-GC-MS
- In this article, we describe a case example of using PCIGC-MS to measure hydrocarbons obtained from the catalytic decomposition of squalane, a compound obtained from microalgae.
- View here (998156 KB)
Simultaneous Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods via the QuEChERS Method Utilizing GC-MS/MS
- This application demonstrates the simultaneous analysis of residual pesticides in foods using the QuEChERS method.
- View here (151029 KB)
Scan/MRM Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods Using GC-MS/MS (3)
- This application presents an investigation of residual pesticides in food using the Scan/MRM mode
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GCxGC Handbook: Application Compendium of Comprehensive 2D GC Vol. 1-5 (Japan)
- GCxGC Handbook: Application Compendium of Comprehensive 2D GC Vol. 1-5 (Japan)
- View here (2410398 KB)
GCxG Handbook: Fundamental Principles of Comprehensive 2D GC
- GCxG Handbook: Fundamental Principles of Comprehensive 2D GC
- View here (1762518 KB)
Multicomponent Analysis of Metabolites in Human Plasma using GC-MS/MS
- The analysis of metabolomes, such as when searching for disease biomarkers, is performed in many areas in
the medical field, whether it be for fundamental research or for clinical studies. Single quadrupole GC-MS
provides excellent chromatographic resolution and enables stable measurements, and is therefore widely utilized
for metabolome analyses involving the comprehensive analysis of in vivo metabolites. However, biological
samples contain many metabolites and various matrices, so separation with single quadrupole GC-MS can be
difficult. With triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS MRM, MS separation is performed twice, with Q1 and Q3. This helps
remove the impact of overlapping peaks due to interfering components in comparison with scan mode and SIM
mode, in which MS separation is performed with a single quadrupole, and thus enables the acquisition of
accurate quantitative results with high-sensitivity detection.
Smart Metabolites Database registers MRM information of 475 metabolites mainly contained in biological
samples such as blood, urine and cells. It enables simultaneous measurement of 475 metabolites using MRM
mode. This application data sheet presents an analysis of metabolites in standard human plasma using the scan
and MRM methods included in the Smart Metabolites Database, as well as a comparison of the results.
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Tank up in the rapeseed fields - Determination of glycerine, methanol, mono-, di- and triacylglycerides
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Development of Green Technologies in GCMS-QP2010 Ultra
- There has been an increasing interest in reducing running costs and environmental stress in many analytical laboratories using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers in the fields of food, forensic, life science, environment, and the like. To respond such interest, we have developed two technologies for lower power and carrier gas consumption: “Advanced Scanning Speed Protocol” (ASSPTM) necessary for the Fast-GC/MS method and “Ecology Mode” for saving energy in analysis standby mode. The analysis of organic acids in urine for evaluation showed that the use of the Fast-GC/MS with ASSPTM reduced helium gas by 90 percent and power by 66 percent, compared with our previous model, while retaining performance for analysis. An evaluation test in analysis standby mode confirmed that the instrument with the Ecology Mode reduced carrier gas and power consumption, by 60 percent and 36.5 percent, respectively. These results demonstrate that our GCMS-QP2010 Ultra has environmentally friendly features and ensures lower running costs.
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Characterization of Paint from Art Work Using Automatic Reactive Pyrolysis in the OPTIC-4 Inlet
- Pyrolysis GC-MS provides an extremely useful method for art research, because it allows solid samples to be directly analyzed and requires only small sample quantities. However, pyrolysis of natural polar substances can generate polar compounds that cannot be measured by GC. To overcome this limitation, the thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography (THM-GC) method can be used. This method converts polar macromolecules into weakly polar hydrolyzed and methylated degradation compounds. The information obtained from THM-GC is useful for identifying the composition of paints, varnishes, coatings, or binders (natural) in art work.
However, performing THM-GC methods using a Curie-point or filament type pyrolyzer can result in
problems with repeatability or quantitative analysis. In contract, the OPTIC-4 enables performing all THM reactions within the inlet. Therefore, by optimizing the TMH conditions, it enables obtaining good repeatability. This datasheet presents the results from applying the THM-GC/MS method to characterize complicated samples characteristic to paint from air work.
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Effectiveness of Fast Scanning Measurement Using GC×GC-MS
- A GC×GC-MS system incorporates 2 chromatographic columns with different separation
characteristics, non-polar and polar columns, permitting acquisition of comprehensive 2-dimensional chromatograms by orthogonal separation according to boiling point and polarity. Excellent separation is obtained with an extremely narrow chromatographic
peak width on the order of hundreds of milliseconds. Even compounds that are difficult to separate by conventional GC-MS can now be separated using GC×GC-MS. It is an extremely effective system for qualitative analysis, which requires the separation of target substances in complex matrices, common in natural substances, as well as impurity analysis. However, due to the requirement for MS capable of very fast scan speed, quadrupole MS systems have been considered to be unsuitable for GC×GC-MS. The
GCMS-QP2010 Ultra resolves this problem with a scan speed as high as 20,000 u/sec.
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Screening of residual pesticides in food with two different columns
- In recent years, with increases in the number of pesticides and the diversification of substances under investigation, there have
been calls for quick and high-accuracy screening for residual pesticides in foods using GC-MS.
The Quick-DB database includes mass spectra, retention times, and calibration curves for 478 pesticide components. It can be
used to quickly calculate semi-quantitative values without requiring analytical standards. If a pesticide peak is detected, it is essential to check for potential interference from co-eluting contaminants to insure highly
accurate screening. One of the ways for checking is to analyze the samples with two columns with different types of stationary
phase. For this purpose, the Twin Line MS system is very useful because it enables the installation of two types of columns to
one MS. The Quick-DB contains information compatible with two different columns, so that it can also be applied to the Twin Line MS
system. In this Data Sheet, residual pesticides in foods were analyzed by applying Quick-DB and the Twin Line MS system.
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Effectiveness of Metabolomics Research Using Gas Chromatograph / Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer with High-Sensitivity and High-Speed Scanning
- Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) has been recognized as a core technology for metabolomics research for the comprehensive analysis of low-molecular weight compounds in living organisms, and is widely used for biomarker discovery and quality assessment. To fulfill the demand for a high-throughput, high-sensitivity analytical system for GC/MS metabolomics research, we developed a high-speed quadrupole mass spectrometer (Q/MS), and conducted studies to determine the effectiveness of this instrument. In an experiment using a standard sample consisting of 10 amino acids, acquisition was possible over a wide quantitation range of 3.5–4.5 orders of magnitude. In analysis of the plasma from a mouse with acute inflammation, identification and quantitation of 168 compounds were possible, and using common inflammation markers, we were able to characterize the convergence process of the acute inflammatory response, which previously was not possible from the
perspective of the metabolome. With the advent of this GC-Q/MS, further development in the study of metabolomics can be expected.
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Multi Pesticides Residue analysis in Ayurvedic cough Syrup by GCMS/MS using QuEChERS’ extraction method
- Ayurveda is a Sanskrit term, which means ‘science of life’. In India, Ayurveda has been long practiced for medicinal purpose. Majority of it’s preparations involve presence of plants, herbs etc. For the normal, disease-free growth of these plants and herbs, pesticides are widely used. Some of these pesticides can act as toxins to animals & humans when consumed even as residues. Hence, it becomes important to quantitate the pesticides at residual levels in orally consumed preparations, especially which involve plant materials such as Ayurvedic cough syrups.QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged &
Safe) method was used for extraction and clean-up of the sample followed by analysis using GCMS-TQ8040 Triple Quadrupole (GCMS/MS) system from Shimadzu Corporation, Japan.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using MRM via GC-MS/MS
- GC#27;MS provides excellent chromatographic separation, and is capable of highly sensitive and stable measurements. Consequently, GC#27;MS is widely utilized when measuring low#27;molecular#27;weight metabolites in living organisms and performing metabolomicanalysis to assess their fluctuations. When analyzing biological samples featuring a large number of matrix components, however, separation from the matrix can be difficult using GC#27;MS. An alternative is GC#27;MS/MS, which provides excellent separation performance via MS. In this Application Datasheet, an analysis of metabolites in rat urine is performed using GC#27;MS/MS. Results comparing this data with GC#27;MS data are also introduced.
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Analysis of PBDEs in Sediment Using GC-MS/MS
- Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants (BFRs) widely used in plastics. Due to their toxicity and persistence, their industrial production is to be eliminated under the Stockholm Convention. Contamination from PBDEs is widespread in the environment, including in sediments. In order to determine PBDEs in sediments, they need to be separated from a large amount of interferences co-extracted during sample preparation. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS were evaluated for this purpose.
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Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Processed Foods Using GC-MS/MS
- This application datasheet presents a study of an analysis of residual pesticides in retort-pouched curry (curry packaged in a sealed pouch) using QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS. QuEChERS method is commonly used for
extraction and cleanup of food products prior to GC/MS/MS analysis, due to its speed and simplicity, while GCMS/MS is able to selectively separate residual pesticides from a large quantity of co-extracted substances.
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GC-MS/MS analysis of residual pesticides in spinach using Scan/MRM (2)
- The triple-quad GCMS-TQ8030 is equipped with a scan/MRM mode that allows simultaneous full-scan and
MRM data measurements. With this mode, target compounds are selectively determined from a MRM data and
unknown compounds are identified from a full-scan data, respectively. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates
the effectiveness of the scan/MRM mode when analyzing residual pesticides in a vegetable after QuEChERS extraction.
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GC-MS/MS analysis of residual pesticides in spinach using Scan/MRM
- The triple-quad GCMS-TQ8030 is equipped with a scan/MRM mode that allows simultaneous full-scan and
MRM data measurements. With this mode, target compounds are selectively determined from a MRM data and
unknown compounds are identified from a full-scan data, respectively. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the effectiveness of the scan/MRM mode when analyzing residual pesticides in a vegetable after QuEChERS extraction.
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GC-MS/MS Analysis of Pesticides in Drinking Water
- According to Japan’s list of drinking water quality control substances, pesticides are included as supplemental items subject to analysis. Designed to complement the standards, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare encourages water utilities to monitor pesticide levels and achieve specified targets. Among the 102 listed pesticides, 84 are simultaneously analyzed using solid-phase extraction and GC-MS. In this datasheet, those pesticides were analyzed using GC-MS/MS and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode.
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Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (1)
- This Application Data Sheet reports on MRM sensitivity and analytical repeatability when using simultaneous scan/MRM
measurements with respect to PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. Application Data Sheet No. 79 presents an example of the
quantification of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by using the MRM data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM
measurements of a river water sample. In addition, Application Data Sheet No. 80 features an example of screening for
environmental pollutants not suited to MRM measurement by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan
data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements.
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Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (2)
- This data sheet introduces an example of the accurate quantification of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in river water using
the analytical conditions for simultaneous scan/MRM measurements introduced in Application Data Sheet No. 78. It presents
sensitivity and repeatability results for PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in MRM mode, acquired with simultaneous
scan/MRM measurements, in Application Data Sheet No. 78. In addition, Application Data Sheet No. 80 introduces an
example of the screening for environmental pollutants not suited to MRM measurement by applying Compound Composer
Database Software to the scan data acquired with simultaneous scan/MRM measurements.
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Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (3)
- This Application Data Sheet introduces an example of screening for environmental pollutants other than PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, which are targeted for MRM measurements, by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements. Also introduced is an accurate trace quantitation analysis of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides with the MRM data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements in Application
Data Sheets No. 78 and No. 79.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC-MS/MS (2)
- The GCMS-TQ8030 is a GC-MS/MS system equipped with Scan/MRM mode to allow simultaneous Scan and
MRM data measurements. Using Scan/MRM mode, it is possible to perform high-sensitivity analysis through high selectivity via MRM, while simultaneously performing qualitative analysis utilizing the mass spectrum via Scan.
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Analysis of Chelate Compounds Through Direct Sample Introduction
- Chelate compounds are generally refractory compounds composed of ligands and metal ions. Therefore, they are
difficult to measure with gas chromatographs. To obtain an electron ionization mass spectrum of refractory
compounds requires a pure sample that should be introduced by direct introduction (DI).
In this Application Datasheet, a chelate with ring-shaped phthalocynanine ligands, which are cross linked to four
phthalic imides by nitrogen atoms, is measured using the DI method.
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Analysis of Dibutyltin Compounds in Polyvinyl Chloride Products by GC/MS
- Organotin compounds are used widely throughout the world in pesticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, and adhesives. Since organotin compounds are also added to plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for thermal stabilization and stabilization against catalytic
activity, dibutyltin (DBT) compounds in PVC are now subject to a standard limit established in Japan's Food Sanitation Act. In the material testing1) of this material
in its food packaging form, the DBT peak elution time and area value in the test solution and standard solution are compared, and the peak area in the test solution must be smaller than that in the standard solution (concentration of 50 μg/g or less in sample;
corresponding to a concentration of 1 μg/mL standard solution). In this Application News, we introduce an example of analysis of DBT compounds in a PVC product.
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Search of Polymer Additives Using Mass Spectral Libraries
- Commercial MS libraries can be used to identify compounds detected using GC/MS. Such MS
libraries include the NIST spectral library (spectra for 160,000 compounds) and the Wiley spectral library (310,000 spectra). In addition, a specific MS library (ADD-MS06 Library: Frontier Laboratories Ltd.) has recently been developed for polymer additives. This library consists of the mass spectra and retention indices (RI) of the main peaks and
pyrograms observed following Pyrolysis (Py)-GC/MS (pyrolysis at 600°C) of the 329 main commercial organic additives. This Application News introduces an investigation using the abovementioned three libraries to identify the additives contained in various polymers.
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Higher Sensitivity Analysis of 2-Methoxy-3-Isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in Wine Using GC-MS/MS(PCI)
- 2-Methoxy-3- isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) is an aromatic substance with the fragrance of bell peppers. It is found in
sauvignon blanc (a type of grape used for white wine) and cabernet sauvignon (a type of grape used for red wine),
and gives the wines a favorable aroma. MIBP, which has a significant impact on the flavor of wine, has an
extremely low threshold value in sensory tests, on the order of a few ng/L. Since wine contains many components,
concentration and selective separation & detection are essential to analysis.
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Quantitative Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water by EPA Method with Headspace Trap GC-MS
- This application shows that the HS-20 Trap mode is a viable alternative method in analysis of VOCs following EPA 524.3. The correlation coefficient, recovery and RSD obtained in this study complies with EPA Method 524.3.
This application shows that the HS-20 Trap mode is a viable alternative method in analysis of VOCs following EPA 524.3. The correlation coefficient, recovery and RSD obtained in this study complies with EPA Method 524.3.
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Increased Sensitivity and Reduced Matrix Interference over Current Pharmacopoeia Methods for 74 Pesticides in
Chinese Herbal Medicine using On‐line GPC‐GC‐MS/MS
- A method for quantitative analysis of 74 pesticides in Chinese herbal medicine by
GPC-GCMSMS according to the forthcoming Chinese pharmacopoeia (2015)
was successfully applied.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC-MS/MS (2)
- This Application Datasheet introduces the results of Scan/MRM measurements of metabolites extracted from rat urine. Five target components are measured with MRM, and unknown peaks are identified through a library search of the mass spectrum obtained with Scan.
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Analysis of VOCs in Water Using Headspace-GC/MS
- Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in water are regulated by environmental water quality laws or standards because of health hazard factors. Purge and trap methods and Headspace methods are commonly used for analysis of VOCs because of their sensitivity and ease of use. This application presents an example of analysis of VOCs in drinking water using the Shimadzu HS-20 headspace sampler.
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Analysis of Rubber by Pyrolysis-GC/MS -Introduction of Detector Splitting System-
- Here we introduce an example of analysis focusing on sulfur compounds in rubber by pyrolysis-GC/MS using a system in which a mass spectrometer (MS) is connected as detector 1, and the high sensitivity sulfur detector, FPD (S-mode), is connected as detector 2.
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Ultra-Fast Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water By Headspace-GC/MS/MS
- This study presents analysis conditions for 25 VOCs covering a range of volatility, using static headspace as the sample introduction technique, with GC/MS/MS operated in the MRM mode for detection and quantitation. Use of a short, narrow-bore capillary column permitted analysis of 8 samples per hour, or approximately one sample every 7 minutes.
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GC-MS/MS Analysis of PAH and PCB in environmental samples
- The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons
(PAH) are among the most commonly analysed compound classes in environmental analysis. This article demonstrates how hydrogen carrier gas can be used in place of helium for GC-MS/MS analysis of these compounds.
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Analysis of Residual Solvents – Class 1, Class 2A, Class 2B – in Pharmaceuticals Using Headspace-GC/MS
- Using the HS-GC/MS method, simultaneous analysis of USP <467> Class 1, Class 2A, and Class 2B compounds was demonstrated without compromising separation, repeatability, or analysis accuracy.
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A fast, easy and “green” thermal desorption-GC/MS method for the analysis of phthalate esters in PVC
- A discussion of the central factors that influence data quality when using ASTM D7823-13(1) for the determination of phthalates in polymeric substrates
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Analysis of Phenols in Drinking Water Using Triple
Quadrupole LC/MS/MS (LCMS-8040)
- Here, we introduce an example of phenol analysis by
UHPLC/MS/MS. Unlike the use of GC/MS for this
analysis, LC/MS/MS does not require derivatization, and
therefore simplifies the analysis process
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Spectroscopic Analysis of Wines for Authenticity and Trichloranisole(TCA) Contamination
- ICP-OES is a fast and reliable tool for determination of heavy metals in wine and packaging material. Furthermore the HS-trap GC/MS system is a high sensitivity method for monitoring trichloroanisole in wine in order to guarantee the highest level of quality and safety according to the European wine regulations.
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New Applications for Multidimensional Gas Chromatography
- Multidimensional chromatography is the utilization of multiple columns to enhance difficult separations. For a complex mixture there may not be a single column that resolves all the peaks of interest. A better separation may be possible using two columns of different polarity. In this poster, analysis examples using the MDGC/GCMS system, which utilizes a multi-Deans switch, are presented.
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Analysis of Dietary Supplements
- Analytical Instrumentation & Software for the Evaluation, Identification and QA/QC of Dietary Supplements
- View here (811787 KB)
Simultaneous Analysis of 477 Residual Pesticides in Agricultural Crops Using GC-MS/MS
- GC-MS/MS systems can measure more than 400 residual pesticides in foods. However, analyzing
more than 400 pesticides simultaneously requires a short dwell time (data loading time) during MRM
measurements, which results in problems with inadequate sensitivity and the tedious process of
creating MRM measurement programs. Consequently, several different methods are used for target
pesticides and the same sample is measured multiple times to analyze all components. That can
decrease productivity, due to the time required for analyzing all the components involved in the large
number of pesticides being inspected. This Application Data Sheet describes a solution to these
problems with the creation of a method for simultaneously analyzing 477 components and evaluating
the resulting sensitivity and accuracy.
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Selective Detection Using Neutral Loss Scan in GC-MS/MS
- Neutral loss scan is a measuring mode of GC-MS/MS and is used to study a class of compounds showing a
common neutral molecule loss during CID (Collision-Induced Dissociation). Both Q1 and Q3 are scanned with a
fixed m/z difference corresponding to the neutral fragment during the CID. This application datasheet presents the results from measuring PCBs in transformer oil by neutral loss scanning.
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Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Whole Blood Utilizing Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurements (2)
- This Application Data Sheet introduces the application of scan data from simultaneous scan/MRM measurement to the
Forensic Toxicological Database, leading to comprehensive screening for medicinal toxicants in a whole blood sample.
Please refer to this in conjunction with Application Datasheet No. 74, which introduces an example of the mass separation of
cholesterol from triazolam and etizolam in whole blood, utilizing MRM data from simultaneous Scan/MRM analysis.
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Analysis of Pesticides in Food Matrix using QuEChERS by Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS
- Inspection results for 138 pesticides using GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS have been reported by the EURL (European Union Reference Laboratory). Of the 138 substances, it was recommended that 66 of those substances be analyzed using the triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS, and that the remaining 72 substances be analyzed by the triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Thus, the pesticides were analyzed using the GCMSTQ8030 and LCMS-8040 as recommended. The combined use of GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS permits high-sensitivity comprehensive analysis of residual pesticides in foods.
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Analysis of MOSH and MOAH using SPE prior to GC×GC-MS analysis
- The present work is focused on the development/optimization of a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method, with dual detection [flame ionization (FID) and mass spectrometric], for the simultaneous identification and quantification of mineral-oil contaminants in a variety of food products. The two main classes of contaminants, namely saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, were previously fractionated on a manually-packed silver silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The presence of a series of unknown compounds was investigated using the mass spectrometric data, and were tentatively-identified as esterified fatty acids, most probably derived from vegetable oil based ink.
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Systematic screening for basic and acidic drugs in urine using Ultrafast-GCMSMS in MRM-scan mode – Part 1
- We report a GC-EI-MSMS method using MRMs for the detection of targeted compounds, the unequivocal confirmation of structure using EI-MS and a background full scan that is useful in detecting the presence of unexpected substances and changes to the normal sample matrix. The method is enabled by the use of a UFMS capable GCMSMS system that is capable of supporting simultaneous MRM-scan-PIS.
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Quantitative Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardant by Thermal Desorption-GC Technique
- Brominated flame retardants are widely used and contained in electric and electronic devices, and are to be controlled under the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive). If the quantitative analysis of them is done by thermal desorption-GC technique (TD-GC), a various measurement parameters need to be optimized. Fig. 1 shows the construction of the TD-GC system. In this report, the temperature optimization for Py-GC interface (ITF) and GC injection port is described.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardant in a Waste Plastics by Thermal Desorption-GC/MS Technique
- A TD-GC system in which a Double-Shot Pyrolyzer® was directly attached to the split/splitless injection port of a GC was used. A polystyrene (PS) based waste plastic containing brominated flame retardants was used as a sample, and an aliquot (5 µL) of THF solution (10 µg/µL) was placed in a sample cup for analysis. The temperature of the PY-GC interface and the GC injection port was set to 320ºC, at which temperature no absorption or thermal decomposition of DeBDE has been reported.1) A metal capillary column specifically designed for brominated flame retardants 2) [Ultra ALLOY-PBDE] with highly deactivated inner wall was used.
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Analysis of a Gas Emitted from Polystyrene Using the Thermal Desorption Method
- Generally, in analyzing gases emitted from a sample, the sample is first loaded into a chamber and Tedlar bag, where it is sealed and then heated. Afterwards, the gas emitted is concentrated in a collection tube, and then analyzed using the thermal desorption method. With the TD-20 thermal desorption system, the sample is loaded directly into a glass tube exclusively designed for the TD-20 (P/N: 223-57119), and the gas emitted when the sample is heated can be analyzed without utilizing a chamber. This not only reduces the amount of work required when sampling, but also reduces the loss of high boiling-point substances because the flow line has been significantly shortened. In this experiment, 0.5 mg of polystyrene was loaded into a glass tube for the TD-20. Both ends of the tube were fastened with 5 mg of quartz wool. The gas emitted when the sample was heated at 250oC for 30 minutes was then analyzed, and the total ion current chromatogram (TIC) obtained is shown below. It can be confirmed that, in addition to the polystyrene monomer styrene, dimer, trimers, and tretramers were produced when the sample was heated at 250 ℃.
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High-Sensitivity Analysis of Nonylphenol in River Water Using GC-MS/MS
- Nonylphenol (NP) is used as a raw material for the production of surfactants, and as an antioxidant used to protect rubber and plastics, etc. However, in recent years, it has been specified as a substance that can cause endocrine disruption in the environment (environmental hormone).
NP, a type of alkylphenol, can theoretically exist as 211 structural isomers. Among these, the main component that is generated by the reaction of nonene (trimer of propylene) with phenol is the branched 4-nonylphenyl (4-NP). We investigated the use of a high m/z selectivity triple quadrupole gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS). By optimizing the MS/MS analytical conditions, selective detection of thirteen 4-NP isomers was achieved with high sensitivity. Further,
in the analysis of NP in river water, which typically contains many contaminants, analysis was possible without adversely affecting identification accuracy, even when omitting the cleanup procedure that may reduce the recovery rate.
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Fast and Accurate Analysis of Fluorotelomer Alcohols and Acrylates using Triple Quadrupole GC-MS/MS;
- Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) are utilised as oil and water repellents in consumer products. However, its
extensive use in products such as textiles has raised environmental concerns, as residual #31;uorotelomer alcohols and acrylates (FTOHs and FTAs) from FTPs are considered as probable precursors of bioaccumulative and potentially toxic per#31;uorocarboxylic acids [1,2,3].
Traditionally, the determination of FTOHs has been performed using single quadrupole GC-MS in chemical ionization (CI) mode [4,5]. Although CI can achieve sensitive detection limits (less than 20 fg/ul for FTOHs), it is sometimes avoided due to higher upkeep and running cost than electron ionization (EI) systems . Furthermore, EI is a more comprehensive analytical solution than CI in applications. This motivated the use of GC-MS/MS system in EI mode in this study.
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Quantitative Analysis of Pyrethroids in Soil and
Sediment Using the Shimadzu LCMS-8050 Triple
Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer
- Pyrethroid pesticides are used widely around the world
as agricultural and household insecticides. Synthetic
pyrethroids are slightly soluble in water and easily
adsorbed in soil. In recent years, pyrethroid residues
have been confirmed in soil and sediment in both
agricultural and urban areas. Pyrethroids, while posing
little danger to humans, exhibit a high toxicity to
aquatic organisms and insects, making their impact on
the ecosystem a matter of concern. Therefore, there is
a need for a sensitive technique which can rapidly
measure pyrethroid pesticides in soil and sediment.
Due to their low polarity, pyrethroid pesticides are
typically measured by GC and GC-MS, however this
Application News demonstrates simultaneous positiveand
negative-ion mode analysis of 14 pyrethroid
pesticides using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization
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Effi#31;cient extraction of residual pesticides in agricultural products and soils for GC/MS and LC/MS analysis using supercritical #30;fluid extraction
- A solvent extraction is commonly used for pretreatment of residual pesticides in foods and soils. In the method, a
substantial amount of time and effort are required and large quantities of organic solvents are consumed. Supercritical #31;uid extraction (SFE) that employs supercritical carbon dioxide as an extraction solvent provides good extraction ef#30;ciency due to high diffusivity and solubility. It affords extremely short time as well as less damaging to the environment due to small
consumption of organic solvent compared to that of solvent extraction methods. We have developed an ef#30;cient SFE system that can perform up to 48 automatic and serial extractions and applied it to extraction of residual pesticides in agricultural products and soils.
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Understanding RoHS What it Means to U.S. Manufacturers
- With the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) regulations scheduled to
take effect in July 2006, there is ongoing concern regarding the readiness of
American companies to meet new European standards. Initiated by the
European Union, RoHS is a direct response to growing calls for the regulation of
materials deemed hazardous (including lead, cadmium, and mercury) in
consumer electronic equipment.
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Quantitative Determination of Dioxins in Drinking Water by Isotope Dilution using
Triple Quadrupole GC-MS/MS
- In this study, we report a method developed with the cost-effective triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS system for high sensitivity detection and quanti#31;cation of dioxins in water samples, as a proposed alternative to the EPA method 1613 with a change of detector.
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Supercritical fl#31;uid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of hundreds of pesticide residues in food safety
- Analysis of pesticides in food commodities is typically carried out using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). These two techniques provide an effective combination for the analysis of pesticides with a broad range of physiochemical properties. Supercritical fl#31;uid chromatography (SFC) provides an alternative separation method which uses compressed carbon dioxide in supercritical state as its primary mobile phase. The lower
viscosity and high diffusivity of the mobile phase in SFC provides lower back pressures in comparison to LC therefore allowing higher #31;ow rates to be used. In addition SFC has lower aqueous-organic solvent consumption. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the application of SFC-MS/MS for the analysis of a broad range of pesticides. To do this a method was developed for the analysis of 338 pesticides commonly analysed by LC-MS/MS (and GC-MS/MS).
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Unique On-line SFE-SFC-MS/MS for Pesticides Reduces Sample Preparation & Analysis Time while Increasing Sensitivity & Polarity Range
- The goal of this poster is to address four areas of improvement for pesticides analysis
using on-line Supercritical Fluid Extraction – Supercritical Fluid Chromatography – Mass
Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (SFE-SFC-MS/MS). Those areas are reduced sample
preparation time, faster separation of analytes, increased sensitivity, and analysis of a
wider range of analyte polarities. Sample preparation can be reduced from a 35 minute
QuEChERS method to a 5 minute method with the patented on-line SFE-SFC interface.
Polar compounds typically analyzed by LC-MS/MS can be analyzed faster by SFC-MS/
MS. Sensitivities can be improved over LC-MS/MS methods with the new multi-patented
splitless backpressure regulator (BPR). In addition, SFE-SFC-MS/MS enables analysis of
a wider range of compounds from non-polar to polar than currently available by GC-MS/
MS or LC-MS/MS. The whole process can be fully automated by adding a 48 sample rack
changer on the front end.
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Cannabis Testing Laboratory Solutions
- When purchasing analytical equipment, it is important to know that you are not just buying an instrument but investing in your lab’s future. Shimadzu not only provides the instrumentation but also the technical knowledge and support to help
your lab be successful. We can assist with method development, instrument training, and many other
areas of support like maintenance to ensure your systems are constantly operating at an exceptional level.
From seed to sale, from accurate cannabis potency profi les to reliable, highly sensitive pesticide screening,
let us deliver scalable, turnkey solutions to meet your testing needs for today and tomorrow.
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