LITERATURE


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LC-8A Consumable Parts List
This file contains descriptions, part numbers and comments.
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LC8A Pump Provides Analytical-to-Prep Scale-Up
The LC8A Pump Provides Analytical-to-Prep Scale-Up, is versatile and easy to use, and offers single point control from system controller or CLASS-VP software.
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Total Organic Carbon Analyses for Water Purification, Injection using the 680C.
The changes to the US Pharmacopoeia monograph for the quality or purified water, water for injection, and cleaning water is under review and evaluation by the pharmaceutical industry. The current proposed method will include replacing the oxidizable substances test by measuring Total Organic Carbon (TOC) testing.
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Four-Channel Vacuum Degasser-Maximum Degassing Efficiency in an Ultra-Compact Design.
Eliminates helium degassing to save time and money/Fast, efficient degassing from up to 4 solvent channels/Steady, Self-Maintaining Vacuum/Metal-Free Bioinert Composition and Advanced Self-Diagnostics
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Increase Your Productivity with our State-of-the-Art Autosamplers
Increase Your Productivity with our State of the Art Autosamplers
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Integrating Sphere Accessory for UV1601
The Integrating Sphere Accessory for UV1601 enhances the versatility of the Shimadzu UV-1601 Spectrophotometer. In a matter of minutes, the UV-1601 can be configured for measurement of reflectance as well as diffuse transmittance.
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VOCs in Water Analysis System
The Shimadzu's GC-14AP-ENV is a turn-key gas chromatograph system for the analysis of volatile organic carbon compounds in drinking or waste water.
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PUMPS: Pulse-Free, Unsurpassed in Reliability, Minimal Maintenance, Proven Precision
Shimadzu’s LC-10AS, LC-10AT, and LC-10AD are pulse-free, unsurpassed in reliability, require minimal maintenance, have proven precision and are suitable for your most sensitive applications.
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Water Analysis Pack for UV-1201
Water Analysis Pack for UV-1201 offers fast and convenient testing for the analyst, pre-measured reagents and increased productivity with the six-cell positioner.
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Are You Reporting Valid TOC Numbers ?
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzers use two oxidation processes, combustion and UV/Persulfate oxidation. <br>Reprinted from Proceedings of 1998 Water Quality Technology Conference Copyright 1998, American Water Works Association
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Determining the Correct Concentrations of TOC in Purified Water and WFI
The need for increased sensitivity in the pharmaceutical industry has lead to many stricter requirements for analyzing samples for total organic carbon (TOC)
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Continuous On-Line Monitoring of Purgeable Organic Compounds
A company with a closed wastewater system should be aware of dissolved flammable gases in the piping system. Two components present in wastewater pipes are wastewater and head space gases.
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CLASS-VP<SUP>TM</SUP> - New Tools for Better Solutions
CLASS-VP<SUP>TM</SUP> is a multi-tasking chromatography data acquisition and instrument control system operating under Microsoft Windows<SUP>TM</SUP>.
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CLASS-VP<SUP>TM</SUP> - New Tools for Better Solutions
A New Program with New Tools, to Make Chromatographic Data Processing More Powerful Than Ever acquisition and instrument control system operating under Microsoft Windows<SUP>TM</SUP>.
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TOGAS - Transformer Oil Gas Analysis System
The analysis of gas in transformer oil is not a new requirement. Care and maintenance of expensive transformers has been facilitated by routinely sampling the transformer oil and determining the concentration of various gases.
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Determining the Injection Volume and/or Range for TOC-500
There is correlation between the Range, Injection Volume, and Sample Concentration that is expressed in the following equation: (Injection Volume x Concentration) / Instrument Range = 300 (constant)
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Determination of Vitamin E in Hand Lotion
Fat soluble Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is an oil found naturally in plants including wheat germ, rice and cotton seeds. In humans, Vitamin e is a potent antioxidant and is also involved in the metabolism of the trace element selenium.
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Determination of Tetrabutylammonium Ion in an Antibiotic Sample
Quaternary ammonium salts such as tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBA+Br-) are often encountered in organic chemistry. The reaction of a quaternary ammonium halide with silver oxide yields a quaternary ammonium hydroxide and a silver halide
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Automated Calibration Standard Preparation with the SIL-6B/9A
For HPLC analysis, it is often necessary to generate a calibration curve by injecting standards of several known concentrations and computing response factors based upon the linear regression of a plot peak area (or height) vs concentration.
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Separation of Tryptic Digest of Cytochrome C Using LC-7A Liquid Chromatograph
The chromatographic analysis of the tryptic digest of cytochrome C, along with many biological separations, pose special problems for standard HPLC systems. Typically mobile phases containing high salt concentrations (e.g. 1 M NaCl), or other corrosive agents such as trifluoroacetic acid, are used which will degrade the stainless steel in HPLC pumps unless the system is carefully passivated and rigorously maintained.
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Guaranteed Scale-Up From Analytical to Preparative with Shimadzu Matched Column Sets
Development of an HPLC can be a time consuming process. Development of a preparative HPLC method can be expensive as well as time consuming, when the cost of the solvents being pumped at preparative flow rates is taken into consideration. Shimadzu provides a solution to this problem by offering matched column sets with the scale-up from analytical to preparative guaranteed.
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Excellent Gradient Precision with the LPM-600 Low Pressure Quaternary Gradient Mixer
A key function of any gradient HPLC System is the ability to provide accurate and reproducible gradients. A lack of precision will result in fluctuating retention times and subsequent problems in quantitation. The Shimadzu LPM-600 Quaternary Gradient Mixer meets the requirements of precision gradients for analytical up to semi- preparative applications.
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Comparison of Semi-micro and Analytical HPLC
Development of an HPLC method can be very expensive and time consuming, especially when using the normal analytical columns and standard flowcells. Taking into account the amount of mobile phase used for these methods, the cost can increase tremendously. Shimadzu provides a solution to this problem by providing semi-micro flowcells for the SPD-10A(V), UV-Vis and RF-10A Fluorescence Detectors which can be used in conjunction with micro columns.
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Enhanced Fluorescence Sensitivity with Wavelength Programming
The Shimadzu RF-10A is a very sensitive, very flexible fluorescence detector that can be integrated with any HPLC System. Its various design features offer both high sensitivity and high selectivity. The RF-10A can perform excitation and emission wavelength scanning, and when linked via fiber optic to the SCL-10A System Controller, spectra can be viewed on the LCD display of the controller.
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Dual Wavelength Detection of a Peptide
When it comes to demanding HPLC applications, you need a reliable system providing the ultimate in flexibility and performance. The Shimadzu LC-10A Series is such a system. While every analysis is not as difficult to perform as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)/acetonitrile peptide separations, wouldn't it be nice to have equipment which is equal to the task, reliable enough for routine applications and also a good value? Of course it would! That's why you need to look no further than Shimadzu's LC-10A.
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The Analysis of Analgesics by UV Detection
In the pharmaceutical industry, different chromatographic techniques are used in method development and drug analysis. HPLC is the most common analytical technique used in the analysis of many compounds including Analgesics, Antiarrhythmics, Antibacterials, Cardiac drugs, Cholesterol-Reducing drugs, and Vitamins. The Shimadzu LC-10A Series HPLC System provides the sensitivity, reliability and precision required for pharmaceutical analyses
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High Sensitivity Porphyrin Analysis by Fluorescence Detection using R928 PMT
The analysis and quantitation of porphyrins for diagnosis has been, until recently, very complex and time consuming. HPLC has become a very effective analytical method, since it can separate and quantitate individual porphyrins very rapidly. The Shimadzu LC-10A System with the RF-10A Fluorescence Detector offers both high sensitivity and high selectivity in the analysis of porphyrins. The sensitivity is enhanced by using the optional Photomultiplier Tube R928-08.
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LC-10AS Pump Recommended Spare Parts List (LC-014)
The following is a list of recommended spare parts for the LC-10AS Pump. This list encompasses those consumable items which are most frequently replaced.
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LC-10AD Pump Recommended Spare Parts List (LC-015)
The following is a list of recommended spare parts for the LC-10AD Pump. This list encompasses those consumable items which are most frequently replaced.
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SIL-10A Autosampler Recommended Spare Parts List (LC-016)
The following is a list of recommended spare parts for the SIL-10A Autosampler. This list encompasses those consumable items which are most frequently replaced.
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SIL-6B/9A Autosampler Recommended Spare Parts List (LC-017)
The following is a list of recommended spare parts for the SIL-6B/9A Autosampler. This list encompasses those consumable items which are most frequently replaced.
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LC-10A Series Detectors Recommended Spare Parts List (LC-018)
The following is a list of recommended spare parts for the SPD-10A/V UV/Vis Absorbance Detector and the RF-10A Fluorescence Detector. This list encompasses those consumable items which are most frequently replaced.
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HPLC Analysis of a Cold Tablet Using a 2.0 mm I.D. Column
HPLC analyses most commonly employ 4.6 mm ID columns and flow rates of 1.0 ml/min. However, the use of micro bore columns offer several advantages over the more common 4.6mm columns. The lower flow rates which are used mean that the consumption of solvent is markedly reduced.
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Performance Comparison of Variable Wavelength and Photodiode Array Detectors
Shimadzu strives to achieve superior detector performance by designing high quality optical benches. To achieve this in both the UV and Vis range, dual lamp detector design is offered for both variable wavelength and PDA models. The SPD-M10A and SPD-M10AV PDA detectors demonstrate comparable UV sensitivity. Both the SPD- M10A and M10AV are approximately one and one-half times higher in sensitivity than the SPD-M6A; and, the SPD- 10AV UV-Vis detector demonstrates six times more sensitivity than its photodiode array counterparts.
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Simultaneous Execution of 3 Separations With a Single LC-10A System
The Shimadzu LC-10A System is a versatile HPLC platform that provides ease of automation and flexibility. In response to a request from a customer performing high throughput clinical applications, we were asked to perform three separate analyses with one automated system. To accomplish this task we configured a system with two automated column selection valves, three pumps and an autosampler with cooler.
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HPLC Detection of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons
The polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are a ubiquitous class of highly lipophilic, potentially carcinogenic substances consisting of a large number of individual compounds containing aromatic rings.
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Analysis of Clean In Place 150 Residues on Process Equipment Using UV Detection
The pharmaceutical industry has recently become concerned with the efficacy of cleaning procedures not only to remove active drug, but also to remove the products used to clean the process equipment. At Schein Pharmaceutical in Carmel, New York, the robotics department has developed a comprehensive program to validate the efficacy of current cleaning protocols. This program incorporates the use of a Shimadzu LC-10A Series HPLC System to detect trace amounts of cleaning agents
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Separation Of Nucleotides and Xanthines using The LC-10Ai Bioinert HPLC (LC-024)
Recently, the use of bioinert high performance liquid chromatography has increased concomitantly and most likely as a result of research burgeoning in the areas of protein and peptide chemistry. The utility of these systems stems from methodology designed to preserve biological activity and molecular conformation in biological samples.
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LC-10AT Pump Recommended Spare Parts List
The following is a list of recommended spare parts for the LC-10AT Pump. This list encompasses those consumable items which are most frequently replaced.
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LC-10Ai Pump Recommended Spare Parts List
The following is a list of recommended spare parts for the LC-10Ai Pump. This list encompasses those consumable items which are most frequently replaced.
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SIL-10AXL Autosampler Recommended Spare Parts List
The following is a list of recommended spare parts for the SIL-10AXL Autosampler. This list encompasses those consumable items which are most frequently replaced.
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SIL-10Ai Autosampler Recommended Spare Parts List
The following is a list of recommended spare parts for the SIL-10Ai Autosampler. This list encompasses those consumable items which are most frequently replaced.
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Updated Performance Comparison of Variable Wavelength and Photodiode Array Detectors
Shimadzu strives to achieve superior detector performance by designing high quality optical benches. To achieve this in both the UV and Vis range, dual lamp detector design is offered for both variable wavelength and PDA models. The purpose of this bulletin is to compare the relative performance of Shimadzu's UV-Vis and Photodiode Array Detectors.
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SIL-10AXL Autosampler Semi-Micro Kit (LC-031)
The utility and demand for semi microbore HPLC has dramatically increased for a variety of reasons: semi-microbore applications offer increased sensitivity, reduced sample consumption and a substantial reduction in liquid waste. Shimadzu now offers the option of implementing a semi-micro kit to easily and economically convert the SIL-10AXL analytical autosampler to an autosampler capable of semi microbore applications.
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Analysis of Components in Cold Medicine Using New TLC-FTIR Method
Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is an inexpensive, easy, and highly sensitive separation method used in various fields. Qualitative analysis of separated components in TLC is based on a comparison of rates of migration (Rf). There are great variations depending on the conditions so this method isn't decisive.
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Gas Chromatography Analysis of the Triglyceride Using Aluminum-Coated Capillary Column
The range of applications on many fields for fused silica columns has expanded rapidly in recent years. Fused silica columns possess an inactive internal surface, flexibility, and a chemical bonded liquid phase, all of which result in high resolution and superior performance. This application note introduces examples using this high-temperature, aluminum-coated column for the analysis of high-boiling point triglycerides.
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GC Analysis of High Boiling Point Compounds Using Aluminum-Coated Capillary Columns #2
In the past, the outer surface of fused silica capillary columns was coated with polyimide resin. These columns are now largely-coated with metallic aluminum, imparting enhanced heat resistance. The chemically bonded, thermally stable liquid phase together with its 0.1-micron thickness render these columns appropriate for good separation of high boiling point compounds. Application Note 130 describes teh features of the fused silica, aluminum-coated column, including examples of triglyceride analysis.
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Gas Chromatography Analysis of Gasoline Hydrocarbon Fractions
It is often necessary to quantify complex mixtures such as automobile gasoline into its hydrocarbon fractions. These fractions include olefinic, aromatic, and saturated hydrocarbons. There are several methods used to obtain the concentration of each fraction. Currently, there are two methods commonly used in Japan. One method is the Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption Method (FIA) as specified by Method JIS K 2536. Gas chromatography is the second method that uses the MSG C-PONA Analysis System, in which both 13X molecular sieve and polar packed TCEP packed columns are utilized.
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Gas Chromatography Analysis of Organotin Compounds by ECD
Organotin compounds have a wide range of uses, including paint for ship bottoms, fishing net anti-fouling agents, wood preservatives, fiber bacteriocide and fungicide, PVC stabilizers, and polymerization catalysts. The majority of organotin compound applications are used for ship bottom paints and fishing net anti-fouling agents. These compounds pose an environmental pollution danger to the oceans. Due to gradual dissolution of these compounds, the danger includes the risk of toxicity to marine organisms and fish after prolonged exposure. The organotin compound most used in paint for ship bottoms and fishing nets is bis-tributyltin exide (TBTTO).
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Gas Chromatography Headspace Analysis of Herbal Aroma Compounds Using GC-14A & HSS-2B
Foods are not enjoyed by taste alone. The smell or aroma contributes to simulating the appetite. Though not the major ingredient, herbs play an important role. The flavor components of herbs were analyzed using a gas chromatograph.
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Gas Chromatography Selective High Sensitivity Analysis of Tertiary Amines
Selective high sensitivity analysis at the sub-picogram level of tertiary amine compounds is now easy with the use of the surface ionization detector (SID), a new detector for gas chromatography. The simple principle behind the SID and several application analyses are introduced in this Application Note.
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Gas Chromatography Analysis of Organic Solvents Using Capillary Columns (No.1)
Organic solvents are widely used as solvents and diluents for paints, printing inks, adhesives, and composite resins. They are also widely used as degreasers for various types of products, such as electrical components. From the viewpoint of occupational safety, these organic solvents are already regulated with respect to mandatory measurement of concentrations in the work environment. In addition, proper labeling for safe identification of compounds, containing a specified concentration of an organic solvent is required.
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Gas Chromatography Analysis of Organic Solvents Using Capillary Columns #2
Of the organic substances used as solvents and diluents for paints, printing ink, adhesives and composite resins, 17 substances are required by the Japan Labor Ministry to be measured based on the work envionmental measurement standard. Recently, a part of this work was revised, adding 30 organic substances to the list of substances to be measured.
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Gas Chromatography Autoinjector (AOC-14)Improves Accuracy of Capillary Column Analysis
There are several factors that can affect analysis accuracy in gas chromatographic analysis. One of these factors, the introduction of a liquid sample, is discussed in this Application Note. When using a capillary column especially in split/splitless injection mode, separation and reproducibility can show great variation due to the method of the sample introduction.
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Gas Chromatography Analysis by ECD of Halogenated Hydrocarbons in Process/Waste Water
Ground Water plays an important role as a water resource, which may serve as drinking water after processing. Ground water contamination with halogenated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene has become evident in recent years. The toxicity of halogenated hydrocarbons to humans is a matter of concern. These compounds are commonly used as degreasers in factories and elsewhere, and to prevent ground water pollution from the process water and wastewater from these factories, a part of the Japan Water Pollution Prevention Regulation was revised.
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Analysis of Pesticides in Golf Course Wastewater Using Capillary Columns and Detection
GC analyses for agricultural chemicals used in golf courses have been described in Application News G143 (grass killer), G148 (monitoring of runoff water from a golf course), and G149 (monitoring of the water supply).
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Analysis of Pesticides in Golf Course Wastewater Using ECD, FTD, FPD (No 4)
The Japan Environmental Agency has published provisional permissible levels for chemicals to be used on golf courses. Results of analysis for the 21 original chemicals have been described in the Application News G148.
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Automated Trace Analysis of Nitrous Oxide N<sub>2</sub>O in Air using GC-14A with ECD
The concentration of nitrous oxide N<sub>2</sub>O in the atmosphere is reported to be 300 ppb. This can be measured using a gas chromotograph (GC) with an electron capture detector (ECD).
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Analysis of Pesticides and Herbicides Using GC-14A with Septum Purge Wide Bore Injector
The Septum Purge Wide Bore Injector offers many features including few ghost peaks, capability to operate at a low carrier gas flow rate, reduced tailing of the solvent peak.
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Analysis of Trace Impurities in Organic Solvents Using GC-17A Wide Range FID
Capillary Columns are highly effective in separation and other functions for gas chromotography, and are used in a wide variety of fields today. The GC-17A is a user-friendly instrument developed for ease of use, even with the sophisticated capabilities of capillary analyses
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Advantages of GC-17A Pressure Programming: Shorter Analysis Time/Improved Sensitivity
The advanced flow control system (AFC) of the GC-17A gas chromotograph allows the split ratio, column pressure, flow rate and other parameters to be set at the keyboard.
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Improved Reproducibility for Capillary Column Analysis Using the AOC-17 Auto Injector
Gas chromatographs are used in most laboratories. They have become indispensable as have automatic samplers for routine work in factories and other workplaces where many samples must be handled.
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Analysis of ResidualAgricultural Chemicals Using FTD, FPD and ECD (No. 4)
The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welare revised the standard analysis methods for foods, additives, and other related substances on 17 October 1992 under the auspices of the Food Sanitation Act
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Gas Chromatography Analysis of Organic Solvents Using Capillary Columns (No. 3)
Capillary Columns are used to evaluate organic solvents. Highly polar ones like the DB-WAX are normally tried first (or CBP20, an equivalent phase). If these are not satisfactory, a non-polar DB-1 phase (CBP1) can be tried.
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High Speed Gas Chromatography Analysis Using GC-17A ver 3 with Narrow Bore Column (.01mm)
The capillary column used in gas chromatography has seen amazing developments. The diameter of a column is closely related to the theoretical number of plates; the more narrow the column, the higher the obtained number of of theoretical peaks and the sharper the obtained peaks.
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Polymer Analysis Using TGA-GC/MS with CI
In mass analysis, a sample is ionized, the mass numbers are measured and qualitative analysis is performed on the basis of the obtained mass spectra. The ionization methods include electronic impact ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI).
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Analysis of Additives in Polymers Using Fraction Collection LC-FTIR
Infrared spectroscopy is an excellent method for identification of compounds. However, when the absorbance of components overlap, it is more difficult to identify each component. In this type of situation, it is more necessary to combine this method with a separation method such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC).
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High Sensitivity Measurement with the FTIR Spectrometer
The use of infrared spectroscopy for catalyst research began to receive much attention in the 1950s. At that time, infrared spectroscopy was not widely used, but since the first spectral measurement of CO absorbed to the surface of a metal catalyst, infrared spectroscopy has become an important tool in conducting research on the configuration of molecules absorbed to catalytic surfaces.
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Analysis of Ointment
Lotions and ointments are common household items. Ointments are used to relieve itching and inflammation, treat eczema, cure athlete's foot, and for hemorrhoid therapy. Spectrophotometric and acid-base titration methods have been conventionally used to analyze these medicines, but this requires complex sample preparation. Faster identification of active ingredients is achieved using HPLC, with only pretreatment. The analysis of the active ingredients contained in medicines for skin disorders (e.g. impetigo, eczema), analgesic treatments (e.g. arthritis, insect bites, etc.), and anti-fungal medicines (e.g. athlete's foot, ringworm, etc.) are presented in the following chromatograms. Samples were provided be Belbe Chemical Industries, Co. Ltd., Japan.
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GPC Analysis of Wetting Agent
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), is a method widely used in surfactant analysis because it separates the components based on molecular weight. Two GPC applications are presented: a metallic soap analysis and a non-ionic surfactant agent mixture analysis.
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GPC Analysis of a Non-Ionic Surfactant Mixture
Generally, when analyzing surfactants by GPC, the length of the lipophilic group determines the separation. When surfactant mixtures are analyzed by single-column GPC, the peaks often overlap, creating identification difficulties. This Application Note describes the analysis of surfactants by combining two columns. The Shimadzu Shim-pack GPC column, packed with hydrophobic gel, was used in a series with a Shimadzu Asahipak GS hydrophilic gel column. An injection was made of a mixture of an ester (A), POE (B), and amide (C) type of non-ionic surfactants.
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Fraction Collection Chromatography Application: Handy Scaled-Up Method using LC-8A
Recently, preparative chromatography has been widely used to purify synthetic reagents and extracts, and for structural analysis. The column volumes required for preparative chromatography, however, range from 10 to 100 times those of conventional LC columns. The absolute injection amounts for preparative chromatography can range from 10(3) to 10(6) times those of conventional LC analysis. This sometimes makes preparative chromatography difficult to directly implement without changing the original analysis conditions. A simple upgrade, using the Shimadzu LC8A, circumvents this implementation difficulty.
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Herbal Medicine Analysis Application
The active ingredients of Asian herbal medicines vary with their harvest times and growing region. Their quality is determined by the amount of active ingredients they contain. These medicines may contain more than one active ingredient, which heighten their effectiveness by working synergistically. It is therefore often necessary to analyze for more than one medicine or active ingredient.
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Simultaneous UV Fluorescence Quantation of Neopterine, Uric Acid, Creatinine in Urine
Neopterine in urine makes up approximately 20-50% of the total pterine, and may be clinically related to blood and liver diseases. The neopterine concentration in urine requires creatinine correction; therefore, simultaneous determination of uric acid, creatinine, and neopterine is indispensable.
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Quantitation of Catechol Estroben in Plasma
Recently, the catechol estrogen in biological samples has received a great deal of attention due to its physiological actions. Radio-immuno Assay (RIA) is currently used as the analysis method. However, 2-hydroxyestrogen is extremely unstable and easily oxidized, and is therefore found only in small amounts. This results in poor sensitivity for analysis by the RIA method. The Shimadzu L-ECD-6A electrochemical detector, however, permits highly sensitive HPLC analysis for catechol estrogen and estrogen compounds.
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Engineering Plastics Components
Engineering plastics include polyamide, polacetal, denatured polyphenylene oxide, polysulfonyl, polycarbonate, and polyester. The recent development of HFIP (hexafluoroisopropanol) has enabled the analysis of this group of engineering plastic compounds at room temperature.
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Fraction Collection - B Carotene in Carrot Extract
b-carotene is contained in carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and other produce. It is an essential vitamin A precursor. An HPLC recycling valve separation technique was developed for the analysis of b-carotene from carrot extract. The effect of the recycling method was then confirmed using a photodiode array detector.
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GPC Analysis of Polymide, Polyamic Acid and 12-Nylon
The GPC analysis of polymers depends upon solvent(s) that can completely dissolve the target polymer. These solvents also serve as the mobile phase in GPC analysis. If an appropriate solvent cannot be found, analyses will not provide accurate molecular weight distribution data. With the development of GPC columns, a variety of solvents (other than the widely used THF and chloroform) can now be used. This greatly increases the type of polymers that can be analyzed by GPC. Examples of the anallysis of polyimide, polyamic acid, and nylon-12 are given below.
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Analysis of Nucleotides Using ODS Column
Analysis of nucelotides is frequently performed using an ODS column in reverse phase distribution mode. Here, application examples demonstrate the analysis of ATP in rat heart tissue and the analysis of nucleotides in tuna meat.
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Applications of Horizontal ATR
Infrared absorption analysis is widely used as a means of indentifying substances. Then measurement methods include transmission, reflection, etc., and depending on the shape of the sample, it is necessary to select the appropriate attachment for the measurement.
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Kramers-Kronig Transform Analysis and Application Examples
Reflectance is a nondestructive spectroscopic technique with many applications. However, when measuring samples which have luster, such as plastics, glass, crystals, etc., or samples exhibiting strong absorbance in the infrared region, wavelength-dependent changes in refractive index can give rise to anamalous bands in reflectance spectra.
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Micro Sampling using Infrared Microscopic Spectroscopy
Recently, dissemination of infrared microscopy has been remarkable, widening its reach into various fields. In infrared microscopic analysis, sampling of the specimen is extremely important. If only sampling can be conducted skillfully, the infrared spectral measurement will almost certainly be decisive.
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Time Course Measurement Using FTIR
When polymer materials are heated, exposed to light, or mixed, changes in their molecular structure occur over a period of time. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) is effective in following those changes over time.
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Microanalysis Using the Microscopic ATR Mapping Technique
An FTIR-infrared microscope is indispensable for the analysis of minute areas of particles. Until now, analysis of minute areas using an FTIR-infrared microscope has almost always been conducted using spot analysis.
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TOC Determination in Sludge
To characterize and limit the amount of organic substances in waste the TOC-parameter (total organic carbon) was incorporated as determination parameter in the new TA Siedlungsabfall (TA: Technical instruction, June 1st 1993). This sum parameter which is a firm component in the water analysis already for years also becomes more and more important in the solid sample analysis. In this case, the waste depending on the content of TOC is assigned to different dump classes. In order to be classified under dump class 1 (mineral material dump) the waste may at the most include a TOC content of 1 mass percent of dry residue. For rating in dump class 2 (settlement waste dump), a maximum of 3 mass percent of dry residue is permitted.
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TOC Analysis of Drinking Water
The importance of drinking water is undisputed. That fact is underlined, too, by the great number of german laws and regulations considering this topic. Water is classified into different qualities. Besides tap water, there is natural mineral water, medical draft water, spring water and soda water. Every water shows defined characteristics and qualities and is distinguished in particular by the method of its production. For the production of drinking water, for instance, different additives are allowed. Among others, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone are used for disinfecting.
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Maldi 2: Optimised sample preparation for the analysis of high molecular mass proteins
Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) has, since its introduction in 19881, 2 , been used very successfully for the mass determination of molecules of various types. As a general rule in MALDI-ToF-MS, the mass resolution obtained (R = M/DM) decreases with increasing mass. This is increasingly seen with biopolymers due to adducts formed from buffer components typically present. In the case of large biopolymers (M>50 kDa) the mass resolution obtained is sometimes less than 100.
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Optimierung der Probenvorbereitung bei der Messung
Die Technik “matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry” (MALDI-TOF-MS) wird seit ihrer Einführung im Jahr 1988 zur Massenbestimmung von Molekülen unterschiedlicher Substanzklassen eingesetzt.
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Maldi 3: Optimised sample preparation for the MALDI Tof-MS Oligonucleotides
Nowadays the size of DNA fragments is determined routinely using gel electrophoresis. This method however is time consuming and inaccurate (+/-10%)1 . In large part due to extensive sequencing projects (e.g. human genome project) there is a need for an alternative method that is fast, accurate and suitable for automation.
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Optimierung der Probenvorbereitung bei der Messung von Oligonukleotiden
Die Größe von DNA Fragmenten wird heutzutage routinemäßig mit Hilfe der Gelelektrophorese bestimmt. Diese Methode ist zeitintensiv und ungenau (?10 %)1. Inbesondere aufgrund umfangreicher Sequenzierungs-projekte (z.B. Human genome project) besteht zur Zeit ein Bedarf an einer schnellen, präzisen und für einen hohen Probendurchsatz automatisierbaren Alternativmethode. Die “matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry” (MALDI-TOF-MS) wurde 1988 von Karas und Hillenkamp sowie Tanaka und Mitarbeitern eingeführt.
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High Speed Gas Chromatography Analysis For C7-C44 Hydrocarbons Using a GC-17AV3
High Speed Gas Chromatography" is a recent advance in separation science that dramatically can reduce analysis run time without sacrifice to analytical performance. This technology allows some separation times to be reduced from minutes to seconds. This Application Note examines a set of C7 to C44 hydrocarbon compounds using high speed GC.
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High Speed Gas Chromatography Analysis For Explosives Using a GC-17AV3
High Speed Gas Chromatography" is a recent advance in separation science that dramatically can reduce analysis run time without sacrifice to analytical performance. This technology allows some separation times to be reduced from minutes to seconds. This application note examines a set of explosive compounds using high speed GC.
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High Speed Gas Chromatography Analysis For Benzoid Hydrocarbons Using GC-17AV3
"High Speed Gas Chromatography" is a recent advance in separation science that dramatically can reduce analysis run time without sacrifice to analytical performance. This technology allows some separation times to be reduced from minutes to seconds. This Application Note showed results from instrumentation using the 0.1mm I.D. and 0.32mm I.D. Columns: GC-17AV3 Gas Chromatograph, AFC-17H High Pressure/High Flow Controller, SPL-17 Split/Splitless Injection Port, FID-17 Flame Ionization Detector, AOC-20I Autoinjector, and Class-VP Data Acquisition System.
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TOGAS - A Transformer Oil Gas Analysis System
The analysis of gas in transformer oil is not a new requirement. Care and maintenance of expensivetransformers has been facilitated by routinely sampling the tranformer oil and determining the concentration of various gases
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Quantification of Organic Peroxide Using FTIR and Attenuated Total Reflectance
The harmful effects of active oxygen species are well known. Peroxide formation in lubricants and fuels can damage engineand machine components. Generation of oxygen radicals in solvent presents a danger to personnal and free radical formation <i>in vivo</i>can have a multitude of deleterious physiological effects
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Assessing HPLC Peak Purity with Shimadzu Photodiode Detector for SPD-M10Avp
Traditionally, HPLC with a UV detector analysis generates chromatograms that present the analyte absorbance at a given wavelength as a function of the time. With the advent of the photo diode array detector, representation of the data in 3-dimensions is accomplished by adding the spectra if the analyte to the chromatogram
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Measurement of Lead (Pb) in Milk and Sugar
Measurement Examples using the Electro-Thermal atomization method are shown for the amount of Pb in milk and sugar.
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Real Time In-Situ Monitoring of Organic Reactions Using an FTIR Fiber Optic System
The use of the FTIR as a reaction monitor can aid in recognizing formation of intermediates as well as in determining depletion of reactants and formation of products.
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MEASUREMENT OF THE REDUCTION OF POTASSIUM
The reduction of Potassium Ferricyanide by Ascorbic Acid is a well known kinetic
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Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in Saliva
The National Institute on Drugs of Abuse [NIDA] and The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMSHA] determine appropriate detection levels for GCMS confirmation
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Analysis of Commercially Available Standard Materials
Introduced in this article are the results of measurements of some standard materials
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Measurement of Lead (Pb) in Milk and Sugar
Measuring examples using the electro-thermal atomization method are shown for the amount of Pb in milk and the analysis of Pb in refined white sugar, which is newly adopted from the Japanese pharmacopoeia.
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Analysis of Environmental Samples Using AA-6200
The following is an explanation of the Ca and Mg measurement results together with an explanation of some of the functions of the AA-6200.
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How to Select Graphite Tube TYpes for the Electro-thermal Atomization (Furnace Analysis Method)
Selection of graphite tubes to match the element of sample ie beneficial to the electro-thermal atomization method.
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Simultaneous Analysis of Monovalent and Divalent cations realized by new column Shim-Pack IC-C2
This is to show an example of analysis of inorganic anions, and monovalent and divalent inorganic cations in rainwater using the HIC-6A.
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Determination of Ions in Desert Sand
This is an example of analysis of desert sand sampled in Sinkiang-Uighur, China, and inorganic anions and cations were determined by the ion chromatograph HIC-6A
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Determination of Aluminum Using On-Column Derivatization
The on-column derivatization is a method of adding a derivatization reagent to a mobile phase to incude derivatization reaction in column, and isolating and detecting.
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Application of HPLC to the Analysis of Cosmetics
For the analysis of antiseptics and disinfectants contained in cosmetics, applicable methods of analysis are GC, UV-Vs spectrophotometry and HPLC.
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Analysis of Anion in Environmental Water
Shows examples of Shimadzu HPLC Analysis of environmental water by the LC-6A inorganic ion analysis system
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Analysis of Anions in Soil
For the analysis of inorganic ions, a special ion chromatograph or the reversed phase ion pair method by a HPLC is applied.
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Simultaneous Analysis of Irganox Polymer Additive using LC-MS
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Analysis of Phenoxyproprionic Type Herbicides using LC-MS
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Analysis of Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether Using LC-MS
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Analysis of Microcystins Using LC-MS
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Drug analysis using Co-Sense for BA LC-MS system (1)
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Analysis of fullerenes using LC-MS
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Analysis of alkyl phenyl polyoxyethylene sulfonate using LC-MS
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Analysis of benzalkonium and polyoxyethylene lauryl ether using LC-MS
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Analysis of fatty acid amidopropylbetaine using LC-MS
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Analysis of pesticides in foods using LC-MS
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Structure elucidation of trace amount of impurities in drugs using Co-Sense for LCMS system analogue
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Analysis of alkylphenols using LC-MS
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Analysis of Vitamin K in food using LC-MS
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Analysis of a drug in plasma using ON-LINE pretreatment method to remove proteins for LC-MS
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Analysis of penicillin analogue using LC-MS
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Analysis of Bisphenol A and Nonylphenol using LC-MS
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Analysis of DNPH-aldehydes using LC-MS
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Analysis of antioxidants in drug and food using LC-MS
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Application of Infrared Reflection Spectrometry -2- UV-VIS Spectrophotometry
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Determination of Phosphorus, Lead and Zinc in Water by Atomic and UV-VIS Absorption Spectrophotometry
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Determination of Fourmaldehyde by UV-Visible Spectrophotometry
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Measurement using a Reflection Measurement Attachment
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Introduction of Syringe Sipper for Solution Measurement -For Rapid Analysis of Multiple Samples-
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Example of Reflectance Measurement Using Integrating Sphere -Difference Between Diffuse Reflectance and Diffuse + Specular Reflectance Measurements-
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Quantitative Analysis using Second-order Derivative Spectrum
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Measurement of Formaldehyde Diffused from Building Materials by Absorption Spectrophotometry
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Measurement of Total Phosphorus in Water by Absorption Spectophotometry
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Measurement of Nonionic Surfactants in Water by Solid Phase Extraction-Absorption Spectroscopy
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Measurement of Hexavalent Chromium by UV-Vis Absorption Spectrophotometry -Analysis using "Water Analysis Program Pack"-
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The Introduction of SolidSpec-3700/3700DUV - High Sensitivity Measurements in Entire NIR Region
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Application of SolidSpec-3700 with the Automatic X-Y Stage -Measurement of Transmittance Distribution Map of Sample Plane-
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Measurement of Hexavalent Chromium by AbsorptionSpectrophotometry (Part 2) Analysis using UV-2450 with Convenient "Water Pack"
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Measurement of Hexavalent Chromium, Aluminum, and Nickel in Plating Solution by Absorption Spectrophotometry -Analysis of Plating Solution-
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Introduction of UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer UV-3600,which Uses Three Detectors to Provide High Sensitivity in All Near-Infrared Regions.
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Introduction of Variable Angle Absolute Reflectance Attachment for the SolidSpec-3700
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Variable Angle Absolute Reflectance System for SolidSpect-3700
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Determination of Stavudine Utilizing Semi-Microbore Electrospray LC/MS
It is generally accepted that sensitivity of electrospray ionization LC/MS (ESI) isconcentration dependant, i.e., overall method sensitivity can be enhanced by scaling down the column diameter,flow rate and amount of sample injected on-column.
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Determination of Serum Extracts Plus Reserpine Spikes Utilizing SPE and ESI on QP-8000
This application note describes the determination of reserpine in serumutilizing the Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and electrospray (ESI) in LC/MS.
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Determination of a ß-Amyloid Protein Fragment
Mutation of the transthyretin, apolipoprotein or gelsolin plasma proteins results in various forms of familial amyloidsis polyneuropathy (FAP) by the build-up of anyloid fibrils of these associated proteins and protein precursors in the human nervous system and other tissues.
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Determination of Carbamate Pesticides by APCI LC/MS
Carbamate pesticides have been used in agricultural pest control in the United States since the 1960s, as contact insecticides. Some have previously been used therapeutically as pediculocides and ectoparasiticides for humans and animals, respectively.
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On-Column Detection Limit for Testosterone by APLC LC/MS
Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC/MS offers users a highly-sensitive and specific means for the determination of non-polar and semi-polar analytes, including steroids such as testosterone
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ESI Mass Spectra of Heme Proteins
The structure and function of the globular proteins including myoglobin and hemoglobin enable them to perform their functions of oxygen storage and transport and are thought to be evolved from a common ancestral oxygen-binding heme protien
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Confirmation of Aureomycin and Urea in Livestock Feed Mix by LC/MS
A livestock feed was analyzed to confirm the presence of urea and aureomycin, 7-cholrotetracycline
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A Method for Performing a TC Blank Check for Regular Sensitivity Catalyst
The area counts generated by injecting carbon free water into the Total Carbon (TC) combustion tube of the TOC-5000A series analyzer will give the system blank of the instrument. This feature is called the TC Blank Check
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Using Standard 40 ml VOA vials with your Shimadzu ASI-5000A
Now, your Shimadzu ASI-5000A can use standard 40 ml VOA vials for analysis of TC, IC, TOC by difference (ie TC-IC) and POC. Note: NPOC can not be performed with these vials at this time.
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Analyzing Samples As Per USP 23 Using Shimadzu TOC-5000A
The United States Pharmacopoeia has established guidelines for determining system suitability for the analysis of purified water and water for injection (USP Revision 23). This guideline also provides a means to qualify unknown samples as passing or failing.
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More Results Analyzing Samples As Per USP 23 Using Shimadzu TOC-5000A
The United States Pharmacopoeia has established guidelines for determining system suitability for the analysis of purified water and water for injection (USP Revision 23). This guideline also provides a means to qualify unknown samples as passing or failing.
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Reproducibility of the Shimadzu DSC-50
The Shimadzu DSC-50 is a heat flux differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In the DSC-50, the sample and reference are heated and/or cooled at the same gradient rate in the same furnace with a controlled atmosphere. As the sample is heated or cooled, it will go through phase transitions. During these transitions, the sample will either absorb or radiate heat.
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Introduction To the Shimadzu -TGA-51
The Shimadzu TGA-51 Macro Thermogravimetric Analyzer is another example of Kaizen. The addition of the TGA-51 to the Shimadzu 50 series of thermal analysis modules currently in existence [DSC-50(Q), TGA-50(H), DTA-50, TMA-50(H), and TAC-50T/D] improves Shimadzu's placement and resourcefulness in the thermal analysis industry
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Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis of Calcium Oxalate
The limiting factor on most thermogravimetric analyzers (TGA) today is the amount of sample you can analyze. The new Shimadzu TGA-51 Macro Thermogravimetric Analyzer is the answer to this problem. The TGA-51 has the ability to measure weight changes on samples of up to ten grams. This is accomplished by the use of a large capacity taut-beam balance, a larger furnace, and large sample crucibles. All of this allows for increased sensitivity and sample resolution while providing a more representative sample to be analyzed.
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Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis of Epoxy Resins and Filler Content
The ability to precisely measure minute amounts of moisture and/or volatiles, by thermogravimetric analysis, can be vital to the production of a quality product. To accurately accomplish this, a large sample should be used. The Shimadzu TGA-51 allows the user to analyze a sample with a weight of up to ten grams. The larger sample size facilitates accuracy and precision in weight losses of less than one percent (>1.0%).
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Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis of Polyethylene Terepthalate Fiber
The ability to precisely measure minute amounts of moisture and/or volatiles, by thermogravimetric analysis, can be vital to the production of a quality product. To accurately accomplish this, a large sample should be used. The Shimadzu TGA-51 allows the user to analyze a sample with a weight of up to ten grams. The larger sample size facilitates accuracy and precision in weight losses of less than one percent (>1.0%)
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Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis of Film
The ability to precisely measure minute amounts of moisture and/or volatiles, by thermogravimetric analysis, can be vital to the production of a quality product. To accurately accomplish this, a large sample should be used. The Shimadzu TGA-51 allows the user to analyze a sample with a weight of up to ten grams. The larger sample size facilitates accuracy and precision in weight losses of less than one percent (>1.0%).
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Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis of Polypropylene
The ability to precisely measure minute amounts of moisture and/or volatiles, by thermogravimetric analysis, can be vital to the production of a quality product. To accurately accomplish this, a large sample should be used. The Shimadzu TGA-51 allows the user to analyze a sample with a weight of up to ten grams. The larger sample size facilitates accuracy and precision in weight losses of less than one percent (>1.0%).
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Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis of The Oxidation of Stainless Steel
The limiting factor on most thermogravimetric analyzers (TGA) today is the amount of sample you can analyze. The new Shimadzu TGA-51 Macro Thermogravimetric Analyzer is the answer to this problem. The TGA-51 has the ability to measure weight changes on samples of up to ten grams. This is accomplished by the use of a large capacity taut-beam balance, a larger furnace, and large sample crucibles. All of this allows for increased sensitivity and sample resolution while providing a more representative sample to be analyzed.
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Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thin Film Coatings on Superconductors
The ability to precisely measure minute amounts of moisture and/or volatiles, by thermogravimetric analysis, can be vital to the production of a quality product. To accurately accomplish this, a large sample should be used. The Shimadzu TGA-51 allows the user to analyze a sample with a weight of up to ten grams. The larger sample size facilitates accuracy and precision in weight losses of less than one percent (>1.0%).
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Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis of Tire (SBR) Rubber
The limiting factor on most thermogravimetric analyzers (TGA) today is the amount of sample you can analyze. The new Shimadzu TGA-51 Macro Thermogravimetric Analyzer is the answer to this problem. The TGA-51 has the ability to measure weight changes on samples of up to ten grams. This is accomplished by the use of a large capacity taut-beam balance, a larger furnace, and large sample crucibles. All of this allows for increased sensitivity and sample resolution while providing a more representative sample to be analyzed.
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Standard Cleaning and Calibration Procedure for DSC-50 and DSC-50Q
This procedure is to be used for the care and maintenance of the DSC-50 and DSC-50Q. It is recommended that from time-to-time the DSC furnace be cleaned of excess material which may be deposited on the detector through normal use or from runaway samples that spill out of the cell. This procedure should be performed at one-week intervals, but can be adjusted to suit the requirements of the instrument.
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Standard Cleaning and Calibration Procedure for DTA-50
This procedure is to be used for the care and maintenance of the DTA-50 Differential Thermal Analyzer. It is recommended that from time-to-time the DTA furnace and detector be cleaned of excess material which becomes deposited on the detector through normal use or from runaway samples that spill out of the sample cell. This procedure should be performed at one-week intervals, but can be adjusted to suit the requirements of the instrument or the user.
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Standard Cleaning and Calibration Procedure for TGA-50(H) and TGA-51(H)
This procedure is to be used for the maintenance and calibration of the TGA-50(H) and TGA-51(H). Because the TGA measures the weight loss of materials by thermal separation, some of the evolved material can be deposited onto the active parts of the weighing assembly (e.g., quartz rod, hanging pan, sample cell). This can cause erroneous readings in subsequent analyses by showing excessive or exaggerated weight loss which are not indicative of the particular samples being measured.
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Qualitative Analyses of Pharmaceuticals Utilizing a New
An important instrument capability for qualitative analysis is a collision-induced disassociation (CID). CID is achieved on the Shimadzu LCMS QP-8000 by increasing the kinetic energy of the ion beam in order to fragment intact quasi-molecular and adduct ions on the skimmer.
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Determination of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Solid Samples
With growing environmental concerns in the scientific community, government, and the public, waste disposalhas become a critical topic. Before solid waste is disposed, it is necessary to determine the Total OrganicCarbon (TOC) concentration.
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Spectrophotometric Measurement of APHA Color Indices
For many years, the APHA (American Public Health Association) color scale has been used to assess the qulity of water and other materials. The scale uses reference materials consisting of a series of solutions of potassium chloroplatinate and cobalt chloride in dilute hydrochloric acid, which are assigned a standard number. This article addresses what advantages, if any, are offered by the correlation of a calculated parameter such as yellowness Index with APHA standard number as opposed to correlation of absorbance with standard number.
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Utilization of Diffuse Transmittance Measurements
Utilization of Diffuse Transmittance Measurements With the UV-2401 Spectrophotometer And Integrating Sphere Isr-220 In Establishing Quality Assurance Criteria For Translucent Materials: Application to Nearly Opaque, Colored Tape With Different Colored Strips (SSI-AP-UV-011): Spectroscopic measurements are among the most widely used in quality assurance protocols. They provide accurate, rapid and reproducible data hat can be interpreted easily and, when needed, used to facilitate corrective procedures.
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Single Beam/Double Beam Spectrophotometers - Matters, Myth and Marketing
The debate regarding the relative merits and disadvantages of single and double beam spectrophotometers continues today with unabated vigor despite the fact that, during the lifetime of spectrophotometry as an analytical tool, each design has enjoyed preeminence at various junctures.
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Shimadzu Technical Note in Applied Spectroscopy
Interferometers are nondispersive devices in which the combination of light rays results in regular patterns of constructive and destructive interference. This note consists of a brief description of certain types of interferometers, their applications, and their strength and weaknesses
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TOGAS - Tranformer Oil Gas Analysis System
The GC-14A based TOGAS System is a third generation instrument built for long term,accurate measurement of dissolved gases in mineral oil-based transformer oils
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TOGAS - Tranformer Oil Gas Analysis System
The analysis of gas in transformer oil is not a new requirement. Care and maintenace of expensive transformers has been facilitated by routinely sampling the transformer oil and determining the concentration of various gases
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TOC PC Quality Control Tracking
Growing regulatory demands have been placed on industries who must monitor either the water influent, effluent or both for levels of Total Organic Carbon (TOC). To meet these demands, analysis require a TOC analyzer capable of tracking Quality Control (QC) samples.
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Conditioning TOC Catalysts
There are several methods that may be used to condition and activate the Regular Sensitivity Catalyst. The 'regeneration' program available in the instrument software is often insufficient to thoroughly condition a new catalyst bed.
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An apple per day keeps the doctor away - Mycotoxins are a world-wide problem - Highly sensitive determination of the fungal toxin patulin
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Accute poisoning with a rat bait
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Organ transplantation - Determination of sirolimus and tacrolimus with HPLC/MS in whole blood
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Simultaneous determination of tryptophan, phenol, p-cresol and cholic acid in pretreated human blood
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Quantification of Acetylsalicylic Acid and ist Related Substance Salicylic Acid
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Computer-assisted Optimizatiuon in the Development of a HPLC method for the analysis for Amines
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A Rapid Method for the Determination of Amiodarone and ist Metabolite Desethylamiodarone
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High Speed Analysis of Explosives
A number of high-speed columns that employ the use of sub 2 micron particles have been fairly recently introduced and can be used for high-speed analysis of explosive compounds. Here, a high-speed explosives method was developed on a larger particle size fused core column that will provide a more rugged assay. Isocratic and gradient conditions were developed for a mixture of EPA 8330 explosive standards.
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Evaluation of UHPLC System Performance Under High Throughput Conditions
The use of UHPLC technology has continued to increase in LC applications as a way to reduce sample analysis turnaround times. A variety of applications in pharmaceutical and environmental areas with small particle columns will be presented that will demonstrate the throughput and performance that can be obtained with current UHPLC technology.
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Fast Analysis of Vitamins in Dietary Supplements Using LCMS
Utilizing an ultra-fast LCMS with high-speed scan capability and high-speed data acquisition to achieve good linearity and repeatability, as well as accurate quantitative analysis of water-soluble vitamins in dietary supplements.
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Evaluation of MS Scanning Speeds with Ultra Fast Liquid Chromatography
Accurate mass analysis of sharp chromatographic peaks obtained by high-speed LC requires ultra-fast MS detection capabilities. In this poster, a number of high-speed separations are evaluated with MS scanning speeds of up to 15,000 u/sec with polarity switching speeds of 15 msec.
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Protein Sequencing Using In-Source Decay
The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer can detect ions that are formed due to fragmentation within the ion source (ISD, In-Source Decay). When ISD occurs in analysis of proteins, primarily it is the c-type ion (Fig. 1) of the N-terminus that is detected. Up to now, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) has been used widely as a matrix for inducing ISD, but recently, 1,5-diaminonaphtalene (DAN) has been reported to be a more effective matrix in this regard (see References). Amino acid sequence information is easily acquired by detection of ISD ions using DAN, and highly homologous proteins can be investigated using homology searches.
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Analysis of Rubbers by FTIR - Method to Remove Calcium Carbonate in Rubbers
Calcium carbonate, a white-colored powder with the chemical formula CaCO3, is widely used in many applications which can be found all around us. For instance, one of its most obvious applications is its use as the principal ingredient of chalk. However, calcium carbonate is also widely used in rubbers and plastics, paper and tooth powder, etc. as a filling material.When measuring the infrared spectrum of rubber that contains calcium carbonate, a large calcium peak masks peaks originating from some of the rubber constituents, which could cause difficulties in qualitative analysis. Here we introduce a pretreatment method for removing the calcium carbonate from rubber that contains calcium carbonate.
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EDXRF Analysis of Incinerated Ash
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EDXRF Analysis of Lead in Lead free solder Materials
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Analysis of low-alloy Steel
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EDXRF Analysis of Oil
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EDXRF Analysis of Orchard leaves
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Analysis of Pharmaceutical Products
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EDXRF Analysis of Chromium, Mercury, Bromine, Lead and Cadmium in Plastic Materials
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EDXRF Analysis of Polymer Film
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EDXRF Analysis of Precious Metal
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Analysis of Trace Elements in Water using Ultra Thin Film (1)
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Analysis of Trace Elements in Water Ultra Thin Film (2)
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EDXRF Analysis of Sulfur in Oil
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EDXRF Analysis of Thin Film
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EDXRF Analysis of Vehicle Exhaust Particulates
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Go for Gold? Layer thickness determination using EDX
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Go for Gold? Layer thickness determination using EDX
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Lead in lead-free solder - EDX-720
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Determination of hazardous substances according to RoHS - Energy-dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer
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Brominated Flame Retardants-1 FTIR determination of brominated flame retardants following the rules of RoHS and WEEE using a single reflection accessory
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Brominated Flame Retardants (2) FTIR Determination of brominated Flame Retardants using an automated tool - RoHS Software
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Effect of resolution to vapor phase spectrum of HCL in the Infrared Spectroscopy
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Infrastructure of a circuit board - an observation of different layers made from NBR and cellulose
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Oil in water analysis under different European norms
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Measurement of different Sugar based samples like Sugar, honey, Syrup with FTIR Technique
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Fast determination of deuterated water in body fluids and natural waters
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Identification of brominated flame-retardants in polymers - FTIR-Spectroscopy - Method for compliance with the RoHS directive
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Kidneystones analysis by FTIR
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Truth lies in the must- Must content as wine quality indicator -FTIR-Spectrosocpy
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Double stitched provides more strength - Production control of fibres using FT-NIR
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Increased Productivity with NIR-FTIR technology
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Biodiesel Quality Control according to DIN EN 14105
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High Precision Diglycol determination with GC-2010
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Headspace Gas Chromatography with AOC-5000/ GC-2010: BETX in Water and aldehydes determination in printed colours
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The effect of Filter Time Constant in fast GC using the GC-2010: Application on kerosene analysis
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Determination of oil in water part II: Inection with OCI/GC-2010 ans SPL/GC-2010
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Flower Power- GC for quality control of Biodiesel
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Standard Cleaning and Calibration Procedure for TMA-50 and TMA-50H
This procedure is to be used for the maintenance and calibration of the TMA-50 and TMA-50H. The TMA, or Thermomechanical Analyzer, is a versatile instrument which measures the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), penetration, or tensile strength (mainly of thin films and limp fibers) of various materials. The TMA is almost always used to measure samples well before their point of degradation. However, some materials will be degraded both purposely and accidentally, leaving deposits in and on the measuring surfaces which must be cleaned.
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TOC-5000 PC Series Quick Setup
The directions below are designed a Quick Setup procedure so that the novice user can set up an analysis in just a few minutes.
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Measurement of TC and IC in Hydrogen Peroxide (TOC-001)
The Shimadzu TOC-5000/5050 can measure TC and IC (TOC=TC-IC) in high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide without any pretreatment. Therefore, accurate measurement may be achieved without danger of contamination and loss of time due to the pretreatment method.
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High Precision Measurement of Total Carbon Dioxide in Sea Water (TOC-002)
The Green House Effect is the effect of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and is an environmental phenomena being investigated globally. Investigation of the circulation of CO2 in the environment, the role of ocean absorption of CO2, and the changes in the quantity of inorganic carbons (of which CO2 is a portion) in the oceans are important keys to understanding this phenomena
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Measurement of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon (NPOC) in Salt Water (TOC-003)
Salt water and/or seawater samples are frequently analyzed for total organic carbon/non-purgeable organic carbon (TOC/NPOC) using Total Organic Carbon analyzers. The TOC-5000 series of analyzers employs the 680C catalytically aided combustion technique. This technique minimizes the potential interferences and the corrosive effects normally associated with high salt samples.
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Measurement of CO2 in an Ethanolamine Solution (TOC-004)
In an effort to reduce the amount of CO2 discharged into the atmosphere, several technologies have been developed. One of these is to absorb the CO2 typically discharged from a fossil fuel power plant into an Ethanolamine scrubbing solution. The CO2 can be easily measured using the inorganic carbon (IC) measuring capability of the TOC-5000 series Total Organic Carbon analyzer.
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Determining the Correct Concentrations of TOC in Purified Water & Water For Injection
The need for increased sensitivity in the pharmaceutical industry has lead to many stricter requirements for analysing samples for total organic carbon (TOC). The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is regarded as one of the foremost authorities on standards for water for injection (WFI) and Purified Water (PW). The USP method that details analysing WFI and PW for TOC is USP23.
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Determination of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Solid Samples (TOC-2)
Our environmental situation, which is getting more and more critical, forces politicians as well as scientists to find possibilities for the minimization of pollutant emissions. One way for a pollutant reduction is the incineration of organic waste instead of disposing it. This possibility is the target of the German regulation “TA-Abfall” (Technical Instruction-Waste)
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TOC Determination by the Addition Method TOC=POC+NPOC (TOC-5)
Current measurement methods in TOC analysis (Total Organic Carbon) are the so-called difference method and the NPOC method (Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon)
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Determination of the TOC Content in Landfill Leachate (TOC-6)
TOC analysis is a simple method to measure the total content of inorganic and organic carbon in aqueous solutions as well as in solid samples. Since TOC analysis is a very sensitive method with detection limits of about 4 ppm, it offers the possibility to perform secondary analysis without much expenditure.
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Water Management in the manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products with TOC-5000A
Water is a raw material in the manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products and is also used for cleaning. This Application News edition features reports on the ability of the Shimadzu TOC-5000A to accomodate the requirements of GMP, JP (Japanese Pharmacopoeia) and USP (United States Pharmacopoeia) as well as comparisons with competitor TOC analyzers.
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TOC Measuring of Electroplating Solution with TOC-5000A
Organic additives are added to plating solution used in the plating process for printed circuit boards. And the additive concentration effects the drawing qualities and thermal shock of the plate.
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Drinking Water: TOC Analysis / When You Absolutely Need To Know
On Dec. 16, 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated two drinking water regulations of interest to the environmental testing and analytical community. The goal of the first regulation, the Stage 1 Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR)1, is to protect customers from disinfectants and disinfectant byproducts (DBP), while the primary goal of the second regulation, the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR)1, is to reduce microbial contamination in drinking water.
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The X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis for Paper
The X-Ray Fluorescence analysis takes an important part for analyses for copy paper. It can determine not only components of paper, but also the deposit amount of component applied to coated paper or art paper. It is also used for analyses for clay, paint, starch, etc. as an additive paper.
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The X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis for Talc
The X-Ray fluorescence analysis was carried out for talc and used for anti-friction composition, chemical, cosmetics, spinning, paper making, etc. For the qualitative analysis the powder press method was used and for the quantitative analysis the glassbeads method was used.
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The X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis for Toner
Toner consists of particles of 1 to 10 &#181m made by mixing pigment like carbon black with resin like epoxy and crushing it. The X-Ray Fluorescence analysis is the optimum method for control of inorganic components like Fe and Zn in material or products.
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Fraction Collection Options with Discovery VP
The Discovery VP preparative system is designed for purification of compounds generated by reaction processes such as combinatorial chemistry and multi-step organic synthesis, or for isolation of analytes in naturally occurring substances.
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Vitamin Analysis with an Integrated HPLC System
In the last few years, vitamin supplements have become increasingly important to consumers who are concerned about maintaining the recommended daily allowances of certain vitamins, or who are focusing on specific vitamins that show promise of disease prevention or other health benefits.
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Total Nitrogen Analysis: A New Perspective on TOC
Monitoring the nitrogen content is of great importance in many industries for many reasons. In waters and wastewaters the most interesting forms of nitrogen, in order of decreasing oxidation state, are nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen1. Organic nitrogen includes such natural materials as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, urea, and numerous synthetic organic materials. In excessive amounts, nitrate contributes to the illness known as methemoglobinemia in infants. As a preventative measure, the current EPA-imposed maximum contaminant level (MCL) for nitrate in drinking water is 10 mg/L.
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High Throughput Analysis of Anti-Epileptic Drugs
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by varying intensity of seizures. The exact cause of epilepsy is unknown, but any kind of trauma to the brain such as head injury, high fever, large doses of drugs and other toxic substances, or interruption of blood flow to the brain can contribute to seizures.
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Steroid Analysis with an Integrated HPLC System
Steroids are a structurally unique type of drug, most commonly used for anti-inflammatory purposes. In general, they can be used to treat asthma, arthritis, allergies, and may be combined with other medications to help prevent the body from rejecting transplanted organs.
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Aromatic Acid Analysis with an Integrated HPLC System
Aromatic acids are derivatives of phenol and have a wide range of practical uses. Compounds such as benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid are common preservatives in beverages, snack foods, and cereals. Others including salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid show analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic properties.
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Sample Table Importing Using the TOC Control V Software
The TOC Control V Software is designed to adapt to the needs of our most versatile users. To increase the user-friendliness, the TOC Control V software incorporates an import function that allows the user to import a sample table directly from an ASCII *.txt file.
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Creating and Verifying an Electronic Signature Using the TOC Control V Software
Due to the requirements of the 21 CFR Part 11 rule, software systems must include features such as user access rights, audit trails, and electronic signatures. The Shimadzu TOC Control V software strives to fully comply with 21 CFR Part 11 by adopting these features. This quick guide will focus solely on the implementation of electronic signatures using the TOC Control V software.
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UV Probe Quick Setup for Photometric Module
The directions below are designed as a Quick Setup procedure for the Photometric module. This will enable the novice user to setup a quantitative analysis, such as a calibration curve, in just a few minutes.
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UV Prove Quick Setup for Kinetics Module
The directions below are designed as a Quick Setup procedure for the Kinetics module. This will enable the novice user to setup a Time Course measurement in just a few minutes.
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12 Plus One Cell Holder Increases Productivity
The new 12 plus One Cell Holder improves your productivity in a wide variety of UV-Vis applications. Designed to accept both standard and semi-micro cells, it can automatically process up to 12 samples versus the double beam reference.
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New and Improved TOC Online Sampling Method for Water and Wastewater
The TOC value is an index for the total amount of organic compounds in water and is gaining increasing popularity in process analysis.
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Introduction of the new UV-1700 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer
The UV-visible spectra are often broad and no special care is required with the resolution of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer in general. However, the spectrophotometer resolution is extremely important for the analysis of the samples with a benzene ring or samples with sharp peaks. That is, higher resolution permits more accurate qualitative analysis of peaks.
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Quantitative analysis of cis, trans, and vinyl in polybutadiene using the single-reflection ATR accessory
Application News No. A308, A304, A299, A294, and A271 previously introduced that the single-reflection ATR accessory is widely used, for qualitative analysis in particular, as it requires no pretreatment, can handle any sample shape, can analyze small sample volumes, and causes minimum damage to the prism.
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Liquid Sample Analysis with the MIRacle Single-Reflection ATR Accessory
The liquid-film method and multiple-reflection ATR (horizontal ATR) method are frequently used for liquid- sample analysis. Each method offers its own merit: the liquid-film method allows adjustment of the absorption intensity (sensitivity) with the cell thickness; and the multiple-reflection ATR method allows easy cleaning after sampling analysis.
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Measurements of thin films on a metal substrate using reflection infrared devices
The semiconductor industry has lost none of its research drive over recent years, and this research has resulted in the TVs, PCs and other familiar devices that surround us. A non-contact, non-destructive, and non-vacuum technology is required to evaluate these semiconductors
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Reflective LCD cell-gap measuring system using Multi-Spec 1500
Liquid-crystal panels (LCDS) have become increasingly important over recent years for various applications such as PCs and mobile phones. LCDs are available in various types to suit each application and the measurement of the liquid crystal thickness (cell gap) is an important topic in determining the panel characteristics.
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Introduction of ATR objective with sharp GE prism
Like the transmission method and specular reflection method, the infrared microscope-ATR method is very commonly used for the analysis of minute objects or regions. The ATR method simply requires the sample to be in close contact with the prism, eliminating pretreatment that is necessary for the transmission method. In addition, it allows analysis of wider varieties of samples than the specular reflection method.
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REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE SHIMADZU DTG-60
The Shimadzu DTG-60 is a Simultaneous Differential Thermogravimetric analyzer which combines a heat -flux type DTA with a Roberval type TGA which measure both changes in physical state of a sample, as well as weight change, as a function of temperature, over time.
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Reproducible Gradients at Ultra-Low Flow Rates
A growing number of analysts are using techniques such as microbore HPLC and LC-MS which require flow rates anywhere from 10 uL/Min to 200 uL/min. Several factors must be considered when working in this range: appropriate back pressure for reliable pump performance, efficient mixing in a very limited volume, and reduction of dead volume to minimize run time and bandspreading.
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REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE SHIMADZU DTG-60
The Shimadzu DTG-60 is a Simultaneous Differential Thermogravimetric analyzer which combines a heat -flux type DTA with a Roberval type TGA which measure both changes in physical state of a sample, as well as weight change, as a function of temperature, over time
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Reproducibility of Shimadzu 5ul Cell
A 5uL cell (SSI PN 220-92910-20; Helma P/N 105.210 QS 10mm) can be used when only very small quantities of sample are available for measurement. The objective of this test was to confirm reproducibility of the Shimadzu 5uL cell results.
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Elimination of CO2 and H2O using the FTIR 8900 and Parker FTIR Purge Gas System 75-45NA
Purging an FTIR provides benefits to both the instrument and customer. By purging the system with low moisture air, the instrument is benefited by actively preventing deterioration of the optical components of the hardware, especially the beamsplitter, which is usually hygroscopic in nature. The customer is also benefited when this is matched with low CO2 containing purge air by eliminating interferences from the large CO2 band and water vapor bands.
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Analog and Photon Counting Detection in Fluorescence Measurements
Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used in the physical and life sciences due to its selectivity and sensitivity. A number of detectors are used in fluorescence measurements including photomultipliers (PMTs), diodes, and CCDs. In many commercially available fluorescence instruments, photomultipliers are used as detectors as a result of their favorable response times, wavelength sensitivity, radiant sensitivity, and wide dynamic range.
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SIL-HTc COMPETITIVE CARRYOVER PERFORMANCE ANALYZED BY LC-MS/MS: a Collaborative Study between Shimadzu Marketing Center and Covance Laboratories
Advances in the field of drug discovery have resulted in a tremendous production of potentially therapeutic compounds and, thus, another “bottleneck” downstream from synthesis to drug development.
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Comparison of three TOC methods on a single analyzer
In the past, persulfate-based total organic carbon (TOC) analyzers were noted for their ability to achieve highly sensitive TOC analysis. However, with the advantages came disadvantages
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The HPLC Analysis of Underivatized Amino Acids
Because they lack suitable chromophores, the traditional approach to analyzing amino acids by HPLC is either pre- or post-column derivatization and detection by fluorescence. While this approach yields excellent sensitivity, the derivatization process is time consuming and may introduce variability from run to run.
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The HPLC Analysis of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates from simple sugars to oligo- and poly-saccharides represent an HPLC detection challenge in that they are non-chromophoric. Traditional approaches to their detection, RI and UV (195 - 205nm), are problematic due to issues of poor sensitivity, long detector equilibration times and an inability to handle gradient elution.
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The Shimadzu ELSD-LT Evaporative Light Scattering Detector
Evaporative Light Scattering (ELS) detection has entered the HPLC detection mainstream in recent years. It is a valuable complement to UV, PDA and MS, but it is also a preferred detector for such applications as carbohydrates, phospholipids, triglycerides and surfactants. The ELSD makes a light scattering measurement of target analytes that have been dried of mobile phase through evaporation.
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The HPLC Analysis of Black Cohosh Using an INA Method
The Institute for Nutraceutical Advancement (INA) is a consortium of research and commercial laboratories whose mission is the development of standardized methods for the analysis of natural products. A myriad of nutraceutical products is available to health-conscious consumers.
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New Breakthrough in Wet Chemical TOC Analysis
The goal of this discussion is to demonstrate that the Shimadzu TOC-VW can effectively oxidize the Humic Acid (HA) matrix at high accuracy and precision levels never before witnessed by the wet chemical TOC community. The Shimadzu TOC-VW Carbon analyzer is the only TOC on the market that uses three oxidation techniques of UV light, Heat, and persulfate in a single analyzer
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New Breakthrough in Wet Chemical TOC Analysis
The goal of this discussion is to demonstrate that the Shimadzu TOC-VW can effectively oxidize the Humic Acid (HA) matrix at high accuracy and precision levels never before witnessed by the wet chemical TOC community. The Shimadzu TOC-VW Carbon analyzer is the only TOC on the market that uses three oxidation techniques of UV light, Heat, and persulfate in a single analyzer.
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A Modified INA Method for the Analysis of Milk Thistle Using
One of the widely available nutraceutical products seen in supermarkets is a powdered form of Milk Thistle or silybum marianum, derived from the plant native to Mediterranean Europe. It has been used from ancient times as a liver tonic. The milky sap produced by Milk Thistle contains flavolignans, collectively known as the silymarin group. Growing consumer interest, combined with the low cost and growing availability of herbal supplements and remedies, has driven the need for standardization of these products.
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High Accuracy Measurement of TOC below 5ppb Levels
The current regulatory demands of the industry require analytical instruments that can measure at increasingly lower detection limits with high precision and accuracy. For example, some ultrapure applications in TOC require trace level detection to ensure highly accurate and precise results.
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Automatic Export using TOC Control V Software Version 1.05.01 and Greater
The automatic ASCII export can be enabled in [the Administration] window of the software.
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Sample Table Importing Using the TOC Control V Software
The TOC Control V Software is designed to adapt to the needs of our most versatile users.
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Quality Control Tracking using the TOC Control V Software
Due to increased regulatory demands for high quality data, industries must have in place a stringent Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) program. Industries and Laboratories, who monitor water influent, effluent, or both for levels of Total Organic Carbon (TOC), must be able to validate the TOC data results with Quality Control (QC) samples.
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TNb determination in the monitoring and control of municipal wastewater treatment plants
Regulations regarding continuous improvements in water protection, which accompany the changing needs of a growing metropolis, greatly increase the responsibilities and demands of municipal wastewater treatment plant operators.
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Around the clock operation: The TOC-4100 in wastewater treatment plants
The central wastewater treatment plant in Ans-bach, Germany, processes, since the start up operation in 1980, the wastewater of a city of 40.000 people and all local industrial wastewater, particularly from the meat processing companies in the area.
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Humic Acid- Complex Problem, Simple Solution
The goal of this article is to demonstrate that the Shimadzu TOC-VW can effectively oxidize the Humic Acid (HA) matrix.
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DNA Detection Limits
Shimadzu UV-Visible instruments can be used effectively for applications within the biotechnology field. The Bio-Mini-1240 and BioSpec-1601 specifically are well suited to these applications because of their built-in software features.
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Evaporative Light Scattering Detection as a Complement to UV for Flavor Profiling Peppers by HPLC
This data supports the use of 280nm UV for determining only the capsaicins as it is highly selective for those constituents. The ELSD-LT offers numerous advantages: better baseline response for the gradient method, and detection of all flavor constituents, both chromophoric and non-chromophoric, in one run.
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ELSD and UV - Complementary Detectors
Reversed phase HPLC with UV detection at 210nm has been used to determine constituents in commercial Stevia products, but the methodology is limited in its ability to separate all components of interest, especially when higher order oligosaccharides are present.
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Measuring TOC in Electroplating Solution through Wet Chemical Oxidation
Organic additives are used in electroplating solutions; these additives are used in a variety of electroplating applications form circuit board production to jewelry manufacturing. The concentrations of these additives affect the overall performance of the plating; so in many cases it is important to accurately monitor the addition of these additives.
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5310 Total Organic Carbon and Waste Water
The organic carbon in water and wastewater is composed of a number of organic compounds in various oxidation states.
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MDLs for Nitrogen Species by TrAAcS and Shimadzu
The method detection limits (MDLs) of high temperature oxidation (HTO); Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer with TNM-1 TN unit) and wet chemical digestion (WCD); Bran & Luebbe TrAAcs 800 Autoanalyzer) were compared using various reagent grade organic chemicals containing nitrogen:
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Measuring Samples Per USP 26 Using Shimadzu TOC-VW
Shimadzu’s TOC-VW analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Rev. 26 method <643>. The TOC-VW analyzer utilizes three forms of oxidation (heat, UV, and persulfate) to provide a low maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0005 mg per liter.
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Measuring Samples Per USP 26 Using Shimadzu TOC-VC*H
Shimadzu’s TOC-VC*H analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Rev. 26 Method <643>. The TOC-VC*H analyzer utilizes 680°C heat and platinum catalyst to provide a lower maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0040 mg per liter.
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Shimadzu’s Unique TOC/TN Sampling System Improves
Shimadzu’s TOC-VC 8-port valve sampling system was developed with the needs of the user in mind. This unique system saves laboratory time and work while increasing productivity and efficiency. This is the most capable and functional sampling system ever developed
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Determining the Correct Concentrations of TOC in Purified Water and WFI
The need for increased sensitivity in the pharmaceutical industry has lead to many stricter requirements for analyzing samples for TOC.
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The HPLC Determination of Salicin and Polyphenolic Glucosides
Extract from the bark of the White or European Willow, salix alba, has been used as folk medicine for many years in treating inflammation, pain and fever. The principle component of the water extract from salix bark is salicin, 2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl-â-D-glucopyranoside, a human-metabolic precursor to salicylic acid.
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High-speed tensile testing is possible with Autograph
In response to requests for faster testing, we've developed a high-speed model. 6000 mm/min high-speed tensile testing is possible. (1000 mm/min with the standard model.)
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With Autograph, cycle tests can be run for 100,000 cycles!
Do you sense that product reliability is a bigger issue than ever? Considering product application environments, durability needs to be evaluated to about 100,000 cycles.
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Reading data from multiple channels with Autograph
The common method for evaluating the strength of automotive or other parts is applying strain gauges on parts to determine which areas will deform, collecting the strain data using
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True Strain Control testing on Autograph!
Tensile tests are often conducted with constant tensile rate applied to the specimen. However, tensile
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Peeling Tests on Heated Adhesive Tape
In the semiconductor industry, with the increase in the demand, improvements in production efficiency and the quality of products are becoming more and more important.
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Hold specimens with no load before testing (to protect specimen)
The system where TRAPEZIUM2 is used with the Autograph AG-IS or EZGraph offers the convenience
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Autograph Measures Static Friction Coefficients and Kinetic Friction Coefficients
The Autograph performs tensile, compression, and bending tests on specimens to evaluate their characteristics. By attaching special test jigs, the Autograph can also determine the coefficients of static and kinetic friction between plastic films, and between specimens made of different materials such as plastics, wood, and metals.
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EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT RESOLUTION ON ASSESSMENT OF DNA PURITY
The traditional method for quantification and assessment of purity of DNA samples is spectrophotometric measurement at 260 and 280nm (1). It is generally accepted that a sample of pure, double-stranded DNA of 50 µg/mL will have an absorbance at 260nm of 1.0 and that the ratio of absorbance at 260 and 280nm of this sample will be greater than 1.8 (2)
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The Determination of Drug Composition and Manufacturer through FTIR Analysis
FTIR has been used for many years to identify or confirm the presence of many drugs. Through the use of spectral databases, FTIR provides a relatively easy way to determine an unknown drug
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ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY DATA SHEET No.9
Calibration Curves of Standard Solutions Using AA-6200
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Determination of Metal Elements in Montmorillonite by AAS
Various ceramic materials are widely used in many fields and include oxides, silicates and their minerals as well as clay minerals.
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Measurement of Trace Elements by Graphite Furnace AAS
Concerning measurement of components in iron and steel, 17 components are specified in the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) in section G1257
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Measurement of Metal Elements Using the HVG-1
Environmental destruction and environmental protection are major topics in newspaprts and other mass media and the need to measure extreme traces of harmful metals promptly and precisely is necessary.
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Determination of Phosphorus, Lead and Zinc in Water by Atomic and UV-VIS Absorption Spectrometry.
As the number of substances that pollute our water grows, the problems of establishing and maintaining water quality become complex.
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Analysis of Aluminum Alloy by Computer Controlled AA-660
AA spectrometry is being applied in various fields as an essential for the determination of metal elements.
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Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry of Plants Using a Hydrochloric Acid Extraction Method
AA spectrophotometers, which are standard instruments for metal, are widely applied in the measurement of plant samples.
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Determination of Elemental Metals Using the HVG-1
This is to show examples of measurement of Hg, Sb and Bi in wastewater using the BHG-1 hydride vapor generator.
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Composition analysis of thin film by atomic absorption analysis
A thin film of indium, antimony and tellurium was formed on a quartz glass plate, in ultrahigh vacuum.
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Determination of Metal Elements in Organic Solvent by Electrothermal AA Spectrometry
Introduced in this article are examples of determination of lead and arsenic in naphtha and copper in oil.
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Analysis of Commercially Available Standard Materials by AA-6700
Introduced in this article are the results of measurements of some standard materials and the methods with the sample pretreatment.
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Analysis of Berberine in Crude Drugs
The SPD-M6A, employing a photodiode array sensor, is capable of storing data in the wavelength range of 195 nm to 870 nm, while observing the chromatogram at two wavelengths selected arbitraily in real time.
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Analysis of Ointment
By using HPLC, active ingredients in products can be identified and determined in a short time, only by a very simple pretreatment.
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Applications of HPLC to Pharmacognosy
Active ingredients in crude drugs vary in contents depending on the sampling time and place of origin, and the qualty evaluation of the crude drugs is determined by the contents of the ingredients.
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Applications in Food Analysis (16)
The fungicide methods shown here, to protect plants and fruit, were adopted from the reversed phase ion-pair chromatographic technique for these substances
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Application of Preparative Liquid Chromatography (3)
In order to successfully conduct a recycle separation, it is necessary to reduce extra-column band broadening.
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MEASURING POC AND NPOC USING TOC-V CSH
The chemical and physical properties of organic solvents affect their solubility in water.
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Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbone with a Multi-Functional Fluorescence Detector
The multi-functional fluorescence detector RF-550, capable of setting or varying the excitation and fluorescence wavelength by the time program is a new tool useful in simultaneous analysis of plural components differing in the detection optimum wavelength.
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High Sensitivity and High Selectivity Analysis of Ammonia with HPLC.
Quantitative measurement of ammonia is being performed in a wide field, including quality control, measurement in working environment, monitoring of environmental atmosphere, as well as in the field of biochemistry.
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Analysis of Hair Tonics
Shown in this application note is a chromatogram of Hinokitiol standard, and one in hair tonic. In this analysis, the hair tonic was diluted with methanol and a sample of it was injected into the HPLC for analysis.
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Matrix Modifier for Furnace AA
Matrix Modifiers are also known as interference suppressants or chemical modifiers. Matrix modifier is a generic term for a substance used to achieve various effects, such as increased sensitivity or repeatability.
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Stability of Flame Measurements with an autosampler
This Application News introduces the flame measurements of the elements Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb over a long period, using a standard titanium burner head.
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Estimation of uncertainty in flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry
This Application News presents a sample of uncertainty calculation for flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry on calcium in mineral water.
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Analysis of Citrus Leaves by AA-6800 NaF
The following is an example of flame analysis for a standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIST-1572 Citrus Leaves. The analysis element was sodium.
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Analysis of Rice Flour with AA-6800
The following is an example of flame analysis for standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIST-1568 Rice Flour. The analysis element was arsenic.
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Analysis of Pond Sediment Using AA-6800
The following is an example of flame analysis for standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIES-2 Pond Sediment. The analysis element was arsenic.
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Analysis of Standard Substances Using AA-6800
The following is an example of flame analysis for standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIST-1643D Trace Elements in Water. The analysis element was arsenic.
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Analysis of Citrus Leaves by AA-6800 HVG
The following is an example of flame analysis for standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIST-1572 Citrus Leaves. The analysis element was arsenic.
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Analysis of Citrus Leaves by AA-6800 MGF
The following is an example of flame analysis for standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIST-1572 citrus leaves. And, the analysis element was magnesium.
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Analysis of Standard Substances Using AA-6800
The following is an example of flame analysis for a standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIST-1572 Citrus Leaves. And the analysis element was potassium.
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Analysis of Citrus Leaves by AA-6800 CAF
The following is an example of flame analysis for standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIST-1572 Citrus Leaves. And, the analysis element was calcium.
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Analysis of Standard Substances Using AA-6800
The following is an example of flame analysis for standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIST-1643d trace elements in water. And, the analysis element was strontium.
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Analysis of Standard Substances Using AA-6800
The following is an example of flame analysis for standard material using the AA-6800. The standard material used for analysis was NIST-1643d trace elements in water. And, the analysis element was lithium.
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TYPES OF TOC DETECTORS
Total Organic Carbon (TOC), can be detected by using either the Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) or the conductivity detector. The NDIR is more popular than the conductivity detector, due to stability and interference issues. NDIR detectors measure carbon, or more specifically CO2 in the gas phase, while conductivity detectors measure CO2 in the liquid or aqueous phase.
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EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT RESOLUTION ON ASSESSMENT OF DNA PURITY
The traditional method for quantification and assessment of purity of DNA samples is spectrophotometric measurement at 260 and 280nm.
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Eppendorf UVette with Adapter UVette
The purpose of this application is to test the effectiveness of the Eppendorf® UVette on several Shimadzu spectrophotometers.
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Improving TOC Productivity: Four Solutions to over range samples
TOC measurements are becoming more and more assimilated into today's manufacturing protocols and processes. Whether it is qualifying raw material, quality assuring of a product or monitoring effluent for discharge; stopping production can be expensive. For this reason the TOC-V series of instruments offers four solutions to over range samples; automatic selection of best of three calibration curves, automatic reduction of injection volume, automatic dilution of over range sample, and automatic concentration correction for bench top dilutions.
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A guide for the TOC-Vc to low level analysis
A 2 page guide for the TOC-Vc to low level analysis. The guide covers your environment conditions, preparing standards and the preferred method of analysis.
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A guide for the TOC-Vw to low level analysis
A 2 page guide for the TOC-Vw to low level analysis. The guide covers your environment conditions, preparing standards and the preferred method of analysis.
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Analysis of Amoxicillin using the LCMS-2010EV and the LCMS-IT-TOF
<p>Amoxicillin is a drug belonging to a class of compounds known as b-lactam antibiotics.&nbsp; Amoxicillin, a member of the penicillin family, is used most often to treat a number of bacterial infections including H. influenzae, N. gonorrhoea, E. coli, Pneumococci, Streptococci, and some strains of Staphylococci.&nbsp; It is thought that these penicillin-derived compounds work to stop the bacteria from multiplying by inhibiting its cell wall synthesis.&nbsp; </p>
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Using the Shimadzu GC System in the Fuel-Grade Ethanol Production Laboratory
In the case of the ethanol production plant, GC analysis is used to determine the total amount of denaturant added to the final ethanol product prior to shipment. This analysis is required in certain ethanol markets. The denaturant, being a petroleum distillate product, can contain hundreds of different compounds. The GC analysis for ASTM D5501 certification measures the amount of methanol, ethanol, and total amount of denaturant as area percents. These area percents are corrected, per the ASTM method, to give corrected volume percentages for these materials.
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Using the Shimadzu HPLC System in the Fuel-Grade Ethanol Production Laboratory
Liquid Chromatography (LC) is any chromatographic procedure in which the moving phase is a liquid. In most cases, a stationary phase is also necessary. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) has become the most widely applicable method of chromatographic analysis. Through use of highly efficient column materials (the stationary phase), pumping systems that provide a consistent flow of the mobile phase, and detection components designed to accommodate the needs of the analysis, HPLC is now a commonly used technique for monitoring the progress of the fermentation in the ethanol production laboratory.
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Structural Analysis of Glycopeptides (RNase B) Utilizing Accurate MSn Measurement
Glycoproteins are an essential component of cell membranes, and elucidation of their functions in relation to oncogenesis and/or viral infections is receiving attention in the search for cures, treatments, and vaccines. As glycoprotein diversity plays a key role in intercellular recognition, determination of sugar chain structure, and the sequence of amino acids bonded to sugar chains, is required for functional prediction. The LCMS-IT-TOF is ideal for sugar chain analysis as it is capable of producing high mass accuracy MSn spectra; this ability provides the power to elucidate the often complex sequences of these compounds. Moreover, analysis of small quantities of a biological sample is possible when combining the LCMS-IT-TOF with a nanoESI interface.
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Fast LC Analysis of Soft Drinks
This application note details the separation and detection of five beverage compounds with fast LC gradient conditions.
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Analysis of Polyphenols in Green Tea using the LCMS-IT-TOF
The polyphenols or catechins in green tea are known to possess many health benefits for individuals. These species possess antioxidative activity and are also thought to have chemopreventive effects against certain cancers. The antioxidative activity of catechins is theorized to help improve hypertension, reduce inflammation, and improve cognitive dysfunction in the elderly all of which are beneficial to one’s health. The analysis of this class of compounds will continue to gain in importance as more individuals and companies (particularly those in the nutraceutical industry) discuss their potential health benefits.
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GC Analysis of Biodiesel for Free and Total Glycerines by ASTM-6584
Rising prices of diesel fuel are creating a market for alternative sources. One of those sources is diesel fuel derived from Vegetable Oil.Diesel fuel made from plants has the potential to contain glycerols in the form of free glycerin, mono, di and trigl
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High-Speed, High-Resolution Analytical Applications (Part 9) Simultaneous Determination of Tryptophan Metabolites
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Analysis of Biofuel (Part 2) Determination of Formic Acid, Acetic Acid, and Propionic Acid in Biodiesel - Diesel Fuel Blend
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Application of High-Speed, High-Resolution Analysis (Part 5) Analysis of Artificial Colorings
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Application of High-Speed, High-Resolution Analysis (Part 4) Analysis of Cephem Antibiotics
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Application of High-Speed, High-Resolution Analysis (Part 3) Analysis of Isothiocyanates and Sinignin
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Analysis of Biofuel (Part 1) Determination of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and Triglycerides in Biodiesel Blended Fuel
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Analysis of Natamycin in Cheese
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Analysis of α-Lipoic Acid in Dietary Supplement
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Analysis of N-Methylcarbamate Pesticides in Foods
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High Speed, High Resolution Analytical Applications (Part 2) Analysis of Isoflavones in Soy
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High Speed, High Resolution Analytical Applications (Part 1)Introducing Newly-Developed “Shim-pack XR-ODS” Column
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Determination of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside in Black Soybeans
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Determination of Polyether Antibiotics in Animal Feeds (Part 2) Analysis using Fluorometric Detection
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Determination of Polyether Antibiotics in Animal Feeds (Part 1) Analysis by Post-column VIS Photometric Derivatization Method
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Determination of Quinoxaline-2-Carboxylic Acid in Pork
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GPC Cleanup Methods in Pesticides Residue Analysis of Food(Part2)
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Analysis of Capsaicinoids in Spices
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Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium by Post-column Derivatization Method
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Analysis of Impurities in Drugs by Prominence Series UV-VIS Detectors (Part 2)
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Analysis of Sudan Dyes in Foods
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Analysis of Canthaxanthin and Astaxanthin
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Analysis of Malachite Green in Cultured Fish (Part 2) Simultaneous Analysis with Leucomalachite Green
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Determination of Coenzyme Q10 in Food
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Determination of Drugs in Blood Plasma by “Co-Sense for BA” (Part 7)
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Analysis of Impurities in Drugs by Prominence Series UV-VIS Detectors
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Analysis of Bromate by Newly Developed Shim-pack IC-Bromate Column
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Analysis of Malachite Green in Cultured Fish
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Analysis of Amino Acids in Vinegar
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Analysis of Hyaluronic Acid
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Analysis of Lycopene and β-Carotene in Tomato
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Determination of Benzoyl Peroxide in Foods
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Analysis of Tricyclic Antidepressants
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Determination of Drugs in Blood Plasma by “Co-Sense for BA” (Part 6)
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Analysis of Enrofloxacin in Broiled Eels
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Analysis of Glyphosate in Drinking Water by HPLC
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Analysis of Iprodione, Asulam, Thiophanate-methyl, and Siduron in Drinking Water by HPLC
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Analysis of Diquat in Drinking Water by HPLC
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Analysis of ClO2 -, ClO3 -, and ClO2 in Tap Water by Ion Chromatography
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Analysis of NO2-N in Drinking Water by Ion Chromatography
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Direct Injection of Blood Plasma for the Determination of Drugs using “Co-Sense for BA” (Part 5)
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Analysis of Chlorogenic Acid in Coffee
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Direct Injection of Blood Plasma for the Determination of Drugs using “Co-Sense for BA” (Part 4)
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Determination of Catechins in Tea
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Analysis of Anionic Surfactants by HPLC in Accordance with the Revised Water Quality Testing Method
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Analysis of Bromate by Post-column Ion Chromatography
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Analysis of Cyanide Ion and Cyanogen Chloride by Post-column Ion Chromatography
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Determination of Alliin in Garlic
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Determination of Theanine in Tea
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Application of Evaporative Light Scattering Detector ELSD-LT (Part 3) Analysis of Surfactants
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Determination of Sucralose in Soft Drinks
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Analysis of Pesticides Residues by HPLC
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Analysis of Voglibose by Post-column Fluorometric Detection Method
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Application of Evaporative Light Scattering Detector ELSD-LT (Part 2) Analysis of Oligosaccharides in Beer
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Direct Injection of Blood Plasma for the Determination of Drugs using “Co-Sense for BA” (Part3)
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Analysis of Amino Acids in Fermented Food and Drinks
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Application of Evaporative Light-Scattering Detector “ELSD-LT”(Part1) Analysis of Triglycerides in Cooking Oil
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Determination of Water-Soluble Vitamins in “Foods with Nutrient Function Claims”
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Determination of Hydrocarbon Types in Diesel Fuel According to the JPI* Method *(Japan Petroleum Institute)
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Direct Injection of Blood Plasma for the Determination of Drugs using “Co-Sense for BA” (Part 2)
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Direct Injection of Blood Plasma for the Determination of Drugs using “Co-Sense for BA” (Part 1)
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HPLC Analysis of Isocyanuric Acid and LAS Anionic Surfactant by the JWWA* Method (* Japan Water Works Association)
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HPLC Analysis of Carbofuran, Methomyl, and Carbaryl by the JWWA* Method (* Japan Water Works Association)
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Analysis of Phenolic Antioxidants in Food
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Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Aluminum Ions using On-column Derivatization (Part 2) - Application to the Analysis of luminum Ions in Total Parenteral Nutrition Solutions
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Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Aluminum Ions using On-column Derivatization (Part 1)
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Analysis of Polyether Antibiotics in Animal Feed
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Analysis of Potassium Bromate in Bread
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Analysis of Bromate Ions in Drinking Water
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Analysis of Animal Drug (2)
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Shim-pack HT-ODS ・New High Throughput HPLC Column
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Analysis of Sulfurous Acid Ion
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Study of Analytical Conditions for Aldehydes in Ambient Air
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Analysis of Bisphenol A using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
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Determination of Fumonisins in Corn
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Determination of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde in Environmental Air
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New Standard ODS Column “Shim-pack VP-ODS” Supports
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Determination of Microcystins in Blue-green Algae in Lake Water
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Analysis of Chlorophyll (a) in Seawater
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Analysis of Proteins and Peptides using LC-MS
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Analysis of Sudan Dyes and Para Red using LC-MS
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Analysis Using Dual Ion Source DUIS-2010 (Part 2)
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Accurate Mass Analysis of Flavonoids by LCMS-IT-TOF
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Analysis Using Dual Ion Source DUIS-2010(Part1)
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Analysis of Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Using LC/MS
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Drug Analysis Using “Co-Sense for BA” LC/MS System (2)
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LC-MSAnalysis of Compounds Related to Nucleic Acids
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Simultaneous Analysis of Pesticides in Environment Water using LC-MS
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Simultaneous Analysis of Pesticides using LC-MS
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Analysis of Catechins Using LCMS-2010EV
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Simultaneous Detection by MS, PDA and Fluorescence Detectors with LCMS-2010A System
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Simultaneous Analysis of Carbamate Pesticides with LC-MS
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Analysis of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics(Gentamicins & Neomycin)(1)
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Analysis of N-nitroso-fenfluramine using LC-MS
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Analysis of aflatoxins using LCMS-2010A
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Analysis of Microcystins using LS-MS (No. 2)
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Measurement of Enzyme Activity with the UV-3101PC Kinetics Software Package
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Reflective LCD cell-gap measuring system using MultiSpec-1500
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Analysis of Vegetable Oils using Gas Chromatography
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Application of CBP Wide Bore Capillary Column (0.53mm I.D.)(2) -Analysis by Total Amount Injection-
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Analysis of Glycols and Monoalkylether Glycols with FS Columns
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Analysis of Organic Solvent by Headspace Analysis System
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Analysis of Halogenated Hydrocarbons in Industrial Water and Waste Water
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Determination of Four Offensive Odor Components
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Determination of Halogenated Hydrocarbons in Industrial Feed Water and Waste Water by Capillary Column GC
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Application of Antihistamics and Tranquilizers in Body Fluids by a Selective Detector (ECD,FTD)
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Analysis of SOA in Gasoline by Gas Chromatograph -Discrimination of Hydrocarbons in Gasoline-
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Analysis of Scattered Herbicides on Golf Course
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Headspace Gas Chromatography for Ethyl Caproate and Ethyl Caprylate in Alcoholic Beverages
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Gas Chromatographic Separation of Halogenated Hydro Carbons by Various Wide Bore Capillary Columns
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Analysis of High Boiling Point Compounds by Programmed Temperature Vaporizer (PTV) Injection System
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Analysis of Pesticides on Golf Course with Packed Column GC (Monitoring of Pesticides in the Waste Water from Golf Course)
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Analyses for Pesticides with Capillary Column (Monitoring of Pesticides in Tap Water)
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Analysis of Pesticides on Golf Course with a Capillary Column (Monitoring of Recidual Pesicides in Tap Water)
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Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Agricultural Products
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Analysis for Pesticides with Capillary GC (No.2) -Simultaneous Detection Using Three Detectors; ECD,FPD and FTD-
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Application of Capillary GC with uTCD on GC-17AAT Ver.3
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High Speed Analysis with Narrow Bore Columns on the GC-17A Ver.3
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Packed Column Analysis of Gas Mixture Using the GC-17AAT
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Colourful, but hazardous: forbidden dyes - Fast C/MS determination of Sudan Red I-IV, butter yellow and Para Red in foods
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Make sure you know what you're dealing with! - Analysis of phenoxypropionic herbicides using LCMS
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Analysis of Food Preservatives by GC/MS
Food preservatives are used to prevent adverse changes and rotting of foods by suppressing the proliferation of microorganisms; they are used in accordance with the properties of the food to which they will be added. Many of the analytical methods used for analyzing food preservatives employ extraction of the compounds of interest by the steam distillation technique, followed by quantitative analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gas chromatography can also be used for measurement of many compounds used as food preservatives, including benzoic acid, sorbic acid, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA methyl), ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA ethyl), propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA propyl), and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA butyl), and therefore, gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer (GC/MS) is an effective analysis technique for verifying the detection results obtained by HPLC. This Application News introduces an example of GC/MS analysis of six types of food preservatives.
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Determination of Ethanol Content of Denatured Fuel Ethanol by ASTM D5501-04
In the United States, a denaturant is added to fuel grade ethanol, and the quality standard for this denatured fuel ethanol is specified in ASTM Method D4806. As part of this specification, D5501-04 specifies the measurement method and allowable concentrations of methanol as an impurity and ethanol as the principle ingredient. Furthermore, it also stipulates that gas chromatography be used for this determination of the methanol and ethanol content in denatured fuel ethanol. Separately, the moisture concentration in fuel is specified in D1364 and E1064, in which the moisture concentration is subtracted from each of the constituent concentrations obtained by gas chromatography to calculate the final methanol and ethanol concentrations. This Application News introduces an example of analysis of a pseudo denatured fuel ethanol sample by gas chromatography according to ASTM D5501-04.
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Chromatography of FAMEs Using Cyanopropyl Capillary Columns
Separation of the isomers of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by gas chromatography, and specifically the cis-and trans-isomers, is conducted by gas chromatography using strongly polar cyanopropyl capillary columns. Here we present our investigation of the chromatography of C18 fatty acid isomers using two types of columns, the BPX-90 and Rtx-2560. The structures of these two liquid phases are shown in Fig. 1.
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Texture Analysis of "Soumen" Japanese Vermicelli
The evaluation of the mechanical properties of foods, such as strength and hardness, is becoming widely used for the numerical comparison and control of food texture. This Application News introduces the tensile test and cutting test of Japanese soumen vermicelli to evaluate the texture.
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Compression Test for Structural Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Since lithium-ion batteries are light and small, they are used in a wide variety of products, from mobile electronic devices such as cellular phones and notebook PCs to electric cars and hybrid cars. Their inner structural materials are subjected to external force during production processes and to pressure during use. Therefore, evaluation of strength of each structural material is important to maintain consistent quality. A strength measurement was performed on thin or minute materials among various structural materials of lithium-ion batteries. Separators are usually evaluated by a tensile test or penetration test. A compression test is also important to evaluate them because they are compressed in some processes. Active materials of approximately 10 μm in size located near the electrode need to have a certain compression strength so they will not be destroyed during the coating process. Below are the results of compression tests performed on these materials using the MCT-211 Series Micro Compression Testing Machine.
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Breaking Strain Measurement of ABS Resin
This example describes testing the high-rate tensile strength of a fat plate specimen of ABS resin and measuring strain up to the breakpoint. Images of the high-rate tensile test were captured with a high-speed video camera and image analysis software was used to measure the strain between gauge length on the specimen.
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Measurement of Oil Residues on Copper Wire Surface by TOC Solid Sample Measurement System
In this application, we introduce an example of measurement of copper wire using the solid sample measurement system comprising the TOC-VCPH total organic carbon analyzer and the SSM-5000A solid sample combustion unit.
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Measurement of Cadmium in Brown Rice by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Method
Here we present an example of analysis of cadmium in a standard sample (NIES No. 10-a) of brown rice by the high-sensitivity electrothermal atomic absorption method using the AA-7000.
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Analysis of Degraded Machine Oil by FTIR
Two types of measurement methods, (multiple-reflection ATR and transmission method) were used to conduct measurements of machine oil before and after use to evaluate the degradation due to usage.
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Investigation of the Deterioration of UV-Irradiated Resin by FTIR and DUH-211S Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester
Resins may exhibit deterioration by any number of ways including heating, exposure to various organic solvents, acidic or alkaline solutions, and ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, a high tolerance to ultraviolet irradiation is especially necessary for resin products used outdoors. Introduced here is an investigation in which various types of plastics were irradiated with ultraviolet light. Afterward, the samples were analyzed for chemical and physical changes caused by ultraviolet irradiation using FTIR and DUH-211S Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester.
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On-Tissue MALDI Analysis: Analysis of Spatiotemporal Changes in Energy Metabolism in a Murine Middle-Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model
Here, using the Shimadzu MALDI imaging system comprised of the CHIP-1000 and AXIMA Performance® to elucidate the distribution of regiospecific energy metabolism-related substances, we introduce our latest reported research results in which the ischemic region and its periphery (ischemic penumbra) are clearly distinguished.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 34) Analysis of Preservatives in Cosmetics by the Nexera UHPLC System
High-speed analysis of preservatives in cosmetics was previously introduced in Application News No. L375, but we have updated this application as an example of ultra-high-speed analysis with the Nexera LC system in conjunction with the Shim-pack XR-ODS III high-speed separation column (particle size 1.6 μm).
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 35) Analysis of Resveratrol in Wine by the Nexera UHPLC System
Resveratrol, a type of polyphenol, is a phytoalexin that is synthesized by plants when they are exposed to stress due to disease and pests. In addition to providing antioxidative effects, resveratrol is reported to offer other health benefits including support for increased longevity. For these reasons, this substance is actively being researched, and recently, resveratrol is being added to food products and to cosmetics. Here we introduce an example of ultra fast analysis of resveratrol in red wine using the Nexera ultra high performance liquid chromatograph and the Prominence RF-20Axs high-sensitivity fluorescence detector.
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High Sensitivity Analysis by Large Volume Injection Method with PTV (Programmed Temperature Vaporizer)
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High Sensitivity Analysis by Multiple Large Volume Injection Method with New Automatic Injector AOC-20i
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Analysis of organic Tin Compounds with Capillary GC-FPD
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Agreement between GC and GCMS Chromatograms (Chromatograms obtained at same linear velocity using AFC)
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Analysisi of acrylamede in tap water using GC-ECD
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Improvements of Saparation with the GC-2010 Constant-vleocity Mode
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Easy Analysis of Residual MTBE in Environmental Water and Soil
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Analysis of Residual Solvents in Pharmaceuticals (Part 5) Comparison of Headspace GC Sensitivity when Using Different Dilution Solvents
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Analysis of Gasoline and Alcohol using PONA System
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Reduction of Analysis Time (Part 3)
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Reduction of Analysis Time in Capillary GC (Part 4) Factors Affecting Analysis Time (Isothermal Analysis)
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Reduction of Analysis Time in Capillary GC (Part 5) Factors Related to Analysis Time (Analysis with Temperature Program)
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Analysis of Pesticides in Agricultural Product using ECD-2010 or FPD-2010
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Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Agricultural Products using ECD-2010 (Part 2)
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Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Agricultural Products using FPD-2010 (Part 3)
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Analysis of Residual Solvents in Pharmaceutical Products (Part 6) Comparison of Headspace GC Sensitivity depending on Dilution Solvents (Class 3 Solvents)
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Residual Solvents Analysis in Pharmaceutical Products (Part 7) - Thermostatting Dependencies of Aqueous Solution /Water Dilution Effect on DMSO Solution
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Use of Open Tubular Capillary Column (Guard Column)
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Analysis of Sulfur Compound in Gasoline by GC-FPD Optimum Initial Column Temperature in Splitless Injection Analysis Using Various Solvents (Part 2)
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Convenient Functions of GC-2014
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Introduction of a Multi-Detector GC System
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Improving the Repeatability of Aqueous Solution Analysis Performed with Capillary Columns
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Analysis of Thiophene in Benzene by GC-FPD
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Analysis of TPH in Soil (Part 1)
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Determination of Free and Total Glycerin in Biodiesel Methyl Esters -ASTMD6584 and EN14105-
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Analysis of TPH in Soil (Part 2)
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Analysis of 37 FAMEs using 6 Types of Capillary Columns
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Introduction of a Multidimensional GC SystemAnalysis of 37 FAMEs using 6 Types of Capillary Columns
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Easy Meaurement of the Distribution of Boiling Points for the Fractions of Petroleum by the Gas Chromatograph (Distillation Gas Chromatography)
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Measurement of Boiling Point Distribution (Simulated Distillation by GC) Internal Standard Method
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Variable Angle Absolute Reflectance System for SolidSpect-3700
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Protein Thin Film Analysis by Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy and Single Reflection ATR
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Analysis of Ethanol and Anhydrous Ethanol in Accordance with the Fifteenth Edition of the Japnese Pharmacopoeia
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Analysis of Polyethylene Terephthalate by TG-FTIR
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Analysis of Protein Secondary Structure Using FTIR
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Analysis of Hydroxyl Value of Polypropylene Glycol Using the PLS Method in Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
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Analysis of Colored Components on the Surface of Tablets
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Analysis of Iodine Value with NIR Heated Transmission Cell and PLS Method
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Analysis of Silicon Surface by Single Reflection ATR
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Considerations in KBr Pellet Method (Part 2) Samples those require attention when analyzed by KBr method (Amino Acids)
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Screening Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardantswith ATR Accessory (Part 3) - RoHS Directive-
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Screening Analysis of Bromated Flame Retardants with ATR Accessory (Part 2) -RoHS Directive-
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Analysis of SiO2 Thin Film on Si Wafer
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Screening Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants with ATR Accessory (1) (RoHS Directive)
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NIR(Near Infrared) Mapping using IR Microscope
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Applying Near Infrared Spectroscopy to the Identification of Drugs
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Pretreatment Methods for Eliminating the Interference Fringes
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The New Technique of Atmospheric Correction and its Effectiveness for FTIR
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Micro Contaminants Analysis with Infrared Microscope Micromanipulator System
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Measurement of layer-by-layer self-assembly film using RAS-8000 grazing angle specular reflectance accessory
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Applications of the DuraSampIIR employing a KRS-5 focusing element
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Quantitative analysis of cis, trans, and vinayl in polybutadiene using the single-reflection ATR accessory
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Automatic Diffuse Reflectance Attachment for Identification Application
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Applications of a New Single Reflection ATR Accessory
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Analysis of paint scrapings using an infrared microscope
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Quantitation of Phosphorus in a Silicon Wafer Using the PLS (Partial Least Squares) Method
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Applications of ATR Microspectroscopy
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Composition Analysis of Thin Film by Atomic Absorption Analysis - Determination of indium, antimony, tellurium -
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Determination of Metal Elements in Montmorillonite by AAS
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Measurement of Metal Elements Using the HVG-1
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Determination of Elemental Metals Using the HVG-1 Hydride Vapor Generator (No.2)
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Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry of Plants Using a Hydrochloric Acid Extraction Method"
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Measurement of Trace Elements by Graphite Furnace AAS -Determination of Vanadium, Cobalt and Copper in Steel-
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Analysis of Aluminum Alloy by Computer Controlled AA-6500 AAS
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Determination of Metal Elements in Organic Solvents by Electrothermal Atomization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
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Analysis of Commercially Available Standard Materiasl by AA-6700
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Analysis of Environmental Samples Using AA-6200
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How to Select Graphite Tube Types for the Electro-thermal Atomization
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Measurement of trace elements in beverage using furnace atomatic absorption
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Estimation of uncertainty in flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry
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Reflective LCD Cell-Gap Measuring System Using MultiSpec-1500
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Matrix modifier for furnace AA
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Measurement of Litium (Li) and Aluminium (Al) in Human Sera
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Stability of flame measurements with an autosampler
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How to caldulate the detectionlimit and the quantification limit in the furnace method
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Determination of Arsenic Species in Hot Springs
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Speciation of Arsenic in Blood by Cold Trap Vapor Reduction Atomic Absorption Method
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Analysis of Metals Contained in Soil
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Pb Analysis by Atomic Absorption
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Cd analysis by Atomic Absorption
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Zn Analysis by Atomic Absorption
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Measurement of Chromium in Soil by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
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Na Analysis by Atomic Absorption
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Mn Analysis by Atomic Absorption
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Determination of Zn in River Water
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Potassium Analysis by Atomic Absorption
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Measurement by Flame Micro Sampling Method
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Ni Analysis by Atomic Absorption
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Al Analysis by Atomic Absorption
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Mercurry(H8) Analysis by the Electrothermal Atomization Method
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Assay of Nutriment in Processed Foodstuffs by Fluorescence Spectrophotometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
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Caliblation curves of Standard Solutions Using AA-6200
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Analysis of Effect on Water Quality due to Leaching from Water Works Equipment Materials using the TOC-VCSH
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Cleaned Flue Gas Analysis of an Incineration Plant by TOC
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Conditiioning TOC Catalysts
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Control of Oil Contamination in Aqueous Cleaning Equipment using the TOC-5000A
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Determination of Calcium Carbonate in Secondary Cement Products using the TOC-5000A Solid Sample TOC Analysis System
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Determination of Organic Carbon in Ultra Pure Water
View here (424 KB)

Determination of the TOC Content in Landfill Leachate
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Determination of the Total Organic Carbon(TOC) in Solid Samples
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Determining theCorrect Concentrations of TOC in Purified Water and Water For Injection
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Evaluation of cleanliness of aluminum foil surface using the Shimadzu Total Carbon Analyzer
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Example of Management of Nitrogen Removal in a Night Soil Treatment Plant, using the On-Line Total Nitrogen Analyzer TN-4100
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High Precision Measurement of Total Carbon Dioxide in Sea Water
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Measurement of CO2 in an Ethanolamine Solution
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Measurement of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon in Salt Water and Sea Water
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Measurement of TC and IC in Hydrogen Peroxide
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Measurement of TOC and TN in effluent using Shimadzu TOC-V combined with TN Unit
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Measurement of TOC and TN in Hydrogen Peroxide by TOC-VCSH Combind with TN(Total Nitrogen) unit TNM-1
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Measurement of TOC and TN Sea Water using TOC-VCSH with TNM-1
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Measurement of TOC in Ammonia Solution by TOC-Vcsh
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Measurement of TOC in Bottled Mineral Water and Raw Water by TOC-VCSH
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Measurement of TOC in Chloroisocyanuric Acid using the TOC-VCSH
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Measurement of TOC in Copper(II) Sulfate Solution and Nickel Sulfamate Solution Using TOC-Vcsh
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Measurement of TOC in Electroplating Solution Using TOC-VWS
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Measuring of Organic Components in Fiberglass Using the TOC-5000A Solid Sample TOC Analysis System
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On-line TOC Measurement in the Food Industry
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POC measurement with TOC 4000 to prevent explosive gas mixture in closed waste water system
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Recovery Test for Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate by TOC-VWS
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Reliable Online-Determination of TNb
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Shimadzu TOC-V Series, TOC Measurements on Tap Water, TOC Adopted as Water Quality Standard for Tap Water
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Sugarsweet campaign using the TOCN-4100
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Swab Method for TC-Determination of polluted surfaces
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TOC Analysis for Purified Water, Water for Injection and Clean-In-Place Applications (System Suitability Test)
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TOC Analysis of Drinking Water
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TOC Determination by the Addition Method. TOC=POC+NPOC
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TOC Determination in Sludge
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TOC Measuring of Boiler Water with Shimadzu's On-line TOC Analyzer
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TOC Measuring of Electroplating Solution with TOC-5000A
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TOC Measuring of Etching Solutions for Etching Process by using the TOC-5000A
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TOC Online Management of Collected Reusable Water In a Water Network Washing System
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TOC System Suitability Test of USP by Combustion Catalytic Oxidation TOC-VCSH
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Total Carbon Measuring in the Gas samples With the TOC-5000A Gas Sample Measuring Kit
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Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Measuring of Compost with the TOC-5000A Solid Sample TOC Analyzer
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Using Standard 40ML VOA Vials with Your Shimadzu ASI-5000A
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Waste water management in accordance with ISO 14001 using the Shimadzu On-Line Total Organic Carbon Analyzer
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Water management in the manufacturing process of Pharmaceutical products with TOC-5000A
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Water Quality Control at Water Purification Plants and Water inlets on Rivers Using the Online TOC Analyzer TOC-4100
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Measurement of Thermal History of Plastics by DSC
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Measurement of Engine Oil by DSC-60+TAC-60L
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Cooling Studies on Polymer Crystallisation
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Measurement of Starch by DSC
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Evaluation of Purity and Thermal Resistance of CNT by Thermogravimetry
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Determination of Asbestos in MortarAdmixture by TG-DTA
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Measurement of Fats with DSC
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Application of Photovisual DSC
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Measurement of Polymer Materials by TMA
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Application to Medical and Pharmaceutical Products (Melting Point and Fusion Heat)
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Application to Medical and Pharmaceutical Products of Multiple Crystallization
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Thermal analysis to be cited in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia
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Thermogravimetry in Hydrogen Atmosphere
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Analysis of Isothermal Decomposition with TGA
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High Sensitivity Thermogravimetry of Various Specimens
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Kinetic Analysis of Dehydration Reaction
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Measurement of Fusion Process of Nylon 66 Influence of Heat Treatment (Cooling Rate)
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Evaluation of Physical Properties of Thermosetting Resins
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Measurement of Water in Silica Gel with DSC
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Thermal Analysis of Rubber
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Application to Plastics (1) Floppy Disks
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Analysis of Isothermal Crystallization Process of High Polymers with DSC
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Measurement of High Polymer Materials with Cryogenic TMA
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Viscoelasticity Measurement of Polymer Films
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Measurement of Activation Energy Using Reaction Rate Analysis Program
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Measurement of Film Softening Temperature with TMA
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Specific Heat Measurement Using a Specific Heat Measurement Program
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Measurement of Bread Staling with DSC
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Stress-Strain Measurement of Polymer Film with TMA
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Measurement of Thermal Expansion of Floppy Disks with TMA
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Evaluation of Dangerous Materials Using Self-Reactivity Evaluation Program
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Glass Transition of Polyvinyl Acetate Type Adhesives
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Measurement of Partial Calories by Partial Area Measurement Program
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DSC of Waters in Several Gels
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DSC by Cyclic Heating/Cooling Program
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Measurement of Explosive Compounds by DSC
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Measurement of Phase Transitions of Liquid Crystals by DSC
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Measurement of Oxidizing Induction Time of PE by DSC
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Measurement of Reduction Process of Metal Oxides by TG Thermogravimetric Analysis
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The Transition Method of Plastic Temperature Measurement
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Measurement for Transition Heat of Plastics
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Routine determination of hazardous compounds
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Well, cheers - AAS in drinking water analysis
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AA-6300 for multi-element analysis with system validation
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The aroma of French fries - fuel from rapeseed oil
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Quality assurance in water analysis - Determination of selected elements using ICP-OES
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EDXRF Analysis of Lead and Cadmium in Aluminum Alloy
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EDXRF Analysis of Cd, Hg and Pb in Blood
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EDXRF Analysis of P, Cl, K and Ca in Blood
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EDXRF Analysis of Chromium, Lead and Cadmium in Metals (Brass)
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EDXRF Analysis of Brewer's Yeast preparation
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EDXRF and WDXRF Analysis of Cd
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EDXRF Analysis of Cd and Pb
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Analysis of Ceramics
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The Content Matching Function
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Analysis of Food for Contamination
View here (61 KB)

Analysis of Food Products for contamination
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Analysis of Foreign Matter using CCD
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EDXRF Analysis of Glass
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Fast GC-ECD Analysis of organochlorine pesticides
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Enjoy without guilt
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Pyrolysis GC for thermal cracking feedstocks evaluation
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Sensitive nose provides more Safety in the Workplace
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Tank up in the rapeseed fields - Determination of glycerine, methanol, mono-, di- and triacylglycerides
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All roads lead to Rome - Fast LC -How
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Analysis of antidepressants - Pathfinder HPLC column technology
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Analysis of antidepressants - Pathfinder HPLC column technology
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Napoleon did not die from arsenic poisoning - ADAIS- Automated poison and drug analysis
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Advanced Method Development, overnight
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Tested and approved!
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Good day, sunshine
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Screening for bioactives compounds by means of ESI-MS
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Bisphenol A-consumption inevitable - Fast determination of bisphenol A residues in plastic bottles, containers and cans
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Which column is your analysis based on?
View here (167 KB)

A good connection - Integrated in an online system: sample preparation and HPLC-MS analysis of biological samples
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Separation of Tricyclic Antidepressants Using Pathfinder Columns at Acidic Conditions
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LC Separations under 100% Aqueous Conditions using Pathfinder Columns
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Determination of Cimetidine in Pharmaceutical Tablets by High Performance Liquid Chromatograpy
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Column Classification and Selection of Pathfinder stationary phases with embedded Polar Groups
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Realization of HPLC Methods by using Computer Assisted Method Development
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Mapping the Hydrophobic Character of Pathfinder Phases
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A Simple HPLC Method for the Detection of Preservatives in Inks
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Separation of Nucleotide Acid Bases with Reversed Phase Chromatography under Aqueous Mobile Phase Conditions
View here (122 KB)

Peptide Separation Using a Polymer Encapsulated Reversed Phase Column
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How Hazardous is your Shampoo?
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Steric Selectivity of Pathfinder Columns According to Tanaka and Enhelhardt
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Controlling Selectivity by Means of Temperature in Reversed Phase Chromatography
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Simultaneous Determination of Thirteen UV Filters in Sunscreen Products
View here (131 KB)

Selectivity of the Fluorescence Spectroscopy using a known mixture made from Anthracene and Naphthalene
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Fluorescence library including Emission and Excitation Spectra from Pharmaceuticals and other materials
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Determination of Mercury in Water using Floureszenz Spectroscopy
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Flourescence quenching shown with the determination of Mercury (II) in combination with Bathophenanthroline
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Selectivity of fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated on a pre-defined mixture of anthracene and naphthalene
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Cleaning Validation – Direct Swab method procedure using TOC-V and SSM-5000A
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Determination of TOC in solids according to the European Standardisation EN 13137
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Recovery rates of total organic compounds according to the European Standardisation EN 13137
View here (462 KB)

'Direct Swab' TOC of E. Coli cells in biopharmaceutical cleaning validation
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Determination of the TNb in the trace range (TOC-V CPH + TNM-1)
View here (470 KB)

Information on relationships between common parameters: COD, BOD, TOD and TOC
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TOC (+TNb) determination in seawater
View here (609 KB)

Determination of drinking water with TOC-V CPH
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Simple TOC determination of sediments and soils using the suspension method
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TOC determination according to USP 24 / EP 2.2.44 with TOC-V CPH
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TOC determination in Cleaning Validation
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Determination of waste water with TOC-V CPH by using the autodilution function
View here (759 KB)

Determination of the detection and determination limit of NPOC with the standard catalyst
View here (417 KB)

Calibration and measurement in the high sensitive range with TOC-V WP
View here (466 KB)

Determination of wine colour with UV-VIS Spectroscopy following Sudraud method
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Secrets revealed from water - TN determination in the ultra trace range
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Laboratory and online TOC measurement in paper production
View here (511 KB)

Environmental protection within our own hands - Continuous monitoring of wastewater of Shimadzu production sites using TOCN-4100 and AA-6300
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Around the clock operation: the TOC-4100 in wastewater treatment plants
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Online-Analysis at its best - Online TOC measurement in the food industry
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Sum parameters on trail - continuous TOC determination in environmental analysis
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TNb determination in the monitoring and control of municipal wastewater treatment plants
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TOC in the cement manufacturing process
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Drinking water even purer with TOC - European drinking water guidelines are now national law
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Flakes, fibres and particles - TOC in wastewater
View here (409 KB)

Successful participation in round robin tests TOC susension mehtod for sediments and soils
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Swab test of E. Coli cells - Biopharmaceutical cleaning validation
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Continuous measurement of ultra pure water - The TOC-V CSH online option
View here (653 KB)

CO2 determination in Beer - Fast help with TOC
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Blank value determination - TOC trace analysis
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Fine, finer, finest - TOC determination in ultra pure water
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Chromium (VI) analysis according to the RoHS guidelines - Hardware and software for accurate determination of hazardous substances
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Far away, but still within reach - UV-VIS measurement with fibre optics - Successful analysis using routine systems
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High-Speed Analysis of Malachite Green and Metabolites
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High-Speed Analysis of Ginsenosides
View here (261 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Cortisone and Cortisol
View here (252 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Aldehydes and Ketones
View here (283 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Lycopene
View here (284 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Chlorogenic Acid
View here (282 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Glycyrrhizinate
View here (279 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Berberine
View here (280 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Catechins
View here (288 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Curcumin
View here (281 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Artificial Colorant
View here (311 KB)

High-Speed Drug Analysis
View here (317 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Furfural
View here (277 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Pesticides in Water Quality Regulation
View here (284 KB)

High-Speed Analysis of Fat-Soluble Vitamins
View here (282 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Vitamin D
View here (140 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Phenolic Antioxidants
View here (112 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Organic Acids
View here (204 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Sennosides
View here (116 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Glycyrrhetinic Acid
View here (110 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Sulfa Drugs
View here (136 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Sudan Dyes
View here (131 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PDA Detection)
View here (138 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Synthetic Sweeteners
View here (136 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Vitamin B12
View here (134 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Hesperidin
View here (147 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Amino Acids by Pre-Column Derivatization (2)
View here (140 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Amino Acids by Pre-Column Derivatization (1)
View here (141 KB)

High Speed Analysis of Food Preservatives
View here (142 KB)

High Speed Analysis of &alpha;-Lipoic Acid
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High Speed Analysis of Scopolamine and Hyoscyamine
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High Speed Analysis of Coenzyme Q10
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High Speed Analysis of Chlorfluazurons
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High Speed Analysis of Chlorhexidine
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Fractionation by Preparative LC-MS and Fraction Verification byUltra Fast LC-MS
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Application using Analytical / Preparative LC-MS System (Part 1)
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Analysis of Perfluorochemicals (PFOA, PFOS) using LC-MS
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Ultra Fast Analysis (Part 2)Analysis of Impurities in Curcumin
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Using the Shimadzu GC System in the Fuel-Grade Ethanol Production Laboratory
In the case of the ethanol production plant, GC analysis is used to determine the total amount of denaturant added to the final ethanol product prior to shipment. This analysis is required in certain ethanol markets.
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Faster GC Analysis of Fuel Grade Ethanol
Ethanol production laboratories are familiar with gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of denaturated ethanol using ASTM Method D5501. This method is often implemented with various "convenience-based" modifications to determine the amount of ethanol, methanol, and total denaturant in the product. This method uses very basic instrumentation, by current standards, and requires that several post-analysis calculations be performed to arrive at values that are meaningful to the production laboratory.
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Ultra-High-Speed and Ultra-High-Resolution Analysis of Drug Analogs
As analogs in drug products often have similar structures, high resolution is demanded for their analysis. A long, sub-2μm column is effective in such cases but this requires a UHPLC system with high pressure tolerance, such as the Shimadzu Nexera (130MPapressure tolerance). This Application Data Sheet introduces the ultra-high-speed and ultra-high-resolution analysis of ketoprofen and its analogs.
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Ultra-High-Speed Analysis of Preservatives in Cosmetics
Parabens and other preservatives are added to cosmetics to maintain safety and quality. The simultaneous analysis of these preservatives generally takes a long time, due to the many types of preservative used. This Application Data Sheet introduces the ultra-high-speed analysis of preservatives in cosmetics using the high resolution of the Shim-pack XR-ODS III column (1.6 µm particle size) and the high pressure tolerance (130 MPa) of the Nexera.
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Ultra-High-Resolution Analysis of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids
Plants and processed foods contain a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. A high-resolution column is required for their analysis to achieve mutual resolution and resolution from the impurity components in the sample. Methods using a long, sub-2 µm column are available to achieve high resolution, but they demand a UHPLC system with high pressure tolerance. The Nexera 130 MPa pressure tolerance offers adequate capacity to meet these requirements. This Application Data Sheet introduces the ultra-high-resolution analysis of aromatic carboxylic acids using Shimadzu Nexera with a Shim-pack XR-ODS III column.
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Ultra-High-Speed Analysis of Quinolone Antibacterial Agents
Quinolone antibacterial agents are widely used in livestock, poultry, andfarmed fish to prevent and treat infectious diseases. Many types are available. Such simultaneous analysis of multiple components generally requires a long analysis time. However, the combination of a Shim-pack XR Series fast-analysis column and Nexera can significantly reduce the analysistime required. This Application Data Sheet introduces the ultra-high-speed simultaneous analysis of quinolone antibacterial agents using Nexera with an RF-20Axs high-sensitivity fluorescence detector.
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Ultra-High-Speed Analysis of Polyphenolsin Wine
Red wine contains many types of polyphenols. One of them, resveratrol, is attracting a great deal of attention as an antioxidant that may have the ability to extend life. A high-resolution column is used to resolve the impurity components for the analysis of resveratrol in red wine. A fluorescence detector is effective from both thesensitivity and selectivity viewpoint. This Application Data Sheet introduces the ultra-high-speed analysis of resveratrolin red wine using Nexera with an RF-20Axs high-sensitivity fluorescence detector.
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Ultra-High-Resolution Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
As the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment demands the highly efficient resolution of multiple components, long sub-2 µm columns or multiple columns are often used. Such cases demand a UHPLC system with a high system pressure tolerance. The 130 MPa pressure tolerance of the Shimadzu Nexera can safely and flexibly accommodate such demands. This Application Data Sheet introduces the ultra-high-resolution simultaneous analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using Nexera with two Phenomenex Kinetex columns.
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Reduced Solvent Consumption and Operational Costs with Existing LC Systems
Although the introduction of ultra-high speed LC is an effective way to conserve solvent, there is a very significant issue as to how this can be achieved with the existing LC systems in use. This report introduces detailed suggestions on how to most effectively reduce solvent consumption with existing LC systems.
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Analysis of Water Treatment Samples
Analysis of Water Treatment Samples with Shodex Columns.
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Analysis of Water Treatment Samples - Ammonium
Analysis of Water Treatment Samples with Ammonium using Shodex Columns.
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Anion Analysis of Ophthalmic Irrigation Solutions with the Shimadzu Prominence IC System
Ophthalmic solutions suitable for eye irrigation, eye strain relief, contact lens storage and tear replacement abound in the marketplace. While some of these serve as convenient agents for administering medicines in minute quantity, many are formulated to act as cleaning agents and may contain only dissociated ions like chloride or sulfate and organic preservatives such as benzalkonium chloride. The physiologic pH of blood and tears is approximately 7.4, but a pH range of 6.5 to 8.5 will prevent damage to the cornea. This is accomplished using buffers. To prevent eye tissue damage and maximize comfort, solutions are made to be iso-osmotic (equal osmotic pressure) with tears. The common term for this is isotonic. A 0.9% NaCl solution in pure water is said to be isotonic with tears. In this application note we will aid in the quality control of such ophthalmic solutions for their content of common anions.
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GPC-MALDI Analysis of Trace Components in Synthetic Polymers
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption / Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is being employed in a growing number of synthetic polymer applications in recent years. Using this technique, monomer and terminal structures are predicted based on the masses of the observed polymer substance, molecular weight distribution is evaluated, and molecular structural analysis is conducted by MS/MS analysis.
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Analysis of Polymer Additives in Synthetic Polymers using a SEC-MALDI System
Synthetic polymers may deteriorate as a result of various factors such as light, heat, mechanical stress, electrical stress, radiation, chemicals and moisture. Various additives such as antioxidants, UV absorbent, HALS and thermal stabilizers have been developed to maintain the properties of polymers and prevent degradation. The amount of additive depends on the intended use of the polymer but, typically, it is less than 1% (w/w). Analysis of additives in synthetic polymers is therefore important for the evaluation of improvement of polymer properties. Recently, MALDI-TOF MS has been used for the analysis of polymer additives.
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Simplified Enrichment Method Using NeedlEx
Ambient odor analysis typically requires enrichment of analytes because odor thresholds are usually very low. Normally, a specialized device is required for enrichment and desorption during introduction into the GC; specialized devices often involve complex operation. The NeedlEx introduced here can be used to selectively enrich volatile organic compounds in ambient air by desorbing them into the enrichment medium packed inside the injection needle.
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Using the HPLC System in the Fuel-Grade Ethanol Production Laboratory
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) has become the most widely applicable method of chromatographic analysis. Through use of highly efficient column materials (the stationary phase), pumping system that provide a constant flow of the mobile phase, and detection components designed to accommodate the needs of analysis, HPLC is now a commonly used technique for monitoring the progress of the fermentation in the ethanol production laboratory.
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Benzodiazepine Analysis by UFLC
This application note details the separation and detection of four benzodiazepines with ultra-fast LC (UFLC) conditions.
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Analysis of Analgesics by UFLC
This application note focuses on the high-speed analysis of over-the-counter analgesics with Ultra Fast HPLC.
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Getting the Lead Out
This application notes focuses on Energy Dispersive X-Ray’s Role in Uncovering Dangerous Toys.
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Determining Gemstone Authenticity and Precious Metal Purities by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Gemstones have been known to undergo various manipulations to enhance their perceived quality. As technology advances, confirming the authenticity of gemstones becomes more and more difficult, creating a large demand for a non-destructive, time-efficient method of determining the composition of gemstones and precious metals. One such method is Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy, a technique that enables a user to quickly and easily differentiate between a true stone and a fraud or determine if any chemical enhancements have been made. In addition to stones, precious metals can be analyzed and quantified to identify their purities.
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Selective lonization, Detection by MALDI-TOF MS with NBS-labeled Peptides using New Matrix
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Stable Isotope Labeling Method (NBS*) Protocol Improvement
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Detection of Phosphorylated Proteins by Chemical Dephosphorylation with Hydrogen Fluoride
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Western Blotting Method: Direct On-Membrane Identification of Target Molecules Detected by Western Blotting
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Direct Analysis of Microorganism Samples by AXIMA-CFR
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Efficient separation and accurate spotting of NBS Labeled Peptides Using the Micro HPLC AccuSpot System
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Protein Oxidative Modification Analysis using AXIMA-CFR
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Quantitative proteome analysis by labeling tryptophan residues (NBS Method)
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Chemical Method for Dephosphorylation of Phosphopeptides
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No. 10 Analysis of Polybutadiene using MALDI-TOFMS
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No. 9 Analysis of Polyethylene Glycol using MALDI-TOFMS
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No. 8 Polymethylmethacrylate Analysis using MALDI-TOFMS
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No. 7 Polystyrene (PS) Analysis using MALDI-TOFMS
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Analysis of Phosphopeptides using AXIMA-CFR
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Protein Identification by Library Search- Use of MS-Tag Method by Seamless PSD Analysis -
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Analysis Example of Porphyrin Metal Bond
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Identification of Phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin) using Seamless PSD Analysis
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Proteome Analysis Example using AXIMA
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Analysis of Linear Polysaccharide Chain using MALDI-TOFMS
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Analysis of Samples Containing S-S Bond using DAN
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Proteome Analysis Using the AXIMA-QIT
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Polymer Analysis by MS/MS Measurement - Polymethyl Methacrylate Fragmentation -
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Interaction MS Method: Direct On-Membrane Identification of Target Molecules Detected by Lectin Staining on Membrane
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Direct On-Membrane MS/MS Analysis using the Chemical Printer (CHIP-1000) and AXIMA-QIT
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AXIMA-QlT Analysis using FocusMass-T3 Enrichment Effect (1) Measurement of Mixture using High-Sensitivity MS/MS
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New Sialic Acid Stabilization Modification Method
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MS/MS Fragment Ion Coverage Improvement
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Top-down Proteomics using MALDI-MSn
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Identification of Phosphorylation Sites by AXIMA-QIT
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Sugar Chain Structural Analysis by MSn
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Analysis of a Glycopeptide
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Protein Identification by MS/MS Ion Search
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Analysis of In-Gel Digest Sample (1)- Protein Identification by Peptide Mass Fingerprint -
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Example of AXIMA-TOF2 Measurement using
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MS/MS Measurement of Phosphorylated Peptide using AXIMA-TOF2
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de novo Sequence Analysis of Internal Protein Fragment with ORFinder-N Mass Sequencing Kit
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AXIMA Series -Flexibility of Sample Targets
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AXIMA-TOF2-Low Mass Zoom. (LMZ)
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AXIMA Series-IntelliMarque. Automated Analysis Software Functionality
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AXIMA-TOF2-Improved Ion Gate for High Resolution Precursor Ion Selection
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AXIMA-TOF2 LC-MALDI Software Guide
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AXIMA Series-Oligo Analysis Software Functionality
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AXIMA Series-Sequence Calculator
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AXIMA-TOF 2-Protein Identification of Complex Mixtures using LC-MALDI on AXIMA-TOF2
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AXIMA-TOF 2 Simultaneous Protein Identification and Relative Quantification of Complex Mixtures using iTRAQ. methodology, LC-MALDI and AXIMA-TOF2.
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AXIMA - A Simple Alternative Sample Preparation Method for Improved Protein Identification from 1D
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AXIMA-TOF2 - Non-Linear Correction (NLC) Functionality to Improve Mass Accuracy in MALDI-TOF Analyses
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AXIMA-TOF2 - Analysis of Proteins in Linear Mode using an AXIMA-TOF2
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AXIMA-QIT - Investigating Rat Retinal Proteins Using a MALDI TOF MS
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AXIMA-TOF 2 - Protein Identification Using an Axima-TOF2
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AXIMA-TOF2 - SPECIFICATION TECHNICAL DATA
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AXIMA-QIT SPECIFICATION TECHNICAL DATA
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AXIMA-CFR.plus SPECIFICATION TECHNICAL DATA
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AXIMA - Characterization of Salmonella typhimurium membrane proteins separated by 2D gels
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AXIMA-QIT - The Analysis of N-linked Glycans by MALDI-QIT-TOF Mass Spectrometry
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AXIMA-QIT - Rapid Characterization of Small Molecules using MSn on a MALDI QIT TOF MS
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AXIMA-QIT - Characterization of Complex Protein Gel Bands by Offline LC-MALDI QIT TOF MS
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AXIMA - Oligonucleotide Mass Analysis and In-Source Decay Sequencing on a MALDI TOF Mass Spectrometer
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AXIMA-QIT - Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides using a Novel CD Based Chemical Derivatization and a MALDI QIT TOF MS
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AXIMA-QIT - Analysis of high mass peptides using a novel Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole Ion Trap Time-of-Flight (MALDI QIT TOF) mass spectrometer
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AXIMA - SNP analysis performed on a research grade MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer
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AXIMA -Parallel sample preparation in a CD microlaboratory to enhance protein identification using the AXIMA-CFR.plus
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AXIMA -Post Source Decay analysis of large peptides (>2,400 Da) and its value in protein identification
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AXIMA -Seamless PSD. using a high resolution curved field reflectron TOF mass spectrometer
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Analysis of Polymers by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry
Synthetic polymers are widespread in everyday life. Whether they are used as containers for household products and foodstuffs to the construction of car components and electronic devices, plastics now play important roles in our day-to-day activities.
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Prominence UFLC Next Generation High Throughput-HPLC
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Identification of Phospholipid molecular speices by Neutral Loss Survey and MS3 Analysis
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Structural Prediction of Impurities in Drugs using MSn Data
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Natural Product Analysis using the LCMS-IT-TOF
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Analysis of artificial colorants by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
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Principles and practical applications of Shimadzu's ELSD-LTII evaporative light scattering detector
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Migration points to fast analysis; Optimization of the system and analysis conditions
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Identification of unknown polymer additives using LCMS-IT-TOF
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Opening LCMS to research: Psiport browser software
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Development of a LC-QIT-TOF mass spectrometer capable of high mass accuracy and stability.
The combination of QIT-TOF with an ESI source has been developed using novel ion introduction optics. Instrument performance characteristics have now been extensively investigated in regards to mass accuracy and stability.
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Metabolite Profiling of Arabidopsis by Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF with Phenomenome Profiler software
Biological function is the sum of gene interactions and metabolic network interactions; both are affected by the environment and genetics. Metabolomics can detect cryptic changes and link unpredictable phenotypes to their biochemistry. With the Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF, we can acquire high resolution and high mass accuracy in the MS data to help identify novel metabolite discovery.
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Using the LCMS IT TOF to identify impurities in pharmaceutical candidates using high mass accuracy
In the development of pharmaceutical candidates it is critical to identify by-products of the reaction mixture. In this paper we describe the application of a novel hybrid instrument platform delivering high mass accuracy data and MSn analysis in identifying impurity products from a relatively impure pharmaceutical candidate.
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MSn analysis Identification of Molecular Species of Phospholipids by combination of Neutral Loss Survey and MS3
To elucidate the function of phospholipids, it is necessary to analyze not only their classes and subclasses but also molecular species. Recently, in the analysis of phospholipids, the application of mass spectrometry (MS) has become increasingly popular.
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Natural Product Analysis Utilizing an Ion Trap - Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (IT-TOF)
Recently, the popularity of remedies consisting of natural products found in foods, roots, and herbs has increased in both the domestic and global healthcare markets. As a result of this renewed focus on natural remedies, efficient identification and analysis of the active compounds in these products is a growing area of method development. The LCMS-IT-TOF allows researchers in this field to obtain both chemical and structural information as it utilizes both the fragmentation power of the ion trap and the high resolution, and mass accuracy, of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer.
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Structural Elucidation by Composition Formula Predictor Software Using MSn Data
Discerning the chemical formula or structure of unknowns is a difficult task which can be partially alleviated by acquiring high mass accuracy data; however, data interpretation is tedious and time consuming. By using fragmentation spectra collected from a novel hybrid ion-trap time-of-flight (IT-TOF) mass spectrometer along with enhanced software, samples are rapidly analyzed to identify chemical formulas and structures.
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Isotope modeling routines applied to empirical formula prediction
High mass accuracy mass spectrometry is achievable on a number of technology platforms including time of flight mass analyzers, hybrid ion trap and quadrupole time TOF&acute;s to FT-MS. Such technologies are playing an increasing role in pharmaceutical drug characterization and metabolite identification to help identify or confirm empirical formulae assignments. Recently, software tools have been applied to modeling theoretical isotopic distributions and mass accuracy data with experimentally derived data together with sets of chemical or statistical rules to help increase the probability of assigning the correct empirical formula.
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Precise Identification of Molecular Species of Phosphatidylethanolamine and Phosphatidylserine by Neutral Loss Survey with MS3 and Accurate Mass Measurement
To elucidate the function of phospholipids, it is important to analyze not only their classes and subclasses but also molecular species. We found that electrospray ionization (ESI) MS3 analysis is effective for more detailed and accurate annotation of each molecular species. We established the system for analyses of molecular species of phospholipids with neutral loss (NL) survey of the head group-relating mass values and succeeding MS3 analyses by selecting the resulting product ions as precursor ions for MS3 analyses (Fig.1).
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Metabolite Profiling of NSAID Effects In Vitro Using Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF System With Phenomenome ProfilerTM Software
Global metabolite profiling software was used to measure and compare the metabolic changes induced by several NSAIDs in HT29 cells and media. This approach can be used as a model system in monitoring drug metabolism in vitro. To help find components of biological significance the Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF was used to provide high mass accuracy MSn data integrated with Phenomenome Profiler software to integrate chromatography and mass spectrometry data sets together with statistical methods.
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Analysis of Biodiesel Blends by FTIR
Biodiesel fuel is a fuel for diesel engines that is derived from the fats and oils of natural life forms as the raw material. This fuel is receiving much attention as a means of helping to prevent global warming, and its practical use is being advanced in every country around the world.
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Fractionation of Anthocyanins by Preparative LC-MS System
Anthocyanins are the flavonoid color pigments present in all tissues of higher plants, including the petals and leaves.Besides their use as food dyes, anthocyanins have recently attracted attention due to their antioxidant properties.
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LC-MS Analysis of Carbohydrates Using Post ColumnAddition of Solvent for Improved Ionization Efficiency
Typically, in the HPLC analysis of saccharides, two different modes of chromatography can be used: aqueous normal phase, or ligand exchange mode. Due to the difficulty in completely separating all of the saccharides, these are used in a complementary manner. Since salts that are not easily volatilized cannot be used in LC-MS analysis, the suitability of the HPLC conditions for LC-MS analysis depends on the choice of the mobile phase. Because acetonitrile - water (or ammonium acetate in water) is generally used as the mobile phase in the aqueous normal phase mode, and only water is used as the mobile phase in the ligand exchange mode, these can be considered suitable mobile phases for LC-MS analysis. While these conditions are very suitable for the HPLC separation of mixed carbohydrates, there can be difficulty in observing an ion which up to then has been easily confirmed, or there may be a loss of sensitivity due to the separation column or the HPLC conditions.
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Comprehensive Evaluation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Using Thermal Analysis
This Application News presents a comprehensive evaluation of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), one of the important factors affecting the performance of fuel cells.
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Swab / Direct Combustion Analysis of Detergent Residue Using SSM-5000A
Cleaning validation with respect to production equipment at pharmaceutical facilities refers to the scientific verification that residues of previously processed products and detergent used for equipment cleaning, as well as foreign material from the environment in the production equipment, do not exceed specified permissible limits. HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) is often used to conduct this evaluation, however, detection with HPLC is often difficult due to the large number of constituents in detergents, and further, measurement is not easy when preparation, such as sample enrichment, is required. On the other hand, if a TOC (Total Organic Carbon) analyzer is used, the residual amount of detergent constituents is easily detected because all of the carbon-containing substances are detected.The rinse method and swab method are tw
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Analysis of Polymers by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry
Analysis of synthetic polymersby MALDI-TOF MS
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Analytical Instrument Validation According to Food Safety Management System (ISO 22000)
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Full Automation with Integrated LC
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Selecting Detectors for Compounds with No Optical Absorbance
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HPLC Techniques to Improve LCMS Performance and Productivity
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Prominence nano System and Applications
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The Determination of Hazardous Substances According to RoHS and WEEE Directives
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Simulated Distillation Analysis of Heavy Canadian Crude Oil by ASTM D 5307
Simulated Distillation is a GC technique for determining the boiling point distribution of a crude oil stock. This information is useful to refinery engineers in determining the process that most efficiently utilizes a feedstock of raw crude oil. This technique is also used to monitor the refining process to insure the products produced are as expected. When a feedstock oil contains components that are larger than C44 and which boil above 538ºC, ASTM D5307 becomes the analytical method of choice.
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Improved ASTM-D3612 Method A TOGA System
Method A outlines the classical procedure for quantifying the gases contained within transformer oil. Labs that began performing this test on their transformers have many years of historic data that remains important today. This data is used to track the changing conditions within a specific transformer, and by monitoring gas levels, judgments may be made as to when preventive maintenance should be performed. This analysis method has been in use for many years and is known to have some areas of weakness. This document describes the technological advances in Gas Chromatography that are employed here to incrementally improve the original method.
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Volume 1 of FTIR Talk Letter - How to Read Power Spectra (No. 1) - ATR Precautions (No. 1).
Main articles: How to Read Power Spectra (No. 1) , ATR Precautions (No. 1). - ATR Precautions (No. 1).
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Volume 2 of FTIR Talk Letter
How to Read Power Spectra (No. 2). ATR Precautions (No. 2).
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Volume 3 of FTIR Talk Letter
FDA 21 CFR Part 11 and Compliance for FTIR. Sampling Accessories Used for Microscope Measurement.
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Volume 4 of FTIR Talk Letter
FTIR Validation , Using Microscope Accessories.
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Volume 5 of FTIR Talk Letter
Why You Should Use Macro Programs. Microscope Measurement Techniques (Transmission Measurements).
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Volume 6 of FTIR Talk Letter
European Pharmacopoeia 5.0. Microscope Measurement Techniques (Reflection and ATR Measurements).
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Volume 7 of FTIR Talk Letter
FTIR Measurement Data Storage and Control. Thin Film Sample Measurement Methods and Precautions.
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Volume 8 of FTIR Talk Letter
Resolution and Aperture. Polarization Measurement of Film Using Single-Reflection ATR
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Volume 9 of FTIR Talk Letter
FTIR market situation in China. Mirrors Used with FTIR. Near-Infrared Region Measurement and Related Considerations Part 1
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Volume 10 of FTIR Talk Letter
Algorithms Used for Data Processing in FTIR. Near-Infrared Region Measurement and Related Considerations Part 2
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Controlling the Sulfur Content in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Fuels
Sulfur enters our atmosphere as gaseous sulfur dioxide through the burning of fossil fuels such as diesel. This sulfur dioxide or SO2 affects the environment, man-made structures, our health, and even the industries that generate the toxic gas. Sulfur dioxide combines with water vapor in the air to form sulfurous and sulfuric acid. These acids fall back to earth in water vapor and slowly devour away stone and cement edifices, statues, and ancient ruins around the world .
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Introduction of Contaminant Analysis Program
The upgraded version of IRsolution Ver. 1.40 that will be provided with the new Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer IRAffinity-1 is equipped as standard with the “Contaminant Analysis Program (Patent Pending)”.
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Volume 1 of UV Talk Letter
An information magazine for users of UV-VIS. Topics include: What is light?, Film Thickness Measurement, Q&A on Single-Beam and Double-Beam spectrophotometers.
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Introduction of Japanese Pharmacopoeia Program
The upgraded version of IRsolution Ver. 1.40 that will be provided with the new Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer IRAffinity-1 is equipped as standard with the formerly optional “Pharma Report Program”. The program, which enables simple identification testing according to the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, is introduced here in this Application News.
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Measurement Examples Using Polycapillary Parallel-beam Optics System
The term "polycapillary" indicates multiple (poly) fine glass tubes (capillaries) that guide X-rays. Xrays generated by a point source are accepted at a high solid angle by the polycapillaries, and emerge as a parallel beam at the opposite end. This optics system utilizes the X-rays generated by the X-ray tube more efficiently than the standard (concentrating) method (the Bragg-Brentano Method), to achieve higher diffraction X-ray intensities. The parallel-beam polycapillary method used by the optics system ensures that the angle of diffraction does not change due to displacements of the sample measurement surface.
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45° Peeling Tests on Leads of Surface Mounted Devices
45° peeling tests can be carried out on QFP and other gullwing leads. This test is applicable to not only conventional soldered joints, but also to the evaluation of lead-free solder, which is increasingly being used recently.
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Dynamic Displacement Measurements of Microactuators
Dynamic displacement of an actuator can be measured while applying a constant force. In measuring the relationship between the signal applied to the actuator and the displacement when moving a weight up and down using an actuator, the smaller the actuator the more difficult the displacement measurement becomes. Using the MST-I Microautograph, this kind of measurement can be carried out with the configuration shown below.
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Shear Peeling Tests of Surface Mounted Devices
Shear peeling tests of surface mounted devices (SMD) can be carried out. This test is applicable to not only conventional soldered joints, but also to the evaluation of lead-free solder which is increasingly being used recently.
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Tensile Testing of Individual Solder Balls
Using solder ball tweezers, tensile tests can be carried out on a single solder ball.
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Compression Tests with 250°C Heating and Positioning of Micro Specimens
The combination of a heating plate and positioning unit allows compression testing of micro specimens such as a single solder ball. The positioning unit also used in the DUH Micro Hardness Tester enables the compression point to be precisely pinpointed.
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Cyclic Compression Tests of Silicon Wafer Polishing Pads
As an example of cyclic compression test, the lifetime evaluation test for a silicon wafer polishing pad is introduced here. By carrying out cyclic compression tests on CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing) pads for silicon wafers, the difference in characteristics between old and new polishing pads was evaluated.
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Analysis of Barbiturates by UFLC
This application note details the separation and detection of seven barbiturates with ultra-fast LC (UFLC) conditions.
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Applications of Ultra Fast HPLC
This application note focuses on the high-speed analysis of xanthine derivatives and triarylmethane ink dyes with Ultra Fast HPLC.
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A Practical Approach to Conserving Acetonitrile
Shimadzu offers reasonable and practical analytical tools and solutions to the global acetonitrile shortage. The use of small particle columns with smaller column dimensions has become an increasingly popular way to reduce analysis times, and also provides the additional benefit of decreasing mobile phase consumption.
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LCMS-2020 - Reduces Limitations of HPLC Analysis and UFLC Analysis
As explained above, building an LC/MS system that employs an MS as an LC detector can effectively reduce the limitations of LC analysis. In addition to this, reducing those limitations to the greatest extent possible requires an MS that can handle ultra high speed analysis. The new “LCMS-2020” single quadrupole ultra-fast LC/MS, boldly addresses these requirements.
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Structural Analysis of Reserpine Degradation Products by LCMS-IT-TOF
Structural elucidation of impurities during the development of pharmaceutical products is very important. While NMR and other techniques can be used for this purpose, the mass spectrometer is the primary means of conducting structural analysis. In order to do this, high mass accuracy with MSn fragmentation data is absolutely necessary.
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Shimadzu’s Total Nitrogen Module Eliminates Environmentally Un-friendly Environmental Methods
For every two steps forward in technology we take one step back in terms of pollution. The same goes for monitoring the environment. For every test or method developed to identify and isolate toxins, a large amount of toxic waste is produced. Simply stated, environmental methods shouldn’t be harmful to the environment.
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LCMS-IT-TOF Analysis of Amoxicillin
Amoxicillin was successfully separated and detected under gradient conditions using a Shimadzu Prominence series LC coupled to the LCMS-IT-TOF. Data acquired on the LCMS-IT-TOF allows for MSn and excellent mass accuracy within one experiment. Mass accuracy data obtained from the LCMS-IT-TOF is comparable to data reported by other vendors requiring the use of an internal standard or a dual-sprayer configuration.
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Identification of Proteins by LC-MALDI System
This application note introduces that protein identification by MS/MS ion search using an LCMALDI system which combines a nano-LC system (Prominence nano-AccuSpot-AXIMA® Performance).
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Analysis of Minor Components in Synthetic Polymers Using SEC-AccuSpot-AXIMA System (1)
Shimadzu has developed the AccuSpot automated spotter to mix the eluate from the LC with the various reagents and directly load them onto the MALDI sample plate. As a result, an automated analytical SEC-MALDI analysis system was constructed that can rapidly simplify all the processing from LC separation to MALDI-TOFMS measurement.
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Oligosaccharide Analysis by MALDI-MS using Liquid Matrices
Oligosaccharide Analysis by MALDI-MS using Liquid Matrices
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Toy Analysis by Atomic Absorption
This application introduces the dissoultion testing of Pb from toy paint coating using the furnace atomic absorption method.
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Reducing Analysis Limitations by Using Multiple Detectors with Ultra Fast LC
Reducing Analysis Limitations by Using Multiple Detectors with Ultra Fast LC
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Volume 11 of FTIR Talk Letter
Safety of Windows and Prisms Used in FTIR, Points to Note in Rubber Analysis: Black Rubber, New Products
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Volume 2 of UV Talk Letter
The Structure of a Spectrophotometer, The Relationship Between UV-VIS Absorption and Structure of Organic Compounds, New Products: AA-7000
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Determination of Heavy Metals in Wine using simultaneous ICP-OES with Mini Torch
ICP-OES is the "state of the art“ tool for the daily routine in quality control of wine samples. The ICPE-9000 is flexible enough to prepare the system configuration in order to achieve calibration ranges as low as 1 to 10 ppb.
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High Speed Analysis of Explosives
Showcasing the development and use of a high-speed reversed phase method for monitoring explosive levels in soil samples near current and former munition plants, an important objective for both environmental and safety reasons.
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Phosphorylation Analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (3) Phosphopeptide Enrichment Technique Using TiO2
Over the past several years, great achievements have been realized in phosphorylation research due to research into specific phosphopeptide enrichment techniques using IMAC (Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). Here we describe phosphorylation analysis using a combination of TiO2-based phosphopeptide enrichment and MALDI-MS/MS (seamless PSD).
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Phosphorylation Analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (2) Phosphopeptide Sequence Analysis Using Seamless PSD
In the CID method (Collision-Induced Dissociation) used in MALDI-MS/MS amino acid sequence analysis, phosphorylation site information is difficult to obtain due to the marked desorption of the fragile phosphate group caused by collision with the inert gas. However, when sPSD is used in the analysis, the obtained spectra clearly indicate some degree of suppressed phosphate desorption, which is attributed to the absence of inert gas.
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Phosphorylation Analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (1) Measurement Mode and Matrix Selection for Phosphopeptide Detection
Phosphorylation is one type of protein posttranslational modification (PTM) that plays a significant role in important biological functions. Mass spectrometry is recently being applied in phosphorylation interrogation, and various results have been reported. In almost all cases, however, the instrument configuration used has been based on electrospray ionization (ESI). Here we introduce a method useful for the detection of phosphopeptides by MALDI technique.
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On-Tissue Direct Analysis: Analysis of Changes in Amount of Lipids in Murine Hepatopathy Model due to Administration of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)
Here we introduce an example of on-tissue direct detection of phospholipid changes using MALDI-TOF MS. The sample consisted of a mouse model hepatopathological tissue section in which injury was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride, and on-tissue direct MS analysis was conducted at time intervals following administration of the carbon tetrachloride.
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Measurement of TOC in Sulfuric Acid Solution and Ammonium Sulfate Solution Using the TOC-VCSH
This Application News introduces examples of TOC measurement in 1 % sulfuric acid solution and in 1 % ammonium sulfate solution using the Shimadzu TOC-VCSH total organic carbon analyzer.
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Qualitative Analysis of Triglycerides in Cooking Oil Using GC/MS
The following examples illustrate the use of the combined data from EI and CI for the triglyceride analysis of a butter sample by GC/MS.
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Measurement of Quantitation Limits for Vitamin B12 and Caffeine in Aqueous Solution Using UV-1800 UV-VIS Spectrophotometer
Here we report on the measurement of vitamin B12 and caffeine in aqueous solutions using the Shimadzu UV-1800 UV-VIS spectrophotometer to determine their respective quantitation limits.
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Measurement of Thermal History of Plastics by DSC
This Application News introduces examples of the measurement of crystallized Nylon 66 samples that were cooled at different speeds, as well as PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and PEEK (polyetheretherketone) samples having different thermal histories.E
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Multi-Element Simultaneous Determination of Nutrients as well as Hazardous Elements in Brown Rice by ICPE-9000
This Application News introduces an analysis of a brown rice sample using the Shimadzu ICPE-9000 multitype ICP emission spectrometer, in which digestion of the sample into a solution was conducted using a microwave digester.
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Accurate Mass Measurement of High Concentration Samples by LCMS-IT-TOF
This investigation shows that ASC function is an effective tool for preventing loss of mass accuracy due to saturation of the detector. Using ASC, highly accurate measurement results can be obtained in a single analysis in cases where the concentration is unknown or when the sample contains a mixture of components at varying concentrations.
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Agent Report: Limiting Report Creation Risks Through Automatic Integration of Various Types of Data
This report entails how to limit report creation risks through automatic integration of various types of data. This report covers ensuring reliability of computer-acquired data, risks to analysis and test data, data alteration, difficulty of handling different types of data, integrating different types of data with agent report, ensuring a high level of security and agent report flexibility and extendibility.
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Open Solution: Open Access Environment by Web Browser
As described above, there are great advantages to be realized in an open access system comprising a closed network in a laboratory that is linked to an open network in a separate office environment. The introduction of Open Solution provides an open access environment which can be utilized to its maximum to achieve great efficiencies in LC and LC/MS analysis in the analytical laboratory.
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Structural Analysis of Industrial Materials by MALDI-MS/MS 01 - Analysis of the Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Polymers -
MALDI-MS/MS analysis using the high-energy CID technique is a simple analytical technique that provides abundant information due to the many product ions formed that reflect partial structures, as compared with the conventional PSD technique. This enabled examination of the side-chain structure in a polymer used for OLED displays.
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Analysis of Black Rubber Diaphragm by FTIR and EDX
Qualitative analysis of rubber can be conducted quickly and easily using ATR measurement. With this technique, an infrared spectrum is easily obtained for qualitative analysis by affixing a rubber sample to the surface of an ATR prism. However, the composition of elements in a rubber sample can also be analyzed easily and quickly, and further, non-destructively by EDX.
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Glass Plate Analysis in Accordance with JIS R3106
The methods for determining visible light transmittance, or simply visible transmittance, visible reflectance, solar transmittance, solar reflectance and solar energy absorbance, and normal emittance and their respective methods of calculation are specified in JIS R3106 “Testing Method on Transmittance, Reflectance and Emittance of Flat Glasses and Evaluation of Solar Heat Gain Coefficient”. Of these indices, which express the characteristics of plate glass, solar transmittance and its determination was introduced in Application News A396. The remaining plate glass indices are introduced here.
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Structural Analysis of Industrial Materials by MALDI-MS/MS 02 - Analysis of Nonionic Surfactants -
MALDI-TOF MS is a widely used analytical technique for the structural analysis of various industrial materials. In addition to monomer repeat unit mass information, partial structural elucidation can be achieved through MS/MS analysis by applying high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). Here we introduce an example of MS/MS analysis of a non ionic surfactant , a high surface-active agent which is used extensively in chemical and other industrial applications.
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Flash and Continuous Light Sources in Fluorescence
For fluorescence measurements from the ultraviolet through the visible and into the near infrared region, the typical light source is the Xenon arc lamp. This particular source has been widely used due to its favorable characteristics, primarily the ability to deliver high energy output over a wide wavelength range.
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Analysis of Aquatic Vegetation
The ICPE-9000 was used to perform quantitative analysis of aquatic vegetation (chlorella, sargassum). Nearly all of the elements agree with the certified values in the obtained results.
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Analysis of Fertilizer
Fertilizers classified as general fertilizers made from sludge are subject to official standards, including minimum content of principal ingredients, maximum limit for harmful constituents, etc., according to the Fertilizer Management Law. Therefore, it is necessary to perform quality assurance testing for the principal ingredients and harmful constituents before use as fertilizer. Here we introduce analysis of trace constituents in fertilizer using the multi-type ICPE-9000 ICP emission spectrometer. ICP emission spectrometry is highly sensitive and features a wide dynamic range, thereby enabling simultaneous analysis of these principle ingredients as well as toxic trace constituents.
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Analysis of Plants – 1
The multi-type ICPE-9000 ICP emission spectrometer was used to perform quantitative analysis of brown rice. The results obtained for many elements matched the certified values, including that for the trace element cadmium.
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Analysis of Plants – 2
The multi-type ICPE-9000 ICP emission spectrometer was used to analyze several plant standards (tea leaf, olive, citrus leaf). The results closely agree with the certified value for each element.
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Analysis of Plastic
An ICP emission spectrometer can be used to accurately measure low concentrations of harmful metals like lead and cadmium in plastics. Decomposition of plastic samples for analysis is conducted by the dry-ashing, wet decomposition or microwave digestion method. This application introduces the analysis of plastic using the multi-type ICPE-9000 ICP emission spectrometer.
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Analysis of Pond Sediment
The multi-type ICPE-9000 ICP emission spectrometer was used to analyze pond sediment. With the ICPE-9000, the semi-quantitation results can easily be obtained from the database (qualitative function), without generating calibration curves.
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Analysis of River Water
On May 30, 2003, the tap water quality standard was greatly revised in Japan, and this revision made notification of a new inspection method. Arsenic, selenium, antimony and uranium were newly added as items to be analyzed by ICP emission spectrometry, and measurement of all items except mercury became possible. There are many analytes specified in the analysis of tap water, from high concentration elements at ppm levels, like sodium and calcium, to trace elements at ppb levels, such as lead and cadmium. Accordingly, this requires an analytical instrument with high-sensitivity, a wide analysis range and high-throughput performance. This application introduces the quantitative analysis of tap water and river water using the multi-type ICPE-9000 ICP emission spectrometer.
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Analysis of Sewage and Sewage Sludge
This application introduces the quantitative analysis of sludge and sewage waste water using the multi-type ICPE-9000 ICP emission spectrometer. The ICPE-9000 is a highly sensitive ICP instrument equipped with the axial view as a standard function. By selecting the radial-view (option), simultaneous analysis of trace elements like cadmium, to high-concentration elements like iron, zinc and aluminum, etc. becomes possible. Moreover, as in the case of sewage sludge and waste water, even samples containing widely varying concentrations of the same elements can be measured simultaneously in a single batch.
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Analysis of Soil
Recently, along with redevelopment at old factory sites, etc., ground contamination with heavy metals and volatile organic compounds has become increasingly obvious. Due to this situation, the “Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law” was enacted on May 29, 2002 to protect the public health, and enforcement of the law began on February 15, 2003. Since it is probable that exposure to specific toxic substances over a long period of time results in high concentrations in the ground surface layer, and that these toxins enter the soil directly, maximum concentration standards were set for nine items. Twenty-five substances were specified as risks with respect to infiltration into underground water.
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Comprehensive Evaluation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Using Thermal Analysis
This Application News presents a comprehensive evaluation of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), one of the important factors affecting the performance of fuel cells.
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Determination of Asbestos Content in Natural Brucite
Here we demonstrate that asbestos content can be assessed using the Shimadzu DTG-60 according to the above method.
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Volume 12 of FTIR Talk Letter
Topics include: FTIR market amidst rapidly growing economy in India, Using infrared detectors- pyroelectric detectors, Foreign matter analysis by FTIR-handling spectra of foreign matter, Question on ATR objective mirrors.
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Blood Alcohol Analysis using the Shimadzu GC-2010 and AOC-5000 Headspace Autosampler
This application presents a static headspace method using Shimadzu GC-2010 and AOC-5000 headspace autosampler, which offers reliable qualitative analysis, reproducibility and short run times allowing for high throughput.
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Understanding RoHS What it Means to U.S. Manufacturers
With the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) regulations scheduled to take effect in July 2006, there is ongoing concern regarding the readiness of American companies to meet new European standards. Initiated by the European Union, RoHS is a direct response to growing calls for the regulation of materials deemed hazardous (including lead, cadmium, and mercury) in consumer electronic equipment.
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Iron and Steel Analysis Using ICPE-9000
Here we introduce the analysis of iron and steel standard substances using the Shimadzu ICPE-9000 multi-type ICP emission spectrometer.
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Ca Analysis by Atomic Absorption
Here we introduced the analysis of Ca in talc according to the method prescribed by the Japanese Pharmacopeia, in which the addition of La is used in conjunction with the N2O-C2H2 flame.
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Swab / Direct Combustion Carbon Analysis of Drug Residue by TOC-VCPH
This Application News introduces an example of measurement of a drug substance using the TOC-VCPH Total Organic Carbon Analyzer with the SSM-5000A Solid Sample Combustion Unit.
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Tableware Analysis Using ICPE-9000
We introduce the analysis of commercial tableware using the Shimadzu ICPE-9000 multi-type emission spectrometer.
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LCMS Sample Evaluation Report
This report demonstrates the chromatographic performance and LCMS analysis for components of customer-provided samples. Utilizing the LCMS-2020, the objective was to attain resolution of 5 components from test mix in a total method runtime of 2 minutes or less, including MS spectral peaks.
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Enhanced Productivity with a New Gas Chromatography System
A new gas chromatography system has been developed with technology improvements to enhance productivity. Analysis of hydrocarbon mixture C<sub>7</sub> - C<sub>33</sub> was used to demonstrate new design features. Excellent precision of retention times and detector response was demonstrated in all of the chromatographic results
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Determination of Lead in Sugar by Electrothermal Atomization
The Japanese pharmacopeia specifies that analysis of lead content in refined white sugar be conducted by the electrothermal atomization (furnace) method. Since high sensitivity sample analysis is possible even at micro levels, this method is effective for trace level analysis even for toxic elements other than lead. Here we introduce an example of such an analysis based on the method specified in the Japanese pharmacopeia.
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High Speed Analysis of Low Level Estrogens and Their Metabolites from Biological Samples
Introducing a novel multicolumn approach that uses an ultra-high pressure LC system for Cumulative Multicolumn Sequential Chromatography with different column chemistries for the required resolution, significantly reducing analysis time.
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Direct LC/MS Analysis of Basic Drugs in Plasma by On-line pretreatment with Weak Cation-Exchange Pretreatment Column
A new pretreatment column, Shim-pack MAYI-WCX (prototype), which has weak cation-exchange groups as stationary phase, has been developed for trapping of basic compounds in consideration of LCMS use. The retention ability and pretreatment effect of the Shim-pack MAYI-WCX was evaluated for desipramine, dibucaine, lidocaine, verapamil and amitriptyline by using a column-switching system (Co-Sense for BA system, Shimadzu).
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Fast Analysis of Acrylonitrile in ABS Polymer Using a Backflush GC System
This Application News introduces a fast analysis of acrylonitrile based on the use of the backflush GC system.
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Improved Transformer Oil Gas Analysis (TOGAS) by GC Headspace
A Gas Chromatograph configured with a headspace autosampler, two automated valves and three detectors is described, and the methodology from sample prep to GC analysis and data processing is examined. Improvements include detection limits for hydrogen, analysis of hydrocarbons up to n-C4 within 20 minutes, and automated software processing of the data to account for the actual temperature and atmospheric pressure.
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New Applications for Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography
Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography is a technique where all the analytes eluting from one chromatographic column are subsequently run on a second, dissimilar column to improve chromatographic resolution. This technique can significantly increase resolution in a complex mixture, and can be used to identify target compounds as well as provide a class separation. This poster provides some examples.
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Rapid GC Simulated Distillation Analysis
ASTM D 2887, simulated distillation (SIMDIS) GC method, is one of the most basic tests in the petroleum industry. In this method, retention times are directly correlated to boiling points and detector responses are correlated to the hydrocarbon concentrations. The contemporary petroleum industry continuously calls for high-speed analysis to improve productivity. Here, a new FAST SIMDIS GC technique, which reduces the run time from 45 min to 9.56 min, is presented.
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Improved Precision and Accuracy in Extended Natural Gas Analysis
Refinery gas analysis is performed to characterize the components created from a process gas stream. A newly developed system, allowing more precise and accurate results to be performed, has been developed. In this report, the retention time repeatability and quantitative results using this system are evaluated.
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New Applications for Multidimensional Gas Chromatography
Multidimensional chromatography is the utilization of multiple columns to enhance difficult separations. For a complex mixture there may not be a single column that resolves all the peaks of interest. A better separation may be possible using two columns of different polarity. In this poster, analysis examples using the MDGC/GCMS system, which utilizes a multi-Deans switch, are presented.
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Rapid Screening for Drugs of Abuse Using Higher Column Flow Rates in Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
The need to run more samples in the same amount of time with the same data quality has increased; this poster addresses how certain modifications can be made to increase throughput while retaining high-quality data
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An Improved Method of Updating Retention Times for GCMS
A new technique has been developed to update retention times automatically in the data processing software. The technique is based on the use of retention indices, referenced to a hydrocarbon standard (series of n-alkanes). This is a multipoint correction method, so target analytes will always be bracketed by the retention index marker compounds to ensure accuracy of updated retention times for target compounds. Examples illustrate the accuracy of this technique using a subset of US EPA Method 8270D analytes.
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A New Generation of Capillary Advanced Flow Technology for Gas Chromatography Applications
The new GC-2010 Plus Advanced Flow Technology shortens analysis times and enhances chromatographic separations in complex matrices. In this study, single-oven MDGC separation of volatile aromatics from a gasoline sample was demonstrated. Multiple heart cuts were achieved without changing retention times of other peaks, enabling separation of peaks of interest from co-eluting matrix interferences.
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Volume Dimension and Number Dimension
The Nano Particle Size Analyzer SALD-7101, in which measurement is based on the laser diffraction method, measures particle size distribution using the volume dimension. However, if necessary, the volume dimension results can be converted into the number dimension particle size distribution for output of the results.
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Size Measurement of Microbubbles and Nanobubbles
Recently, there is great expectation that so-called microbubbles and nanobubbles will play ever-increasing roles in applications throughout various fields and for a variety of purposes, as shown in Table 1. Accordingly, research and development into methods and instruments for generating such bubbles are now underway. In fact, one could say that this trend is turning into somewhat of a boom. In part, there are already efforts to put these to practical use and to bring them to market. However, the reality is that various uncertainties still remain with respect to these bubbles, one of which is the matter of bubble size.
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Observation of Protein Antigen - Antibody Reaction
Applying the outstanding features of the Nano Particle Size Analyzer SALD-7101, which includes “measurement range: 10 m to 300 μm”, “shortest measurement time: 1 second”, and “measurement concentration range: a few ppm to 20%”, observations and measurements can be conducted with this instrument not only with respect to fixed particle distribution (unchanging), but also with variation (time-related behavior) in particle size distribution (particle diameter) due to a variety of conditions and influences. One application utilizing these features is the direct observation of the state of protein –protein interaction including antigen – antibody reactions, by observing changes in particle size as they occur without the use of labeling or other facilitating techniques.
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Evaluation of Agglutination in Vaccine and Proteins
With the Nano Particle Size Analyzer SALD-7101, laser diffraction method (static scattering method) is adopted as the measurement principle, allowing simultaneous measurement of the primary particles as well as clumps and contaminants using a single instrument. With this, the degree of agglutination in vaccines and proteins can be evaluated quickly and accurately. Moreover, time-course changes can be measured in 1-second intervals.
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Measurement of Needle-Shaped, Fiber-Shaped and Tubular Particles
Particle size distribution is normally expressed as particle amount (cumulative or differential) corresponding to a particle diameter scale. Using the Nanoparticle Size Analyzer SALD-7101 measurement principle “laser diffraction method”, particle size distribution is calculated based on the light intensity distribution pattern of the diffracted and scattered light, assuming that the particles are spherical in shape. Therefore, when using the SALD-7101, measurement is always conducted based on the assumption that the particles are always spherical.
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Evaluation of Sunscreen Cream
This application analyzes the particle size distribution measurement in sunscreen cream using the Nano Particle Size Analzyer SALD-7101.
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Size Measurement of Microbubbles and Nanobubbles – 2
Using the SALD-7101, the flow cell and bubble generator can be directly connected to the instrument to allow online, real-time bubble diameter measurement of generated microbubbles and nanobubbles, which allows the possibility of obtaining bubble diameter feedback.
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Evaluation of Particle Dissolution Process
Because the Nano Particle Size Analyzer SALD-7101 is capable of particle size distribution measurement at time intervals as short as one second, it is now possible to observe the time-course behavior of particle size distribution (particle diameter) during the dissolution process.
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Reason for Adopting UV Light Semiconductor Laser
When the particles to be measured are placed in a medium having a refractive index different than that of the particles, and which are then irradiated with laser light (collimated beam), scattered light is generated from the particles. In the “dynamic light scattering method (DLS)”, the time-course changes in scattered light intensity are utilized to measure particle size; however, in the “laser diffraction method” adopted in the SALD-7101, the special changes in light intensity (light intensity distribution pattern) dependent on the scattering angle is utilized to measure the particle diameter (particle size distribution).
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Measurement of Polystyrene Latex Particles
Using the IG-1000, we measured polystyrene latex particles which are widely used as standard samples. For measurement, we used polystyrene latex particles of label size (average size) 33nm to 97nm.
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Repeatability of Single Nanoparticles
Using the IG-1000, we measured commercially available silica particles of label size 5 nm to 25 nm containing single nano particles.
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Influence of Contamination
Using the IG-1000, we prepared a sample mixture of 1-μm particles added to 46-nm particles and performed measurement on the IG-1000 to look into the influence of large particles on measurement. We found that, when compared withnon-intrusion of large particles,there as hardly any influence caused by intrusion of large particles. This contamination resistance is one of the outstanding features of the IG method which uses diffracted light.
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Example of Measurement of Single Nanoparticles
On the IG-1000, we measured two types of silica particles (label size 5nm, 8nm) having different particle sizes both containing single nanoparticles and fullerene hydroxide particles. We found a distinctly apparent difference in the particle sizes of the two types of silica particles containing single nanoparticles. This difference between samples was clearly manifested also in the intensity data of the diffractedlight, the raw data.
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Measurement of Mixed Nanoparticles
The IG-1000 can accurately measure the particle size distribution of nanoparticles having a broad distribution, which has up till now been difficult by other methods.
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Measurement of Liposomes using the IG-1000
Here we introduce the results of measurement of liposomes using the IG-1000 nanoparticle analyzer , capable of measuring the size of a single nanoparticle.
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Measurement of Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) using the IG-1000
Detection of target molecules is possible by coupling molecular probes to the surface of a bead comprising semi conductor nanoparticles such as cadmium sulfide(CdS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanocrystals. Using the IG-1000 particle size measurement of these nanoparticles was evaluated.
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Measurement of Nano Particles Used in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
In this application, the IG-1000 measures the particle size distribution of the porous titanium oxide nano particles which is used in the production of the dye-sensitized solar cell.
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Measurement of Magnetic Nano Particles
The IG-1000 measurement results reflect the state of aggregation of the particles in the liquid (secondary particle size measurement). It is clear from the results that the mean particle size is about 25nm, and that the iron oxide is dispersed in the liquid in the form of nanoparticles.These results suggest the possibility that this type of magnetic particle-dispersed liquid can be used in various applications based on the properties of nanoparticles.
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Measurement of Pigmented Ink Nano Particles
The measured colors consisted of magenta (red),cyan (blue), yellow, and black. Measurement wassuccess fully conducted regardless of the color of the pigmented ink. It is worth mentioning that this type of measurement is difficult to realize in conventional light-scattering based methods. Highly absorbing particles make light difficult to pass through. By overcoming this restriction,the IG-1000 provides a powerful tool for quality control in ink and paint industries.
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Measurement of Nano Particles Used in Fuel Cells
A fuel cell is a kind of battery that continuously produces electric power from supplied oxygen and hydrogen. Water is discharged as a result of the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. The IG-1000 single nano particle size analyzer is ideal for assessing the dispersion status of nanoparticles in liquids.
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Determination of Tl in Drinking Water using GFA-7000
The AA-7000 in combination with the GFA-7000 is a suitable monitoring system for reliable determination of toxic heavy metals such as thallium in drinking water and mineral water.
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Analysis of Na, K, Ca and Mg in Mineralwater using the Microsampling Method
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium belong to the essential mineral substances in the human organism. The control of Na, K, Ca and Mg in a variety of mineral waters has been performed according to the actual DIN/ EN regulations [2], with the Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA- 7000 in a fully automatic multi element sequence.
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Measurement of Nano Particles Used in Sunscreen
Ultra fine particles (nanoparticles) made of titanium oxide and zinc oxide, etc. are used in sunscreen to block exposure to ultraviolet rays. However, nanoparticles may easily aggregate to form larger particles which increase the amount of scattered light, resulting in the loss of transparency. Therefore, it is important that the nanoparticles are maintained in a well dispersed state.The IG-1000 single nano particle size analyzer is ideal for assessing the state of nano particle dispersion.
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Measurement of Nano Particles Used in Vehicle Catalytic Converters
The three-way catalyst is a porous body with cerium oxide particles, etc. as the raw material, sintered to the substrate. Making cerium oxide into nano particles increases the active surface area to promote reactivity, and therefore, the particle size distribution within this raw material becomes important.
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Accurate, Reproducible dsDNA Quantitation Using the Small-Volume BioSpec-nano Spectrophotometer
The BioSpec-nano is a state-of-the-art UV-VIS Spectrophotometer for life sciences, ideal for quantitation of nucleic acids or fluorescently-labeled nucleic acids. Completely automated, it offers such features as ‘Drop and Click’ sample mounting-measurement, and cleaning. Manual operations such as moving the optical fiber vertically or cleaning the parts in contact with the liquid are unnecessary. This communication presents data on the accuracy and reproducibility of the BioSpec-nano for dsDNA quantitation.
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Blood Vessel Tensile Strength Tests
This report introduces the results of strength tests for a variety of blood vessels (carotid arteries, jugular veins, aortas, inferior vena cava), as well as urinary tracts, and decellularized urinary tracts (urinary tracts from which the cellular components have been chemically removed: in regenerative medicine, this is utilized as artificial blood vessels, with the aim of regeneration through dissemination of one's own cells).
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Measurement of the Compressive Elastic Modulus of Resin Pellets with a Precision Universal Tester Using Trapezium-X
This report describes an attempt to measure the compressive elastic modulus of resin pellets of a variety of shapes and sizes.
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Measurement of Poisson’s Ratio and Elongation for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
In this report, strain is chosen as an example of a physical value showing the properties of typical PVC resin. Strain is measured both in the tensile (vertical) direction and at right angles to the tensile direction (width = horizontal direction) using a noncontact displacement gauge and the Shimadzu precision universal tester, Autograph AG-X. Poisson’s ratio is then obtained using these results.
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Tensile Strength Test for Polychloroprene Rubber
This Application News introduces an evaluation of the most characteristic properties of chloroprene rubber, tensile strength and elasticity.
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Tensile Testing for PET Films
High functional resins including films come in many different varieties, and are involved in a number of research and development projects. Be sure to take advantage of the AG-X for the evaluation of high functional resins.
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Tensile Tests of Various Plastic Materials
Plastics are categorized roughly into “thermoplastic resins” and “thermosetting resins” depending on their process-ability characteristics. This Application News focuses on the former, “thermoplastic resins”, elucidating the features and differences among 4 universally used types of plastics, namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polycarbonate (PC), based on their tensile strength properties.
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Tensile Test for Steel Material with High-Accuracy Strain Control
Here we used the Shimadzu Autograph AG-50kNX precision universal testing machine with the SSG-50-10H extensometer (shown in overview of Fig. 1) to perform tensile testing of an SPCC steel sheet sample according to 2 types of strain increase rate control as specified in the proposed ISO 6892 revision, in order to verify the results and load rate control accuracy.
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Transmittance Map of Glass Plate Coated with TCO Film Measured with SolidSpec-3700 Equipped with Automatic X-Y Stage
A solar cell is composed of various parts, including p-type and n-type semiconductors, anti-reflective film, TCO (transparent conductive oxide) film, and glass plate, etc. Previously, in Application News A409, we introduced an example of measurement of absolute reflectance of anti-reflective film. Here, we report on the transmittance measurement of a glass plate coated with TCO film. TCO films are transparent as well as electrically conductive, and examination of the transmittance distribution is important for evaluating both the TCO film and glass substrate. Here we introduce the measurement of the transmittance distribution (map) in glass plate coated with TCO film using the SolidSpec-3700 UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer.
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Identification of Proteins by LC-MALDI System (1) - Analysis of Samples Obtained from Frozen Tissue Sections
We conducted proteome analysis using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis system and frozen tissue sections obtained by laser microdissection (LMD).Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is a technique that is recognized for its excellent reproducibility and its ability to quantitate. Therefore, it is still the most widespread analytical method in proteomics.
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Identification of Proteins by LC-MALDI System (2) - Analysis of Carbonylated Proteins
Using the AXIMA MALDI-TOF-MS system for end-point analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis, we analyzed carbonylated proteins in the CA1 area of a monkey hippocampus affected by ischemia-reperfusion.It is known that reactive oxygen species, or oxygen radicals (ROS), negatively impact a great many diseases, including cancer, cardiac disease and cerebral stroke, which are the leading causes of death among the Japanese, in addition to such lifestyle diseases as diabetes and arteriosclerosis.
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High-Sensitivity Protein Identification Using AXIMA Resonance
The AXIMA Resonance is unique in the world as a mass spectrometer that combines a quadrupole ion trap with a MALDI. The ion trap offers enhanced sensitivity and higher selectivity of precursor ions in MS/MS analysis. Moreover, this effect is further amplified when using the μFocus plate, which enables concentration of the sample on the surface of the MALDI plate.Here we introduce an example of high-sensitivity identification using the μFocus plate together with the AXIMA Resonance.
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Glycopeptide Analysis Using AXIMA Resonance
The AXIMA Resonance is a mass spectrometer that combines Shimadzu’s unique quadrupole ion trap with MALDI. The ion trap is a powerful tool which is suitable for analysis of glycoproteins, complex structures containing sugar chains (glycans) attached to polypeptides through posttranslational modification, because of its ability to conduct MSn measurement (MS/MS, MS3, MS4).
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High Speed with High Resolution Analysis -Analysis of humulones and lupulones in Hops
Hops are one of the basic ingredients in beer and contain -acids (humulones) and β-acids (lupulones). During the brewing process the &Alpha;-acids are converted through isomerization into iso-&Alpha;-acids (isohumulons), which are largely responsible for the bitterness of beer. β-acids, on the other hand, do not produce much bitterness during the boiling stage of beer production, but they are said to play a role in &quot;balancing&quot; the bitter flavor during fermentation and storage. HPLC is generally used for the analysis of &Alpha;-acids and &Beta;-acids, but this analysis typically takes as long as 30 minutes. Here we introduce an example of high-speed analysis of &Alpha;-acids and &Beta;-acids in hops using the Prominence UFLCXR ultra fast, high resolution LC system with a high-speed, high-resolution column.
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High Speed with High Resolution Analysis - High Efficiency Analysis of Ferulic Acid in Berry Juice Using Automated Column Switching System
Here, we introduce an example of analysis of ferulic acid in berry juice using a system constructed specifically for efficient handling of this application. Shimadzu’s Prominence UFLC ultra fast LC system forms the base of the system, which also includes a column switching system comprising the first dimension separation column, a trap column, and the second dimension separation column.
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Application of Evaporative Light Scattering Detector - Analysis of Terpenoids in Ginkgo Biloba
Ginkgo biloba extract contains flavonoids and terpenoids that have been reported to be effective for improving poor blood circulation in the brain as well as poor peripheral blood vessel circulation. This ginkgo biloba extract is used as a health dietary supplement in Japan and the United States. Here we present an example of analysis of terpenoids in ginkgo biloba extract using the ELSD-LT II evaporative light scattering detector.
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Applications of the Prominence RF-20AXS - Fluorescence Detector - High Sensitivity Analysis of Anionic Surfactants, tert-Butylhydroquinone, and Amitrole
The Prominence RF-20AXS fluorescence detector not only achieves high sensitivity levels never before seen (water Raman SN ratio greater than 2000), but it also features a temperature-controlled flowcell with a cooling function as standard to provide highly reliable detection unaffected by ambient temperature fluctuations. Here we introduce examples of high sensitivity analysis using the Prominence RF-20AXS.
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Applications of the Prominence RF-20AXS Fluorescence Detector - High-Speed Analysis of Tocopherols and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
The Prominence RF-20AXS fluorescence detector not only achieves higher sensitivity than ever before possible (water Raman SN ratio greater than 2000), it also includes as a standard feature a temperature controlled cell with a cooling function to provide highly reliable detection irrespective of ambient temperature fluctuations. Moreover, its excellent performance as a fluorescence detector for ultra fast LC is demonstrated with its high-speed sampling and fast response. Here we introduce examples of high-speed analysis of tocopherols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using the Prominence RF-20AXS.
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Applications of Prominence RF-20AXS Fluorescence Detector - Analysis of Saccharides Using Post-Column Derivatization System
Here we present some examples of analyzing saccharides using the reducing sugar analysis system (anion exchange mode) with the Prominence RF- 20AXS.
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Ion Analysis in Drugs - Determination of Counter-ions and Impurity Ions by Ion Chromatography
Here we present examples of analysis of counter-ions and impurity ions at micro levels in drugs using ion chromatography.
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Analysis Using UV/Py -GC/MS System
Methods used for weather-induced degradation testing of polymeric materials include outdoor exposure methods and weather meters, however, measurement using such methods can take weeks or months to complete. Using a system consisting of a combination of a micro-UV irradiator (UV-1047Xe) and a GC/MS makes it possible to observe degradation products generated due to photo/thermal-oxidative degradation processes in a short period of time. Chemical changes in polymeric materials following these degradation processes can also be determined.
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Measurement of Minerals in Dietary Supplements by Atomic Absorption
Here we introduce the method of analysis of minerals in dietary supplements as specified in the Pharmacopoeia of the United States (USP 32), where the supplement market now stands at about three trillion yen (33 billion dollars).
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Analysis of Food Additives – Food Antioxidants
This Application News introduces the results of analysis of the antioxidants BHA, BHT and TBHQ using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The antioxidants were added to a butter sample, and then extracted using a simple pretreatment process. In this analysis, the backflush technique was employed to prevent high-boiling point substances in the actual sample from being introduced into the detector.
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High Speed Analysis of Ginkgolic Acids
Ginkgo leaves contain ginkgolic acid of alkylphenols that can potentially cause allergies. Here we present an example of high speed analysis using the absorbance of ginkgolic acid and fluorescence detection. Generally, fluorescence detection has the advantages of high selectivity and less likelihood that the actual sample will be influenced by impurities.
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High Speed Analysis of Enrofloxacin
Enrofloxacin is a synthetic new quinolone antimicrobial agent. It is used for the treatment and prevention of pneumonia and Escherichia coli diarrhea symptoms in cows and pigs. Here we present an example of high speed analysis of enrofloxacin using fluorescence detection.
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Multi-Dimensional Fragmentation of Anthocyanins from Rose Petals by Ion Trap – Time-of-Flight (IT-TOF) Mass Spectrometry
A Shimadzu high performance liquid chromatography – ion trap – time of flight mass spectrometer (LCMS-IT-TOF) was used to aid in the identification of anthocyanin species in rose petals. The effects of varying the parameters which control the collision energy and the collision gas were observed on cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside and its related mono-glucoside and anthocyanidin fragment signals. Further variation in these parameters were used to optimize iterative multi-stage fragmentation (up to MS6 ) in order to elucidate the fragmentation pathway of cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside.
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LC/MS Analysis of Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) Using Impurity Delay Method
Using the LCMS-2020 with its excellent sensitivity and repeatability and its newly developed QoQ ion optical system, together with the impurity delay method, allows 0.1 μg/L trace-level quantitative analysis of PFOA and PFOS with excellent repeatability.
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Analysis of Drug Degradants by LC/MS
This Application News introduces an example of highspeed analysis of drug degradants by LC/MS. The ultra fast features of the LCMS-2020, scan rates up to 15,000 u/sec and positive/negative polarity switching as fast as 15 msec, were used in combination with in-source CID (Collision Induced Dissociation) to produce experimental results. In addition, formula prediction was conducted using the LCMS-IT-TOF, and separation of the sample components was carried out using the Prominence UFLCXR.
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Dual Ion Source DUIS-2020 for Simultaneous ESI and APCI Measurement
Since the LCMS-2020 utilizes the standard ESI probe as an integral component, upgrading to the DUIS-2020 is simple and cost efficient. Only a corona needle and secondary high voltage power supply need be added to allow simultaneous and continuous ESI and APCI analysis.
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Improved R&D Efficiency Through Speedier Method Development (1)
Various approaches are available for improving the efficiency of analytical method development. The introduction of high-speed analysis into the method development process for LC and LC/MS is one approach that can directly enhance development efficiency by simply speeding up chromatographic evaluation.
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Improved R&D Efficiency Through Speedier Method Development (2)
An overview of this system was introduced in Technical Report vol. 33 “Improved R&D Efficiency Through Speedier Method Development (1).” In this report we introduce an example of the analytical method construction process for batch analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
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Evaluation of a Nanotrap® Biomarker Discovery System
This work will focus on the development and optimization of a biomarker discovery platform combining core shell hydrogel biomarker harvesting, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis and rapid bioinformatics screening.
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Evaluation of Transmittance Dependence on Incident Angle in Glass Plate Coated with TCO Film used for Thin Film Solar Cell
Here, we looked at the irradiation of sunlight at various angles of incidence on a solar cell, and measured the transmittance of this light irradiated at 6 different angles of incidence (0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°) using the SolidSpec-3700 UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer.
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Quantitation of Nucleic Acid Using BioSpec-nano
We conducted nucleic acid quantitation verification using 1 μL and 2 μL samples of purified dsDNA with pathlengths of 0.2 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively, and obtained excellent results for photometric linearity, measurement repeatability, and accuracy of photometric values.
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Quantitative Determination of Bisphenol A from Human Saliva using MAYI Trap column and LCMS – IT-TOF
The use of bisphenol A (BPA) has been a central topic amongst heated discussions on environmental toxicity. It is present in epoxy resins used in the sealants of canned foods, as a monomer unit of polycarbonate polymers, and as a plasticizer in certain polyvinyl chloride polymers, all of which has led to an increased chance of exposure. Despite a wide body of studies, which report the potential health risks associated with BPA exposure, the actual repercussions are inconclusive. Regardless, a growing need for fast, accurate methods to detect and quantify trace amounts of BPA from biological fluids to assess the validity of arguments from cases presented by both sides of the debate.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 15) Analysis of Ginsenosides in Ginseng
This Application News introduces an example of the analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng using the ultra fast LC system “Prominence UFLC” with the Phenomenex Synergi 2.5 μm Polar-RP high-speed, high-resolution column.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 17) Analysis of Paeoniflorin in Peony Root
This Application News focuses on paeoniflorin as one of the principle active substances in peony root, and introduces an example of analysis of paeoniflorin using the ultra high-speed LC system “Prominence UFLC” with the SPD-M20A photodiode array detector.
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Analysis of Various Vitamins in Multivitamin Tablets
This application news displays the analysis of various vitamins in multivatamin tablets according to the USP proposed techniques for the analysis of dietary supplements.The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is an official authority that sets standards for all prescription and over–the–counter drugs, dietary supplements and food ingredients that are intended for sale in the United States.
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Analysis of Dietary Supplements
Analytical Instrumentation & Software for the Evaluation, Identification and QA/QC of Dietary Supplements
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Why Is CFT Used to Evaluate Thermosetting Resins?
Resins are generally classified into thermoplastic resins and thermosetting resins. Major examples are polyethylene terephthalate (PET) used in PET bottles and polypropylene (PP) used in kitchen and bath goods.In CFT, viscosity is calculated by measuring the piston's travel distance (travel rate) in the constant test force extrusion method. In this method, even if a thermosetting resin hardens due to heating, only the displacement of the piston stops.
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DUH Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Testers are used to Evaluate Mobile phones
As mobile phones evolve, so do their attributes and features. One particular feature is the case of the phone. This article discusses the evaluation of the case of the phone using a dynamic ultra micro hardness tester. The DUH dynamic ultra micro hardness tester has attracted attention due to its ability to measure the size of micro test force indentations based on their depth.
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Multi-Faceted Approach for Evaluating Lithium-Ion Battery Separators
Lithium-ion secondary batteries (in this report, simply referred to as "lithium-ion batteries") are widely used as power sources in cell phones, information devices and other small electronic devices because of their high energy density and high cell voltage. This Application News introduces some examples of physical evaluations of separators, one of the component parts of lithium-ion batteries.
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Oligonucleotide Mass Analysis and In-Source Decay Sequencing on a MALDI TOF Mass Spectrometer
Here we will present a simple and speedy method of sequencing oligonucleotides that requires no further sample preparation and little expertise.
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Infrared Spectra of Polyvinyl Chloride
Here we introduce and discuss the infrared spectra of this type of soft PVC.
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Determination of Chlorhexidine, Benzethonium, and Benzalkonium in Disinfectants
Here we introduce examples of HPLC analysis of 3 active ingredients (chlorhexidine, benzethonium, and benzalkonium) found in commercially available disinfectants.
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Analysis of Ethyl α-D-Glucoside in Sake
Japanese sake typically contains ethyl α-D-glucoside (α-EG), a substance believed to promote beautiful skin, and it is now receiving attention for its effectiveness in improving dry skin conditions even when taken in a drink. Here we present an example of analysis of ethyl α-Dglucoside and other saccharides in sake using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC).
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 30) Analysis of Iso-α-Acids and α-Acids in Beer
Here we introduce an example of analysis of iso-α-acids and α-acids using the ultra-high speed, high resolution Prominence UFLCXR system with a high-speed, highresolution column.
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Applications of the "Prominence RF-20Axs" Fluorescence Detector (Part 4) Analysis of Pesticides with a Postcolumn Derivatization System
Fluorescence detectors are widely used in the food and environmental fields due to their high sensitivity and selectivity. Among these applications, fluorescence detection is used for analysis of iminoctadine and Nmethyl carbamate pesticides in food and tap water by a post-column fluorescence derivatization method. Here we introduce examples of these analyses using the Prominence RF-20Axs fluorescence detector with the Prominence Iminoctadine Analysis System and the Prominence Carbamate Analysis System.
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Analysis of Ginkgolic Acids in Ginkgo Biloba Extract
Ginkgo leaf extract (ginkgo biloba extract), which contains active ingredients extracted from ginkgo biloba leaves, is reported to be effective in improving cerebral and peripheral blood circulation deficiencies. It is used in Japan and the United States in the form of a dietary supplement, and in Germany, France, and other European countries as a prescription medication. However, alkylphenols which are present in the ginkgolic acids contained in ginkgo leaves are known to cause allergic reactions. For this reason, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has established an upper limit for ginkgolic acid content in ginkgo biloba extract. Here we introduce an example of analysis of gingkolic acids contained in ginkgo biloba leaves.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 31) Analysis of Mexiletine, Pilsicainide, and Zonisamide in Serum
HPLC separation and quantitation are often used for measurement of drug concentrations in the blood. When analyzing the concentration of a drug in the blood using HPLC, the separation of contaminants and analytes requires a long analysis time. For that reason, there is demand for faster HPLC analysis to improve the productivity of drug pharmacokinetic studies and clinical testing, particularly when handling many samples. Here we introduce analyses of mexiletine, pilsicainide, and zonisamide in serum using the ultra-high speed Prominence UFLC system and high-speed Shim-pack XR-ODS separation column.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 32) Analysis of Phthalates Using Shim-pack XR Series Columns
Phthalate is the generic term for the esters combined phthalic acid and various alcohols that are widely used as a plasticizer for various synthetic resin. Here we present the retention behavior and examples of high-speed analysis of phthalates using the ultrahigh speed Prominence UFLC system and various high-speed, high-resolution Shim-pack XR series columns.
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Analysis of O-linked Glycopeptide Using AXIMA Resonance™, Multiple Stage Mass Spectrometry
Here we introduce an evaluation of ion detection sensitivity in analysis of an actual sample consisting of an O-linked glycopeptides, in addition to analysis of the glycosylation site.
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A Simple and Highly Successful C-terminal Sequence Analysis of Proteins by Mass Spectrometry
Here we introduce an example of mass spectrometric analysis of a sample consisting of selectively collected protein C-termini, demonstrating a newly developed, successful method of amino acid sequencing.
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Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Using Open Solution Software
The LCMS-2020, with its high scanning speed (up to 15,000 u/sec) and high-speed polarity switching (15 msec polarity switching), demonstrates the performance that satisfies the demands of UHPLC. The powerful user interface of Open Solution makes data review and verification easy, supporting the chemist who wishes to make rapid yet accurate decisions related to his ongoing research.
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Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins with Multi-Mode ODS Column Using LCMS-2020
Here we present an example of analysis of 8 watersoluble vitamins using a cation exchange-anion exchange multi-mode ODS column, (Scherzo SM-C18, Imtakt Corporation) in conjunction with the LCMS2020 mass spectrometric detector. The gradient consisted of formic acid / ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile mobile phases, components typical for high sensitivity reverse-phase LCMS analysis.
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Analysis of Polymer Additives Using LCMS-2020
Here we present an example of qualitative analysis of several types of polymer additives included in commercial food containers and packaging materials using the LCMS-2020.
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Precise Lipid Localization from Tissue Sections using a Chemical Inkjet Printer for MALDI Matrix Deposition
Microprinting of matrix solutions combined with imaging using a conventional MALDI TOF-TOF provided accurate mapping of lipids from healthy and diseased tissue sections. This work proved the efficiency of such a methodology when choosing the appropriate printing parameters. Indeed, its automation generated a controlled and reproducible printing process as well as a uniformity of the matrix layer. Both allowed for the efficient detection of gangliosides, PCs and SMs extraction, desorption/ionization and thus detection.
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Quantitative Analysis of Stable Isotopes of Glucose in Blood Plasma Using Quadrupole GC-MS
In order to investigate the dynamics of glucose in living organisms, a stable isotope of glucose is administered, and its concentration in blood and tissues is measured with quadrupole GC-MS. In this study, we conducted a comparative investigation of the influence of the derivatization method on the results obtained in the quantitative analysis of D-glucose-13C6 using quadrupole GC-MS. As a result, it was discovered that aldonitrile-pentaacetylation gives a single derivatization product, and in mass separation performed with MS, it yielded good quantitative results with little influence by the natural isotopes of glucose that are present at high concentrations in living organisms.
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Application of Metabolomics Techniques using LC/MS and GC/MS Profiling Analysis of Green Tea Leaves
This Application Note presents the profiling of green tea leaves as an example of one application of the metabolome analysis technique using LC/MS and GC/MS. A search of the substances believed to play roles in product quality was conducted, and a quality prediction model was constructed based on the results.
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Achieving Ultra-High-Speed Analysis with LC/MS/MS
This report addresses the problems associated with conventional LC/MS/MS systems in achieving ultra-high-speed analysis, and introduces a resolution to these problems.
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Determination of Cadmium in the Tap Water by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Here we introduce an example of flameless atomic absorption analysis of tap water spiked with cadmium at 1/10 the concentration specified in the revised ordinance, using the certified river water reference material JAC 0302 (spiked) provided by The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry.
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Determination of Cadmium in Brown Rice by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Here we introduce examples of analysis of cadmium in standard reference materials of powdered brown rice (NIES No.10-a,-b) using the typical flame AA method, in addition to a high-sensitivity method using an atom booster.
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RNA Sequence Analysis using the Acid-Hydrolysis Method
The combination of MALDI-TOF-MS and use of the acid-hydrolysis was confirmed to be a powerful technique providing fast and easy base sequencing of RNA sequences of approximately 20 bases.
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Phosphorylation Analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (4)
The extremely stable mass accuracy of the AXIMA Resonance surely contributed to these excellent results. The accuracy obtained in identification of the fragmentation ions was at minimum 16 ppm, very excellent results, indeed. Thus,The combination of the AXIMA Resonance with the μFocus plate provided a high sensitivity platform for successful phosphoprotein identification.
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Phosphorylation Analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (5)
Here we introduce a method for enriching phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide (TiO2), as described in "Phosphorylation Analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (3)" using the AXIMA Resonance combined with the μFocus plate.
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Rubber Analysis by FTIR -Method for Removing Silicate from Rubber-
Here we introduce a pretreatment procedure for removing talc, one type of silicate, from rubber which contains talc. For a description of the procedure for removing calcium carbonate, another additive used in rubber, refer to Application News No. A416.
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UV and NIR Spectra of Commercial Mineral Water Samples and Quantitation of Mineral Water Sample Mixtures by Multiple Linear Regression
In this application we demonstrated that multiple regression analysis using absorbance values at multiple wavelengths can be successfully used to perform simultaneous quantitation of multiple sample constituents.
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Determination of Solar Reflectance of Paint Film in Accordance with JIS K5602
JIS K5602 "Determination of reflectance of solar radiation by paint film" is a test method used for evaluating the solar reflectance of such paint coatings. Here we introduce the measurement of solar reflectance of paint film according to this test method.
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Impurity Analysis of Highly-Polar Compounds Without Using Ion-Pair Reagents
Ion-pair reagents which contain fluorine are often used for LC/MS; however, as ion-pair reagents tend to accumulate in the column, interface, switching to another separation mode may take a considerable amount of time to allow complete flushing of the residual ion-pair reagents. Here we introduce analytical conditions that do not include the use of an ion-pair reagent.
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Impurity Analysis of Drugs Using Shim-pack XR-Phenyl Column
Selection of the appropriate column and setting the separation conditions are extremely important in impurity analysis. Although an ODS column is used most of the time, use of phenyl columns is increasing recently with the aim of improving separation. In particular, it is believed that the effectiveness of many pharmaceutical substances is linked to utilization of the aromatic ring π-π interaction. Here we introduce examples of impurity analysis of nitrendipine and nifedipine using the Prominence UFLC and LCMS- 2020.
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Quantitative Analysis of Carbohydrates by LC/MS
Here we introduce examples of quantitative analysis of carbohydrates in foods using post-column solvent addition.
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Analysis of Impurities of Ru Dye (N719) for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Here we introduce an example of the separation and qualitative analysis of impurities in the widely used dye, Ru N719, using the LCMS-2020.
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Analysis of Alprazolam, Reserpine and Verapamil Using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer
Analysis of Alprazolam, Reserpine and Verapamil Using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer
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Analysis of water soluble water vitamins using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer
Analysis of Water Soluble Water Vitamins using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer. Vitamins include Thiamin, Pyridoxin, Riboflavin, Folic Acid and many more.
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Analysis of fat soluble vitamins using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer
Analysis of fat soluble vitamins using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer. Vitamins include: Vitamin A, Vitamin D2, Vitamin D3, Vitamin K1 and many more.
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Structural analysis of 26 pharmaceutical compounds using synchronized survey scan measurement using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer
Structural Analysis of 26 Pharmaceutical Compounds using synchronized survey scan measurement.
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Screening of plastic additives using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer
This note describes full scan analysis of a mixture of 12 plastic additives using Synchronized Survey Scan (SSS) as shown in Figure 1. High-speed polarity Switching (15 msec) and rapid scan rates (10000 u/sec) allow multiple collision energies to be employed for automatic product ion scanning .
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Fast precursor ion scan and neutral loss measurement of sulfa drugs using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer
Fast Precursor Ion Scan and Neutral Loss Measurement of Sulfa Drugs Using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer.
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Screening of sulfa drugs using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer
This document describes a method of screening for sulfa drugs using precursor (hereinafter called Prec.) and neutral loss (hereinafter called NL) scans.
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Simultaneous measurement of positive-negative Ions of 30 pesticides for water management using the LCMS-8030 triple quad mass spectrometer.
Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has designated simultaneous analysis using C18 solid-phase extraction and LC/MS to be the official analytical method for managing targeted pesticides in water (revised on April, 2008). Currently, 31 pesticides are covered. This document describes simultaneous MRM analysis using polarity switching with electrospray ionization (ESI) and LC conditions for 30 of these targeted pesticides (excludes Oxine-Cu). The LCMS-8030 is capable of setting the MRM measurement time of each compound independently. In addition, the polarity switching time is short (15msec), making the LCMS- 8030 suitable for simultaneous analysis of multiple compounds that ionize in both positive and negative modes.
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Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Children's Toys Using GC-MS
As of February 2009, the US Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, Section 108, mandated that all manufacturers of children’s toys analyze their products for Phthalate Esters. The method to be used is in accordance with the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). In this study, six phthalate esters in children's toys were measured using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. The simultaneous Scan/SIM data acquisition technique was utilized, with the SIM data used for quantitation. The data showed excellent calibration curve linearity and repeatability. In two of the toy samples, unregulated plasticizers were identified by scan data, illustrating the efficiency of simultaneous Scan/SIM measurement.
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Precise Lipid Localization from Tissue Sections using a Chemical Inkjet Printer for MALDI Matrix Deposition
The importance of lipids in cell life is demonstrated by the number of diseases related to their metabolic alteration such as in Alzheimer’s, diabetes, cancer and many other disease states. The most well known roles for lipids in cell function are chemical energy storage and structural components of cell membranes. However, the whole pallet of their function is not yet totally understood partly due to their complexity and the need for new technology and tools for their study.
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Introduction of a New Fast Scanning, Highly Sensitive Single Quadrupole GCMS: A Platform for Modern Chromatography Techniques
A quadrupole GCMS system, capable of scanning 20,000amu/sec and 100Hz, has been developed that meets the data acquisition requirements of the comprehensive GCxGCMSand Fast-GC techniques. In this study, complex natural product extracts will be analyzed that demonstrate the utility of this new GCMS.
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Evaluation of the Current Capabilities of Ultra High Pressure LC and High Temperature LC
UHPLC is becoming an increasingly popular technique for sample analysis due to the ability to reduce analysis times or improve resolution. However, the use of ultrahigh pressures can reduce column lifetime and increase the maintenance requirements of the LC system. Another less commonly used technique to reduce analysis times is the use of high-temperature LC. High-temperature LC has the advantage of reducing system pressure by lowering solvent viscosity and may provide the ability to reduce the organic content of the mobile phase. The use of high-temperature LC has been limited by the number of available columns for this technique. A number of applications will be presented up to 19,000 psi and 150 degrees C for the technique.
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Evaluation of MS Scanning Speeds with UHPLC Peak Widths
The trend toward high-speed LC analysis with reduced column particle sizes continues to increase in popularity. The narrow peak widths of high-speed LC have generally been handled adequately with UV detectors by increasing data acquisition rates. However, use of a MS will reduce the risk of misidentifying peaks when transferring methods from conventional to high-speed LC. Most MS instruments have had difficulty keeping up with these sharp peaks, which may have peak widths of 200 milliseconds or less. Accurate mass analysis of sharp chromatographic peaks obtained by high-speed LC requires ultra-fast MS detection capabilities. A number of high-speed separations will be evaluated using MS scanning speeds of up to 15,000 u/sec with polarity switching speeds of 15 msec.
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Applications of the Prominence RF-20Axs Fluorescence Detector (Part 5)
Voglibose is a diabetes drug which inhibits the activity of α-glucosidase. HPLC post-column derivatization is specified as the test method for voglibose in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, Fifteenth Edition (voglibose purity test, quantitation of voglibose in pharmaceutical tablets). Here we introduce an example of voglibose tablet testing as specified in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, Fifteenth Edition, using the Prominence post-column derivatization system with the Prominence RF-20Axs fluorescence detector.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 33)
Ginger is not only used as a spice, but has also been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine since ancient times. Investigation into the efficacy of ginger has been attracting a lot of attention in recent years, and the use of ginger in health foods has seen great increases. Here we introduce an example of the analysis of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, constituents of ginger, using the Prominence UFLC ultra fast LC system with the SPD-M20A photodiode array detector.
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Applications Using "Prominence RF-20Axs" Fluorescence Detector (Part 6)
Fluorescence detectors are widely used in the environmental analysis due to their high sensitivity and high selectivity. Even trace amounts of chemical compounds often affect the ecosystem. Bisphenol A is one of such compounds for which trace-level analysis of environmental water is greately required. Here we introduce examples of high-sensitivity analysis of bisphenol A using the Prominence RF- 20Axs fluorescence detector by direct injection and by using an automated column-switching preconcentrating system.
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Internal Standard Addition During Pretreatment Using SIL-30AC
Data with excellent repeatability was obtained using both the internal standard "stacked injection" and the internal standard mixing and dilution pretreatment methods. The examples presented here focused on the use of the internal standard addition technique, but in the amino acid analysis example as well, the pretreatment program was utilized to demonstrate that good repeatability can be obtained without concern for even slight differences in reaction time. In particular, the more complicated the pretreatment process, the more difficult it becomes to maintain repeatability when conducting pretreatment manually. For this reason, the Nexera SIL-30AC pretreatment functions were designed to address a wide range of pretreatment processes, from automated primary screening of large numbers of samples to pretreatment requiring accurate reaction time.
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The Application of UHPLC to Reduce Sample Analyses Times
The use of UHPLC technology has continued to increase in LC applications as a way to reduce sample analysis turnaround times. Maintaining or increasing resolution of faster separations has been made possible with the use of small particle column technology. UHPLC often provides run times of less than one minute with peak widths of less than 200 milliseconds that have created challenges for system performance and detection methods. A variety of applications in pharmaceutical and environmental areas with small particle columns will be presented that will demonstrate the throughput and performance that can be obtained with current UHPLC technology.
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Reduction of Emissions and Operating Costs of GCMS Usage with a New Ecology Mode
In this work, daily electrical power consumption was measured and compared to that of typical GCMS operation. Measured power correlated to predicted energy savings and emission reductions very closely. A new feature in GCMS software called “Eco-mode” automatically performs the power- and gas-saving functions at the end of an analytical batch. Eco-mode is used to reduce gas flow and turn off unnecessary heated zones, projecting an estimated 35% in energy savings as well as reduction of carbon emissions by up to 1.1 tons per year.
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New Applications of Heart-Cut Multidimensional GC
A new application, improved method UOP960 – trace oxygenated hydrocarbons in liquid hydrocarbon streams by MDGC, has demonstrated the power of twodimensional separation.
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Applications of Comprehensive GCxGCMS Using a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer With Ultra-high Scan Speed
A new quadrupole GCMS system, capable of scanning 20,000amu/sec and 100Hz has been developed that meets the data acquisition requirements of the comprehensive GCxGCMS technique. In this study, complex naturally-occurring products will be analyzed that demonstrate the utility of this new GCMS.
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EPA Method 8270D Analysis Using Narrow-bore GC Columns and Fast Data Acquisition with a Quadrupole GCMS System
The goal of this study was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new, sensitive, fast-scanning GCMS system to optimize productivity for EPA Method 8270D, while maintaining the strict QC measures of the method, optimizing sensitivity, and expanding the dynamic range. A new, sensitive, fast-scanning quadrupole GCMS system was used to significantly reduce the run time for a mixture of 81 analytes. Excellent sensitivity and chromatographic resolution were demonstrated with a significantly reduced run/cycle time.
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The Ultimate in Speed and Resolution
The Nexera addresses all analysis requirements : conventional / ultra-high speed / ultra-high resolution / high temperature, with no compromise in data integrity. The wide pressure range increased up to 130 MPa allows Nexera to maximize performance of sub-2-micron particles column. The combination of maximized pressure range and high resolution columns such as sub-2 micro columns realizes genuine ultra high speed and ultra high resolution analysis. The following are the examples of analytical data obtained using the NexeraUHPLC. The data demonstrates the ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution that can be obtained with this system.
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The UHPLC with the Finest Reproducibility under Ultra-High Speed
Drawing upon innovations developed by Shimadzu across all industries and applications Nexera achieves superb reproducibility of retention time, separation and the peak area through accurate control of the injection volume, temperature, precise solvent delivery and mixing of solvents. The micro plunger-driven precision solvent delivery control can keep up with the demanding flow rate changes required during the rapid concentration shifts in fast gradient programming. Nexera also offers a ultra-low volume mixer ( 20 μL) based on micro reactor technology. The data demonstrates ultra-fast gradient analysis of alkylphenones.
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The UHPLC with the Ultimate in Resolution
Nexera supports the use of long analytical columns thereby maximizing separation efficiency thanks to a high pressure limit of up to 130MPa. In this example, two 150 mm columns with 1.8 µm particle size were connected sequentially thereby increasing Nexera’s theoretical plate number to about 70,000.
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Achieving Near Zero Carryover
Nexera autosampler has been designed to provide our customers with the next generation tools for combating sample carryover on an entirely new level. It is now possible to perform a thorough rinse of the sample path and the needle surface by multiple different solvents eliminating the traces even of the stickiest of compounds. This is in addition to the flow-through needle design with minimized contact area which by itself significantly reduces carryover and insures highly reproducible analysis of trace compounds.
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Impurity Analysis by High-sensitivity UV Detector
Analysis of impurities can be a challenging task especially whenthe main ingredient needs to be assayed at the same time, which requires a wider dynamic range and lower baseline disturbances. With an extra wide dynamic range, temperature-controlled flow cell and a stray-light correction function, both SPD-20A UV and SPD-M20A Photo Diode Array detectors offer a high level of stability, sensitivity andlinearity for a confident analysis. The 100 Hz sampling of the SPD-20A/M20A ensures peak information can be captured without loss of resolution and exploits the full potential of ultra-fast LC columns.
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Use of Methanol Solvent for Separation
In liquid chromatography acetonitrile is often a mobile phase ingredient of choice because of its elution strength in reverse phase analysis, low viscosity, low absorption in a wide range of the UV spectrum, and relatively low cost. However, in order to improve peak selectivity, researchers sometimes need to look for alternative solvents. Due to a wide pressure range of up to 130 MPa Nexera affords unlimited flexibility in choosing the ideal composition of the mobile phase even utilizing such viscous solvents as methanol-water that significantly increase the back pressure.
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Ultrafast Analysis of Aldehydes and Ketones
This document introduces an example of ultrafast analysis performed on 13 aldehyde/ketone DNPH derivatives by gradient elution using Nexera and a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (particle size 2.6 µm, a core-shell column where a 0.35 µm porous membrane is combined with a 1.9 µm solid core).
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Ultrafast Analysis of Synthetic Colorants
Various types of synthetic colorants are used as food additives, and gradient elution is generally used to analyze them. Nexera enables stable, ultrafast gradient elution through accurate solution delivery and the use of a high-efficiency gradient mixer. This document introduces an example of ultrafast analysis performed on 12 tar synthetic colorants using Nexera and a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (particle size 2.6 µm, a core-shell column where a 0.35 µm porous membrane is combined with a 1.9 µm solid core).
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Ultrahigh Separation Analysis of Nucleotides
For high‐separation analysis of these components, a long column with a particulate packing material can be used. However, both the UHPLC unit and column need to have a high pressure‐resistance. This document introduces an example of ultrahigh separation analysis performed on nucleotides using Nexera, which is resistant to 130MPa, and a Shim‐pack XR‐ODS III column (particle size 2.2µm), resistant to 100MPa.
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Ultrafast Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins
Water‐soluble vitamins such as thiamine (vitamin B1) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) are generally analyzed by reverse‐phase ion‐pair chromatography. This document introduces an example of ultrafastanalysis performed on water‐soluble vitamins by gradient elution using Nexera and a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (particle size 2.6µm, a core‐shell column where a 0.35µm porous membrane is combined with a 1.9µm solid core).
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Ultrafast, Ultrahigh-Sensitivity Analysis of Aflatoxins
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins with a carcinogenic property and acute toxicity. They are measured by fluorescence detection HPLC and other instruments in order to prevent contaminationof foods. Among four components (B1, B2, G1, G2) quantitated as the total aflatoxin, sensitivity for B1and G1is generally enhanced by a derivatization process using trifluoroacetic acid. Using the RF‐20Axs High‐Sensitivity Fluorescence Detector enables these components to be directly detected at a high sensitivity without any derivatization process. This document introduces an example of ultrafast, high‐sensitivity analysis performed on aflatoxins using Nexera and the RF‐20Axs
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Analysis of Methylglyoxal-Modified Heat Shock Protein 27 Using C-MALDI System
In this application we introduce the results of analysis of MG modification of the heat shock protein Hsp27 in response to various stresses (acidification, chemical substances, etc.) using the Prominence nano-AccuSpot-AXIMA® Performance LC-MALDI system. It is notable that several new modifications were found during this experiment.
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Measurements of Band Gap in Compound Semiconductors - Band Gap Determination from Diffuse Reflectance Spectra
In this measurement, the band gap was determined for three types of compound semiconductor materials (CuInSe2, CuIn0.5Ga0.5Se2, CuGaSe2). These are often used as the functional material in solar batteries based on the compound semiconductors , however, as demonstrated here, these 3 types possess different band gap values. Application of the Tauc relational expression, as shown in this example, allows determination of the band gap in powder samples using the diffuse reflectance spectrum
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Leach Test for Phenol in Rubber Nipples
This Application News introduced the phenol leach test for rubber nipples, however, it must be noted that some of the phenol leach conditions are different for types of rubber other than that used in nipples, as well as for metal cans and plastics. In this way, an UV-VIS spectrophotometer can be used for conducting the leach test of phenol from implements, containers, and packaging material used for food.
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Quantitative Analysis of Trans Fatty Acid by FTIR
Here we introduce a quantitative analysis study we conducted for trans fatty acids by the ATR and transmission methods. Measurement was conducted according to the official method<sup>2</sup>) as prescribed by The American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS). Measurement was also conducted by the transmission method in cases where the trans fatty acid content was assumed to be very low.
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Protein Denaturation and Texture Analysis for Chicken
We conducted an overall evaluation of texture in fried chicken heated over different time periods. A DSC was used to measure protein denaturation, and a precision universal testing machine was used to measure the hardness and elasticity.
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Water Vapor Permeability Analysis of Food Wrapping Film Using TGA-51
Here we used the TGA-51, an instrument capable of continuously measuring water vapor permeability relatively quickly, to measure this property in 5 types of commercially available food wrapping films.
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Analysis of Electrolytic Solvents for Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Battery
In this application news we introduce an example of analysis of electrolytic solvents used in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries by HPLC.
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Analysis of Hexafluorophosphate Ionin Electrolytic Solution for Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Battery
In Application News No. L403, we introduced an example of the analysis of electrolytic solvents used in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Here, we will investigate the analysis of electrolytes. In order for a substance to be suitable as an electrolyte, it must dissociate in a non-aqueous solvent and be able to withstand the oxidation-reduction environment at the cathode and anode. One such typical electrolyte is lithium hexafluorophosphate. Here, we introduce an example of analysis of the hexafluorophosphate ion in the electrolytic solution used in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries by HPLC.
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Analysis of Flavonoids in Ginkgo Biloba Extract
Ginkgo biloba leaves are said to contain as many as 20 types of flavonoids,and among these are quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, 3 types that are present in large quantities.Here we introduce an example of the analysis of these 3 favonoids present in ginkgo biloba leaves using the SPD-M20A photodiode array detector.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 33)Analysis of Gingerol and Shogaol in Ginger
Ginger is not only used as a spice, but has also been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine since ancient times. Investigation into the efficacy of ginger has been attracting a lot of attention in recent years, and the use of ginger in health foods has seen great increases. Here we introduce an example of the analysis of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, constituents of ginger, using the Prominence UFLC ultra fast LC system with the SPD-M20A photodiode array detector.
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Applications Using "Prominence RF-20Axs" Fluorescence Detector (Part 6) - Analysis of Bisphenol A at High Sensitivity
Fluorescence detectors are widely used in the environmental analysis due to their high sensitivity and high selectivity. Even trace amounts of chemical compounds often affect the ecosystem. Bisphenol A is one of such compounds for which trace-level analysis of environmental water is greatly required. Here we introduce examples of high-sensitivity analysis of bisphenol A using the Prominence RF-20Axs fluorescence detector by direct injection and by using an automated column-switching pre-concentrating system.
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Applications of the Prominence RF-20AXS Fluorescence Detector (Part 7)High Sensitivity Analysis of Retinol Acetate and Retinol Palmitate
In everyday use, the term "Vitamin A" is synonymous with retinol. Because retinol is a substance that is easily oxidized, highly stable derivatives of retinol are used in such products as foods, medicines and cosmetics. In HPLC analysis of stable retinol derivatives such as retinol acetate and retinol palmitate, a fluorescence detector offers both selectivity as well as high-sensitivity analysis. Here we introduce examples of high-sensitivity analysis of retinol acetate and retinol palmitate, in addition to ultra-high speed analysis of retinol palmitate using the Prominence RF-20AXS fluorescence detector.
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High Sensitivity Analysis of Pirimicarb, Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, o-Phenylphenol, and Diphenyl
Here we use the Prominence RF-20AXS fluorescence detector to introduce examples of high sensitivity analysis of pirimicarb, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, o-phenylphenol, and diphenyl as individual test method targets based on the Positive List System.
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Application of Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (Part 9)Analysis of Dimethicone (Dimethylpolysiloxane) in Hair Care Products
Dimethicone (dimethylpolysiloxane), a type of silicone oil, is widely used in hair care products such as conditioners and shampoos as an emollient that effectively utilizes the water repellent property of this substance.Here, we introduce examples of analysis of dimethicone in hair care products using the ELSD-LD II evaporative light scattering detector.
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Evaluation of Kinetex Column Peak Capacity Using the Shimadzu Nexera UHPLC System
Peak capacities of 200 could be obtained with a 24 second gradient runtime for the compounds that were tested. All compounds were eluted from the column in less than 15 seconds. These results demonstrate the combined benefits of high column efficiency and system performance.
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Measurement of Texture of Pork by a Penetrating Strength Test
The EZ Test Shimadzu Table-Top Universal Tester can be used to convert texture-related properties such as crispness of croquettes, resilience of bread, and firmness of boiled fish paste (kamoboko) as well as tenderness of pork reported in this document.
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Evaluation of Compression Strength of Micro Particles Contained in Scrubs Using the MCT-W500 Micro Compression Testing Machine
It was found that depending on the type of micro particle used in the scrubs, there were large differences in shape and size, as well as in compression strengths (reference strength) and fracture pattern. By accumulating these data it is hoped that they will be effective indicators for designing particles for facial cleansers.
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Multifaceted Measurement of Plums Pickled in Plum Wine
In the test, pickled plums were evaluated by a mechanical test, image observation. Although the results were sufficiently convincing, multifaceted analysis and measurement are believed to help convert the texture of food into numerical values.
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Measurement of Texture Characteristics of Rice Using the EZ Test Shimadzu Texture Analyzer
Koshihikari showed over twice as high values as compared to the other two types of rice for all items; hardness, cohesiveness, and cohesion strength. Cohesiveness is believed to closely indicate the sensation people fell when they actually eat rice. The test result for cohesiveness clearly indicates Koshihikari's characteristics. The use of the EZ Test Texture Analyzer is recommended for evaluating food texture because it provides easier texture characterization as compared to sensory evaluations and is highly operable.
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Hardness Test on Extra Fine Wire by Shimadzu DUH-W201S Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester
The Shimadzu DUH-W Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester allows specimen hardness to be simply evaluated without embedding the specimen in resin.
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Hardness Test on Propelling Pencil Lead Core by Shimadzu DUH-W201S Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester
Propelling (or mechanical) pencil lead cores are made by mixing black lead with polymer resin. The hardness symbols HB and B are evaluated by a density measurement tester according to the density obtained by drawing on line drawing paper; however, hardness is not yet scientifically defineThe following introduces an example of a hardness test performed on propelling pencil lead cores using the Shimadzu Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester.
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Texture Evaluation of Cheese and Agar Jelly
Texture evaluation is a way to convert physical senses (texture) into numerical values. Properties can be calculated as hardness, brittleness, cohesion strength, cohesiveness, elastic quality, cohesive quality, and adhesion as representative values. The section below introduces the results of a mastication test and shearing test conducted on cheese and agar jelly using the EZ Test Shimadzu Compact Table-Top Testing Machine as a texture evaluation example.
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Compression Testing and Observation of Deformation of Bonding Wire Au Balls by Shimadzu MCT-W500 Micro Compression Testing Machine
As introduced in this example, mounting the side observation kit on the Shimadzu MCT-W500 Micro Compression Testing Machine allows the compression test behavior of micro specimens to be investigated from both numerical values (graph, raw data) and images, which enables more reliable results in line with changes in the test subject to be obtained.
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Compression Test on Brake Friction Materials by Shimadzu MCT-W500 Micro Compression Testing Machine
Friction brakes mounted on automobiles, for example, are indispensable for ensuring safety.Friction brakes operate by using the friction between two solid objects to create braking action. R&D, for example, into modifcation of raw materials is being conducted to improve braking performance. As an evaluation method for viewing the properties of brake friction materials, the following introduces an example of a compression test performed using a fat indenter to measure the relationship between force and displacement.
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Observation of Destruction of Micro Glass/Plastic Beads
As shown in this example, the instantaneous destruction of small specimens can be captured as continuous sharp images by combining the MST-I Micro Autograph with the HPV-1 High-Speed Video Camera, and this capability is considered a possible means of obtaining major clues in learning the physical properties of various materials.
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Hardness Test on Hair by DUH-211S Ultra Micro Hardness Tester
In this test, we tried evaluating hair by "hardness" that had deteriorated, in particular, as a result of being treated with chemicals, and hair, on the other hand, that was not treated by any artificial means. The "Shimadzu DUH-211S Ultra Micro Hardness Tester", which is compatible with the measurement of micro objects, was used for measuring hardness.
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Texture Analysis of "Ikura" Salted Salmon Roe by EZTest
This Application News introduces the use of EZTest for the texture analysis of salted salmon roe from different regions. The Shimadzu EZTest texture analyzer offers dedicated texture-analysis software and a comprehensive range of specialized test jigs for the quantitative evaluation of food texture, including crunchiness, crispiness, and palatability. It is a general-purpose tester that can be used for the strength testing of packaging materials in addition to the development, improvement, and quality control of foods.
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Compression Test on Ribs of PDP Rear Panelby Micro Compression Testing Machine
The following introduces an example of a compression test performed on a typical rib specimen on the PDP rear panel using the "Shimadzu MCT-W500 Micro Compression Testing Machine" to measure the relationship between breaking strength and force/displacement.
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Hardness Test on Vickers Hardness Standard Blocksby DUH-211S Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester
The Shimadzu DUH-211 Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester can test thin-flm samples such as these and has a function for converting to Vickers hardness according to ISO. The following introduces the result of a hardness test performed on Vickers hardness standard blocks to check Vickers hardness conversion accuracy on this system.
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Damage Evaluation for Cutting Tool (Tip) Edgeby Micro Compression Testing Machine
As a proposed means for evaluating strength, a compression test was performed in the vicinity of the edge to measure the relationship between breaking strength and test force/displacement. The following introduces an example of this.
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Compression Test on Hollow Beaded Glassby Micro Compression Testing Machine
The following application news introduces an example of a compression test performed on hollow glass beads using the "MCT-W500 Micro Compression Testing Machine"
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 36) Analysis of Quinolones by the Nexera UHPLC System
Many types of quinolone synthetic antibacterials are widely used for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in domestic animals, domestic fowl, and cultured fish. Here, we introduce an example of simultaneous analysis of a mixture of synthetic quinolone antibacterials using the Nexera ultra high performance LC system with the RF-20Axs high-sensitivity fluorescence detector.
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Analysis of Halogens in Polyphenylene Sulfide Resin Using a Combustion-Ion Chromatography System
Here we introduce an example of analysis of halogen in a commercially available polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) resin using a combustion-ion chromatography system.
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Analysis of Hexafluorophosphate Ion in Electrolytic Solution for Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries by Ion Chromatography
Lithium hexafluorophosphate is a common electrolyte used in rechargeable batteries. Here, we introduce an example of the analysis of hexafluorophosphate ion in the electrolytic solution of a lithium-ion rechargeable battery with the Shimadzu Prominence HIC-SP suppressor-type ion chromatograph.
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Analysis of the Decomposition Products of Lithium Hexafluorophosphate in the Electrolytic Solution of Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries by Column-Switching Ion Chromatography
Here, we introduce an analysis of the decomposition products of lithium hexafluorophosphate used as the electrolytic solution in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, in which we constructed a column-switching system using the Shimadzu Prominence HIC-SP ion chromatography system.
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Volume 13 of FTIR Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: Using Infrared Detectors (MCT Detector), Spectral Emissivity Measurement Using FTIR Spectrophotometry, Qualitative Analysis of Rubber Constituents.
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Volume 14 of FTIR Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: Integrating Sphere, The ABCs of Measurement Methods: KBr Pellet Method, Kbr window pane
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Volume 15 of FTIR Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: Fourier Transform and Apodization, ABCs of the FTIR Measurement Methods: Liquid Membrane Method, Questions about ripples in baseline and interference fringes.
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Volume 16 of FTIR Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: Structures and methods for selecting a gas cell used for measurement of gas samples, Measurement method ABCs: Diffuse Reflectance Method, ATR Measurement Attachment series accessories.
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Volume 3 of UV Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: the monochromator, an important part of the spectrophotometer that was explained in UV TALK LETTER Vol. 2 "The Structure of a Spectrophotometer", Application: Color measurement, Liquid sample spectrum measurement.
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Volume 4 of UV Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: Different types of detectors that convert light to electric signals, Application: Cell types and their selection, What is Validation?
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Volume 5 of UV Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: Integrating spheres, Application: Solar Transmittance/Solar Reflectance Measurement, What Is the Difference Between Relative Reflection and Absolute Reflection?
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Volume 6 of UV Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: Light sources for spectrophotometers, Measuring Solar Transmittance and Solar Reflectance, Part 2, Application: Cell Types and Their Selction, Minimum Limit of Quantitation
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Volume 7 of UV Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: BioSpec-nano Life Science UV-VIS Spectrophotometer, Application: Nucleic Acid Thermal Stability Analysis (Tm Analysis), Question: What types of colorimetric determination methods are there for proteins?
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GC-MS High Sensitivity Technology Using Overdrive Lens
The effects of increased signal intensity and improved signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were investigated by eliminating noise with the installation of an overdrive lens in the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, and verifying the effectiveness using simulation and experimentation by GC-MS. The results confirmed that S/N improved through application of the optimum voltage on the overdrive lens. In addition, it was verified from the results of analysis of 5 ppb chlorpyrifos-methyl by the full-scan method that high-sensitivity analysis is possible using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra equipped with this technology.
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Development of Green Technologies in GCMS-QP2010 Ultra
There has been an increasing interest in reducing running costs and environmental stress in many analytical laboratories using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers in the fields of food, forensic, life science, environment, and the like. To respond such interest, we have developed two technologies for lower power and carrier gas consumption: “Advanced Scanning Speed Protocol” (ASSPTM) necessary for the Fast-GC/MS method and “Ecology Mode” for saving energy in analysis standby mode. The analysis of organic acids in urine for evaluation showed that the use of the Fast-GC/MS with ASSPTM reduced helium gas by 90 percent and power by 66 percent, compared with our previous model, while retaining performance for analysis. An evaluation test in analysis standby mode confirmed that the instrument with the Ecology Mode reduced carrier gas and power consumption, by 60 percent and 36.5 percent, respectively. These results demonstrate that our GCMS-QP2010 Ultra has environmentally friendly features and ensures lower running costs.
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Long-term Automated HPLC Analysis of Microdialysis Samples from Multiple Freely Moving Animals
Online microdialysis integrated with real-time HPLC analysis is a powerful tool for providing information on the circadian pacemaker, especially in combination with molecular and pharmacological tools. Other applications of this system are certainly possible for the long-term in-vivo analysis of various biological substances in freely moving animals. To access the full issue of LC World talk, please click <a href="http://www2.shimadzu.com/lc_worldtalk/" target="_blank">here</a>.
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Melamine Analysis Using Triple Quad LCMS-8030
This fast and reliable LC/MS/MS method for melamine and cyanuric acid is over five times faster than conventional methods for these compounds, with a run time under 60 seconds. The simple sample preparation involves only dilution and a one-step solvent extraction and can be automated for high-throughput sample analysis. The sensitivity is more than adequate to meet regulatory requirements while the speed and reliability enable rapid analysis of large numbers of samples. To access the full issue of LC World talk, please click <a href="http://www2.shimadzu.com/lc_worldtalk/" target="_blank">here</a>.
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Impurities Analysis in Pharmaceuticals: FDA Regulations on Genotoxic Impurities in Pharmaceuticals
The FDA draft guidance was issued to cover the verification of the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of ultra-trace impurities in new pharmaceuticals, investigational new drugs, and generic pharmaceuticals by structural analysis of ultra-trace impurities. This demands structural analysis of ultra-trace impurities in a 200 mg daily drug dose at approximately 150 times lower levels than under the ICH guidelines. LCMS-IT-TOF analysis, which provides precise mass measurement and MSn spectra, is an effective method for the structural analysis of ultra-trace impurities. To access the full issue of LC World talk, please click <a href="http://www2.shimadzu.com/lc_worldtalk/" target="_blank">here</a>.
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The Perfinity Workstation: Achieving Quality through Automation
The Perfinity Workstation effectively removes the sample preparation bottleneck by automating and integrating reproducible and rapid affinity selection, sample clean-up, proteolysis and buffer exchange. All of these processes can be completed in under 10 minutes, resulting in peptide maps of exceptional reproducibility (<10% CVs). Applications of this workstation include targeted proteomics, biomarker validation and PTM analysis.The Perfinity Workstation incorporates software that is extremely easy to use, greatly reduces the learning curve and requires no method programming. The workstation allows everyday users to apply MS to proteins, integrates with current proteomics/biomarker MS workflows, dramatically reduces sample prep time, is fully automated, multiplex capable, easily customizable and requires no antibody immobilization. More information is available at Perfinity.com and PerfinityWorkstation.com.
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Measuring Sulfur Content in Carbon Black using Shimadzu EDX-720 Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometer
The Shimadzu EDX-720 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometer proves to be a reliable and accurate instrument for measuring the sulfur content in carbon black samples. It requires no sample prep, no chemicals, and is non-destructive to samples. Furthermore, the instrument does not require consumable parts like catalysts or combustion tubes, has few moving parts to maintain, and does not have a high-temperature furnace, making it the ideal instrument for quick and reliable measurements of sulfur in carbon black.
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Analysis of Triethylamine and Tributylamine in Polycarbonate Plastics by GC
This Application News introduces an example of analysis of amines (triethylamine and tributylamine), two of the principle ingredients in polycarbonate plastic.
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Analysis of 6 Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC-FID
This Application News introduces an example of GC-FID analysis of 6 phthalate esters in toys.
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Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC/MS
This Application News introduces an example of GC/MS analysis of 6 phthalate esters in toys. For an example of GC-FID analysis of the same sample, refer to Shimadzu Application News No. G275 "Analysis of 6 Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC-FID."
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GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database
This Application News introduces the usefulness of the forensic substance library in this GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database.
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Analysis of Recycled Polyesters by MALDI-TOFMS (1)
Here, we introduce an example of recycled polymer analysis using a combination of oligomer rough separation by the precipitation method with MALDI-TOFMS.
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Analysis of Recycled Polyesters by MALDI-TOFMS (2)
Here, we introduce an example of recycled polymer analysis for polycarbonates using a combination of oligomer rough separation by the precipitation method with MALDI-TOFMS.
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Analysis of Recycled Polyesters by MALDI-TOFMS (3)
Here, we introduce an example of analysis of polyethylene terephthalate as a recycled polymer using precipitation for the rough separation of the oligomers together with SEC-MALDI.
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Differentiating Beta Asp Residue by PSD in a Curved Field Reflectro (1)
Here, we report the results of detection of the characteristic fragment ion of βAsp and its differentiation from ordinary Asp using TOF post source decay (PSD) analysis with Shimadzu’s original Curved Field Reflectron technolog
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Trace Analysis of Palladium Using Electrothermal Atomization
Here we introduce examples of Pd trace analysis using the graphite furnace atomization method with the organic solvents isopropanol (IPA) and n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), both strongly compatible with water and easy to use.
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Application of Evaporative Light-Scattering Detector (Part 10) High Speed Analysis of Glucosylceramide
Here, we introduce an example of high-speed analysis of glucosylceramide in a dietary supplement using the ELSD-LTⅡ evaporative light-scattering detector connected to the Nexera UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography) System.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 37)Analysis of Clobazam and Cibenzoline in Serum by the Nexera UHPLC System
Here, we introduce an example of ultra-high-speed analysis of clobazam and cibenzoline in serum using the Nexera UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography) system and the Shim-pack XR-ODSⅢ high-speed separation column (particle size: 1.6 μm).
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 38) Analysis of Artificial Colorings with the Nexera UHPLC System
In this issue, we present an example of ultra-high speed analysis using the Nexera UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Chromatography) System together with the Phenomenex Kinetex C18 high-speed, high-resolution analytical column, developed with the goal of achieving even greater analysis speeds.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 39) Analysis of Aflatoxins in Food by Nexer
Here we introduce an example of ultra-high-speed analysis of aflatoxins in food using a combination of the Prominence RF-20Axs high-sensitivity fluorescence detector and the Nexera Ultra High Performance LC system, in which the aflatoxinsB1, B2, G1 and G2 are analyzed using direct high-sensitivity fluorescence detection without conducting TFA derivatization.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 40) Analysis of Nucleobases, Nucleosides, and Nucleotides by the Nexera UHPLC System
Here, using the Nexera UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography) System, and the Shim-pack XR-ODSⅢ and Phenomenex Kinetex C18 high-speed, high-resolution columns, we introduce examples of ultra-high-speed analysis and ultra-high-resolution analysis of nucleic acid-related compounds.
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High Sensitivity Analysis of a Minor Impurity in Pharmaceuticals Using Co-Sense for Impurities System
Here, we introduce an example in which the Co-Sense for Impurities System is applied to a drug impurity analysis, making it possible to conduct measurement quickly and easily through automation of the sample preparation.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 41) Performance Evaluation of Carryover Using Reserpine in Human Plasma by the Nexera UHPLC System
Here, we introduce the results of the carryover evaluation of the Nexera SIL-30AC autosampler using the Nexera UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography) System and LC/MS/MS.
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Analysis of Pesticides Using the Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS (LCMS-8030)
According to the list of water quality control substances specified by the Ministry of Health,Labour and Welfare (April, 2010 revision), 31 pesticides are now included as items subject to analysis by "Method 18 - Simultaneous Analysis bySolid-PhaseExtraction-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry." Here we conducted analysis of a mixture of 30 of these substances, excluding oxine-copper, but with the addition of Shimazine and Tiobencarb, using LC conditions based on the official method. MRM measurement was conducted by ESI (Electrospray Ionization) using positive-negative switching (Fig. 1). A triple quadrupole liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer offers excellent sensitivity and selectivity in analysis of complex samples. Setting of the optimum parameters for Multiple-Reaction Monitoring (MRM) transitions is important for obtaining this excellent sensitivity and selectivity.
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Analysis of Polymer Additives Using the LCMS-8030 Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS
Antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, flame retardants and other polymer additives are indispensable for improving the characteristics and functionality of polymers. Understanding the types and quantities of these additives to be used is extremely important to effectively control the manufacturing process of the polymers. Below is an example of quantitative analysis of 14 types of polymer additives using MRM (Multiple Reaction Monitoring) and the LCMS-8030 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.
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Analysis of Golf Course Pesticides Using Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS (LCMS-8030)
Many kinds of pesticides are used to maintain golf course turf, and because golf courses are often located in mountain corridors and near water sources, pollution of nearby fresh water sources and tap water from golf course waste water is of concern. With this increased concern over the environment, in 1990 Japan's Ministry of the Environment issued the "Provisional Guidance Indicators for the Prevention of Water Pollution from Pesticides Used in Golf Courses" (hereafter, Guidance Indicators), in which indicator values were specified for 21 pesticides. Then, a notification issued on September 29, 2010 increased the list to 72 pesticides and made it a requirement to conduct simultaneous analysis of the chemicals using higher sensitivity instruments. Of those 72 pesticides, we conducted simultaneous analysis of 21 of the remaining 44 substances specified to be evaluated by LC/MS using the LCMS-8030, and in addition, we conducted monitor testing of golf course wastewater. The results are presented here.
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Analysis of PFCs in Environmental Water Using Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS (LCMS-8030)
Organofuorine compounds such as perfuorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) are highly stable chemical compounds which are widely used as water repellents, oil repellents and coating agents. These compounds do not decompose easily in the natural world due to their stability. Reports of their detection in rivers, streams, tap water, food, as well as in the atmosphere and in human blood has led to concern of their effect on the human body as environmental pollutants. Here we conducted the simultaneous analysis of PFOA, PFOS, and related compounds using the LCMS-8030. The results of an environmental water monitoring study that we conducted are also presented.
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Investigation of UV-Irradiated Film Deterioration-Color Measurement and Haze Measurement-
Various kinds of films are used to protect solar cells from the effects of ultraviolet rays, wind, rain, and air, etc. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), etc. are often used for such flms, and it is very important to understand how the spectral characteristics of these flms are affected when they deteriorate. Here, we investigated and reported on the kinds of changes that occur in the transmittance spectra of PET film and EVA film due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation from the standpoints of color measurement and haze measurement.
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Detector-Switching Analysis Using a Capillary Switching Device
A detector-switching device allows concurrent analyses with multiple detectors to be conducted easily, while ensuring accurate information is obtained from multiple detectors without sacrificing sensitivity. This application highlights various analyses utilizing this device, including the analysis of pesticides using ECD-FPD switching.
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Trace Oxygenated Hydrocarbons in Liquid Hydrocarbon Streams by Multidimensional GC
Accurate determination of trace oxygenated hydrocarbons in liquid hydrocarbon streams plays an important role in process design and operation, and method UOP 960 defines testing procedures utilizing a valved gas chromatograph (GC) system. The goal of this study is to simplify the UOP 960 method, and improve overall productivity in refinery processes.
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Fast Analysis of VOCs in Polystyrene Using a Capillary Backflush GC System
Residual organic solvents in food packaging materials are a problem because of the implications to food safety. Polystyrene is widely used in food packaging materials. This application introduces an example of fast analysis of residual volatile organic solvents in polystyrene.
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X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Cement Materials
Element analysis using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and analysis of the concentration of CaO (free lime) using X-ray diffractometer are performed for quality control of clinker and products of cement materials. In particular, residual CaO within the products can cause volumetric expansion and decrease in intensity, so controlling the CaO content is an important issue for quality control. X-ray diffraction method is effective for qualitative and quantitative analysis of cement materials.
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EDXRF Analysis of Sulfur and Other Elements in Oil
The concentrations of sulfur substances in fuel oil, which greatly contribute to air pollution and acid rain, are regulated by law in many countries, and these regulations are becoming stricter with the growing concern about their impact on the environment and the consequences for society. Here, using the easy-to-operate EDX-720 energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, we determined the limit of detection and limit of quantitation of sulfur.The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer can be used for simultaneous multi-element analysis of the elements from Na (atomic no. 11) to U (atomic no. 92).Next, we conducted simultaneous analysis of the elements in Conostan® S-21, a commercially-available oil standard, and determined the limit of detection for each element detected.
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EDXRF Analysis of Lead, Cadmium, Silver, Copper in Lead-Free Solder Materials
X-ray fluorescence analysis can be used to quickly and easily analyze samples in solid, powder, and liquid states nondestructively, and is therefore widely used as a screening technique for compliance with the RoHS/ELV directives. A large amount of lead-free solder is used for surface-mount circuit boards. Here we evaluated the sensitivity of analysis of Pb, Cd, Ag, and Cu in lead-free solder reference materials certified by the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry, and reported those results.
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Determination of Arsenic and Leadin Earth and Sand Using EDXRF [JIS K 0470]
Here we conducted analysis of soil based on JIS K 0470 using the EDX-720.Since an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is capable of multi-element simultaneous analysis, we conducted simple qualitative analysis of arsenic, selenium, cadmium, mercury and lead, which we selected from among the toxic substances specified as type II toxic substances in the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the soil sample are also introduced as an application example.
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Comparison of Calibration Curves of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium in Zinc Alloy and Copper Alloy
In this Application News, we compared the calibration curves for Zn alloy and Cu alloy, and present our examination of their applicable ranges. For a detailed evaluation of a Zn alloy standard sample and a Cu alloy sample, please refer to Application News X236 and X225, respectively.
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EDXRF Analysis of Lead, Cadmium,Mercury and Chromium in Zinc Alloy
X-ray fluorescence analysis can be used to quickly and easily analyze samples in solid, powder and liquid states nondestructively, and is therefore widely used as a screening method for compliance with the RoHS/ELV directives. Here we present the results of our evaluation of the calibration curves for Pb, Cd, Hg and Cr in MBH-manufactured Zn alloy reference materials, as well as our evaluation of the analysis sensitivity. Many Zn alloys are used as Zn plating and Zn-alloy die cast parts in automobiles and electrical and electronic equipment. Moreover, Zn alloy reference materials can be applied to the analysis of copper, nickel and iron, whose atomic numbers are near one another, in addition to the alloy brass, and these reference materials also feature the presence of mercury in their composition.
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EDXRF Analysis of Chlorine in Irregularly Shaped Plastic Samples
This Application News introduces the quantitative analysis of samples having different shapes, in which the calibration curve sample consisted of PE (polyethylene) plastic spiked with Cl. In addition, the Cl content of unknown samples (plastic plate, parts) was analyzed as application examples. Analysis of Cl in an electronic circuit board was conducted as a screening analysis example, and those results are also reported. For details on the Cl-spiked samples used for the calibration curve, please refer to Application News X231.
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Analysis of Foreign Matter in Food Using EDX
Analytical instruments used for foreign matter analysis are roughly divided into two categories, depending on the substances being analyzed. EDX is generally used for inorganic substance analyses, and FTIR for organic materials, although sometimes, a substance of interest cannot be characterized by either type of instrument. A typical inorganic carbon substance referred to as “burnt deposit” can be measured using the EDX-800HS, which supports elemental analysis from <sub>6</sub>C. Thus, if <sub>6</sub>C is detected by EDX, but is unknown by FTIR, the substance is most likely an inorganic carbon. However, since it may not be possible to specify the type of substance when the foreign matter and food, etc. are measured together, obtaining an FTIR difference spectrum between the contaminant and non-contaminant portions is a possible alternative approach. These analyses and functions are introduced here.
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EDXRF Analysis of Heavy Elements in a Toy and a Cup
Lead, a harmful element, has recently been detected in toys, household articles, and everyday products, and the safety of these articles is becoming a problem.Regarding safety standards for toys, eight harmful elements (Cd, Sb, Ba, As, Hg, Pb, Se, and Cr) are subject to regulation. Since solid, powder, and liquid samples can be analyzed nondestructively, both quickly and easily by X-ray fluorescence analysis, this method is used as a screening technique for safety inspections of such items as toys and household articles. This Application News introduces the results of analysis of a toy and dishware article containing harmful elements. A polyethylene (PE) resin (plastic) spiked with 8 harmful elements was used as a standard sample.
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EDXRF Analysis of Chlorine in Plastic (PE) Materials
This Application News introduces the results of a sensitivity evaluation of chlorine using the EDX-720 to analyze a standard material created by adding chlorine to PE (polyethylene) resin.
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Analysis of Sulfur in Oil Using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer
Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX) spectrometers provide the preferred analytical technique for the analysis of Sulfur in heavy and light oil samples. The method is simple and sample pretreatment is not required. This study investigates the lower limits of detection and the repeatability of such an analysis under atmospheric conditions of air and Helium.EDX spectrometers provide highly effective analysis methods for samples containing high concentrations of target elements, as it offers high sensitivity under atmospheric conditions. This study also presents examples of quantitative analysis and repeatability tests using the fundamental parameter (FP) and calibration curve methods.
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Analysis of Foreign Matter Using CCD
EDX systems can be used to easily and quickly identify types of foreign matter adhering to or contained in foods, pharmaceuticals, and other products. Using CCD (option) observation functions allows easily measuring foreign matter even smaller than 1 mm. In addition, using the X-ray emission aperture allows easily separating between adjacent foreign matter. In the example below, samples were prepared by adhering or embedding five types of foreign matter, between 0.3 mm and 1 mm in size, to/into a flat chocolate bar. Qualitative-quantitative analysis results for each sample are shown.
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EDXRF Analysis of Arsenic in Foods
X-ray fluorescence spectrometers enable quickly, easily, and non-destructively analyzing solids, powders, liquids, and other samples. In particular, they are useful for detecting and quantitatively analyzing arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and potassium (K), and other elements in toxic substances in foods. The following is an example of analyzing arsenic levels of sodium arsenite mixed in oolong tea, juice, and curry. EDX-700/800 models include five types of primary flters as standard accessories, which are required for trace analysis of substances such as arsenic. An example of trace analysis is also described below.
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Fertilizer Analysis by ICPE-9000
Here we introduce an analysis of fertilizer we conducted using the Shimadzu ICPE-9000 Multitype Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer. ICP-AES features a wide dynamic range and high sensitivity, in addition to its applicability to simultaneous multi-element analysis. It is an extremely effcient analytical method, especially when there are many target elements present in a wide concentration range, from the principle constituents to trace level substances.
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Analysis of CIGS Solar Cell by ICPE-9000
Here we introduce an example of analysis of the Mo rear electrode layer and CIGS layer of thin flm on a glass substrate using the Shimadzu ICPE-9000 Multitype ICP Emission Spectrometer.
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Drugs of Abuse: Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates
A rapid, accurate, and reliable LC-MS-MS method was developed for the determination of 21 controlled substances in urine.
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Designer Cannabinoids
A rapid LC-MS-MS method for determination of designer cannabinoids in smokeable herbs was developed.
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Electroplating Bath Analysis
The formula of substances in an unknown mixture were predicted using an ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer with accurate mass and accurate MSn capability.
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Mycotoxins
An extremely fast LC-MS-MS method for the determination of mycotoxins and other untargeted chemical threats was developed.
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Oil Despersants: Dioctylsulfosuccinate, 2-Butoxyethanol, and Dipropylene Glycol t-Butyl Ether
A rapid LC-MS-MS method for detection of oil dispersants in water was developed.
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Perfluorocarbons
The sensitivity of the LCMS-8030 was evaluated for ten perfluorocarbon compounds.
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Protein and Peptide Analysis
Amyloid Beta 1-40, Insulin, Salmon Calcitonin, and NPY1-36
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Setting Optimum Dwell, Pause, and Scan Event Times on the Shimadzu LCMS-8030
Dwell, pause, and event times are important instrument settings that determine the exact amount of time the instrument monitors or scans for a particular event. Setting proper dwell, pause, and event times is necessary to achieve the best quality and quantity of data possible.
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Analysis of Serotonin using LC-MS-MS
Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter responsible for feelings of mood and cognitive functions, sleep, and appetite. Many pharma-ceuticals target pathways related to serotonin. The structure of serotonin is shown in Figure 1. Analytical methods to measure serotonin are needed to study the effects of this important neurotransmitter.
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Steroids: Testosterone, Progesterone, Estradiol, Ethinylestradiol
Sensitivity was tested for four steroids on the LCMS-8030 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Nexera UHPLC.
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Analysis of N-Glycans from Erythropoietin-α Using the Glycan Identification Syste "Accurate Glycan Analyzer"
Here, we introduce an actual example in which we used the AXIMA Resonance, which supports MSn measurement, in addition to the "Accurate Glycan Analyzer", for structural analysis of N-glycans bound to commercially available erythropoietin.
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Particle Size Distribution Measurement of Powdered Milk
In this report, we introduce this measurement for 2 different kinds of powdered milk using the Shimadzu SALD-7101 Nano Particle Size Analyzer. In addition, we conducted testing to determine whether or not the fat globule particle size distribution was affected due to the hot water temperature used during preparation of the infant milk formula. These results also are presented.
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Automatic Calculation of Refractive Index in Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer
When using a particle size distribution analyzer based on the laser diffraction and scattering principle, selecting the proper refractive index can be difficult, but it is very important. Various methods that require experience and / or theoretical knowledge have been proposed for addressing this issue. Learn more..
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Cleaning Validation by TOC Analyzer
To ensure quality control and safety in manufacturing facilities within the pharmaceutical industry, it is important that cleaning validation be conducted following the cleaning of production-related equipment. Cleaning validation ensures that the quantity of residual substances collected from the surfaces of the equipment is within permissible limit. Depending on the sampling method and measurement method used for this cleaning validation using a TOC analyzer, the following 3 types of methods are available. (1) Rinse sampling – TOC measurement method (2) Swab sampling – aqueous extraction – TOC measurement method (3) Swab sampling – direct combustion carbon measurement methodHere we introduce the features of each of these methods, using the TOC-LCPH total organic carbon analyzer in the measurement of residual pharmaceutical products and their constituent substances. Here we introduce the features of each of these methods, using the TOC-LCPH total organic carbon analyzer in the measurement of residual pharmaceutical products and their constituent substances.
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Applications Using "Prominence RF-20AXS" Fluorescence Detector (Part 9)Analysis of Aflatoxin 1, B2, G1 and G2 at High Sensitivity
Here, we introduce two cases of analysis of these 4 aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2), using the Prominence RF-20AXS high-sensitivity fluorescence detector, first by fluorescence detection using trifluoroacetic acid derivatization, and then direct detection without TFA derivatization.
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Improvement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Efficiency ThroughHigh Purification of Dye
Here in Application News L427, we introduce an example of improved solar cell performance achieved through high purification of a commercially available N3 dye using HPLC.
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Analysis of Dye Degradation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
Of the organic photovoltaic cells that have been under extensive development as next-generation solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells are perhaps the closest to commercialization today. These types of solar cells are expected to be produced inexpensively. Commercialization will of course be contingent on sufficient photoelectric conversion efficiency, but equally important will be their endurance in withstanding degradation over time. By using HPLC, it is possible to observe changes in these dyes over time. Here we introduce some analytical examples of the degradation of one such dye, referred to as N3 dye.
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Analysis of Fiber Contaminants by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM)
We analyzed 4 kinds of fibercontaminants using FTIR and CLSM. Qualitative analysis of each of the samples was possible by FTIR, and using CLSM, we were able to differentiate between samples having the same composition. Here, we were able to conduct measurement by single refection ATR using FTIR because the samples were large enough to be clearly visible. Micro-level samples in the range of 10-100 µm can be effectively analyzed by infrared microscopy.In contaminant analysis and fault analysis, observation of color and shape both visually and using stereoscopic microscopy is important. Following such observation, more detailed information can be obtained using multiple analytical instruments, as presented in this example.
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Analysis of Low Concentration BPA in Consumer Products by GC/MS without Derivatization
The following poster discusses the analysis of low concentrations of Bisphenol A in conumser products by GC/MS without derivatization.
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Analysis of Detergent in Diesel Fuel by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)
Despite initial concerns regarding volatilization of the detergent, high-temperature GCMS chromatographic analysis is a valid technique for determining the concentration of detergent in diesel fuel. The goal of a lower quantitation limit of 125 ppm was exceeded by demonstrating linearity down to 50 ppm.
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iPad: Increasing the Productivity of HPLC Systems
The advantage of HPLC system controller web server functionality over workstation networking is the sweeping ability to assess multiple systems on the same network. Combining this feature with the swift startup and portability of the iPad provides even more merits as outlined below.
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Analysis of Carbohydrates with LCMS
LCMS with ESI ionization is a viable alternative for low-sensitivity analysis of carbohydrates of similar structure or molecular weight.Proper column and mobile phase selection produced peak resolution where needed as well as consistent ionization.
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MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Nanotrap® Enriched Low Molecular Weight Proteins from Human Serum
Nanotraps provide an effective and user-friendly means to rapidly sequester, capture, enrich and protect low abundant, low molecular weight proteins (<40,000 Da) directly from complex biological fluids such as serum, plasma and urine. The experiments illustrate that while peptides and proteins in the low molecular weight region are enriched, high abundant, high molecular weight proteins such as albumin are excluded from the Nanotraps and washed away. Additionally, coverage of the proteome can be extended by utilizing different baits in the discovery workflow.
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Shimadzu at MSACL 2012 Workshop
<p class="article"><strong> Prepare Your Lab for the Future…<br> From Automated Sample Prep to Ultrafast Mass Spectrometry</strong> </p> <p class="article">Presented at The Association for Mass Spectrometry Applications to the Clinical Lab (MSACL) 2012 conference, this workshop consists of the following presentations:</p> <p class="article"> &ndash; Achieving Truly Ultrafast UHPLC-MS-MS, Jeff Dahl, Shimadzu Scientific Instruments<br /> &ndash; The Perfinity Workstation: A Faster, More Reproducible, Fully-automated Sample Prep Platform, Kevin Meyer, Perfinity Biosciences<br /> &ndash; Integrating the Perfinity Workstation into the Biomarker Validation Pipeline for Diagnostic Assays, Christine Jelinek, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine<br /> </p>
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Analysis of the Decomposition Products of Lithium Hexafluorophosphate in the Electrolytic Solution of Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries by Column-Switching Ion Chromatography (Part 2)
Lithium hexafluorophosphate is commonly used as the electrolytic solution in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. It is hydrolyzed by the small amounts of water contained in the electrolytic solution to produce fluoride and other ions. In Application News L417, we presented an example of analysis of electrolytic solution which had deteriorated due to exposure to air, using a column-switching ion chromatography system. Here, we introduce an analysis of an electrolytic solution that had been subjected to accelerated deterioration during testing.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 41) Carryover Evaluation of Glibenclamide in Human Plasma by Nexera HPLC
LC/MS/MS high-speed, high-resolution analysis methods with columns packed with particles of 2 µm or less are often used for analysis of drugs in human blood plasma. The small particle columns produce dispersion that is even less than that obtained with conventional columns (5 µm particle size), so peaks are taller, thereby enabling quantitation at even higher sensitivity. While this high-sensitivity analysis has become possible, the effect of autosampler carryover on high-sensitivity LC/MS/MS analysis has become a problem. In Application News No. L425, we evaluated the performance of the Nexera SIL-30AC autosampler in the analysis of reserpine in human plasma, and reported its low carryover performance. In addition to the high potential of the SIL-30AC, we believe that rinsing with its powerful and sophisticated multi-solvent configuration was very effective.Here, we report on the effectiveness of the rinse method reported in Application News No. L425, and demonstrate its effectiveness as a rinse method applicable to measurement of a wide range of drugs in plasma.
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Evaluation of Anti-Reflective Film on Solar Cell Using UV-2600
Here, we report on our investigation of the reflectance characteristics and color values of anti-reflective film using the UV-2600 with an integrating sphere mounted to allow measurement over a wider wavelength range, including the near infrared region.
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Introduction of Performance Validation Software for Improved GLP/GMP Support
Using this Performance Validation Software makes it easy to conduct an entire series of required regulation- and standards-related operations; from the setting of validation conditions, to data measurement, pass/fail judgment, results printout and file storage.
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Introduction of Shimadzu UV-2700 UV-Visible Spectrophotometer for High Absorbance Measurement
The UV-2700, with its low stray light diffraction grating, is a spectrophotometer that offers an extremely wide photometric range. Traditionally difficult-to-measure high-absorption samples can now be easily measured. It is the ideal instrument for measuring samples which cannot be thinly sliced, diluted or subjected to other pretreatment procedures. Here, we introduce examples of measurement of high-absorption samples using the UV-2700.
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Measuring Samples Per USP <643> Using Shimadzu TOC-LC*H
Shimadzu’s TOC-LC*H analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Method <643>. The TOC-LC*H analyzer utilizes 680°C heat and platinum catalyst to provide a lower maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0040 mg per liter.
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Volume 8 of UV Talk Letter
The theme of this UV TALK LETTER is the instrument validation of UV-VIS spectrophotometers. Instrument validation is essential for determining the condition of your instrument. Here, we will give details of what validation is and how to do it.
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Combining Methods CAN/CGSB-3.0 and ASTM D-5580 in a Single GC platform
To improve productivity and lower the capital cost, a single gas chromatograph has been configured to perform two standard methods: CAN/CGSB-3.0 and ASTM D-5580. Detailed hydrocarbon (DHA) analysis of automotive gasoline has become a routine gas chromatographic method. The Canadian standard CAN/CGSB-3.0 requires cryogenic temperature programing to provide better separation of early-eluting components than conventional non-cryogenic DHA measurements. Determination of aromatics in the presence of methanol and ethanol is also an important requirement for bio-ethanol; method ASTM D-5580 is the standard method for this analysis. In this work, the two applications have been successfully integrated into one GC. The methods of three tests – one for CAN/CGSB-3.0 and two for ASTM D-5580, can be switched smoothly with minimum effort. Automated software control provides separation of hydrocarbons in groups and reporting of the results for method CAN/CGSB-3.0. Repeatability (%RSD) of ASTM D-5580 was less than 1.2% for analysis No. 1, and less than 1.8% for analysis No. 2.
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Evaluation of Sample Pretreatment Procedures for the Determination of Phthalate Esters in Child Care Products and Children’s Toys by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)
The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA-USA) requires testing of child care products and toys in the US for specific phthalate esters by GCMS. The CPSC test method specifies solvent extraction and subsequent GCMS analysis for specific phthalate esters. In this study, analysis by pyrolysis GCMS was investigated as a technique to simplify sample preparation and improve analytical precision. The analyses were conducted on a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra equipped with a Frontier PY-2020is pyrolyzer, shown in the figure below.
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Improvement of ASTM D-5769 by GCMS High Concentration Tuning and Automated Data Processing
Method ASTM D-5769 is a standard GCMS method to determine aromatics in finished motor gasoline or ethanol blends. However, the intrinsic high sensitivity of mass spectrometry usually gives rise to a limited linear range that makes it difficult to meet method requirements. GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, a new single transmission quadruple GCMS, allows for tuning the instrument in a “high concentration” mode that is suitable for ASTM D-5769 type of analysis without making any hardware compromises. In addition, newly improved Shimadzu aromatics report software is now capable of conducting automated data acquisition, processing and reporting. These new features have greatly enhanced method robustness and efficiency, providing a total solution of running ASTM D-5769.
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Increasing the Throughput of UHPLC
UHPLC has proven to be an effective way to reduce analysis times without losing separation efficiency through the use of small particle and core-shell column technologies. The use of higher column temperatures and shorter column lengths has allowed the analysis speed of UHPLC to be further increased. A number of high-speed UHPLC applications and conditions will be presented which now allow up to four analytical runs to be completed in only a one-minute timeframe.
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High Speed Analysis of Mycotoxins
Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight natural products produced by fungi and are capable of causing disease and death. Mycotoxins are typically found in grain products and their occurrence is increased under certain heat and humidity conditions. Regulatory levels have been set for mycotoxin levels, and are dependent on the end use of the food products. Mycotoxin levels can vary widely within the same crop, creating a potential need for increased testing to provide more accurate mycotoxin levels. A high-speed UHPLC method was developed that could provide separation of eight common mycotoxins in less than two minutes to allow for increased testing. Details of the method will be presented.
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Characterization of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) by UV-Visible Spectrophotometry
The acceptance and commercial utilization of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) and, more recently, Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have grown significantly in the past five years. This change was fueled in part by the United States Congress 2007 legislative mandate to eliminate sales, and phase out the use, of conventional incandescent lighting beginning in 20121. This mandate has ultimately increased research into CFL and LED technologies. This poster demonstrates the use of a typical laboratory UV-Vis spectrophotometer, with no modification to the bench or software, to measure and characterize CFL and LED lamps. Using a customized accessory, spectral characteristics such as peak wavelength (λp), Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), centroid wavelength (λc), dominant wavelength, color, and color purity were readily determined for a variety of commercial CFLs and LEDs.
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Endurance Testing and Dynamic Viscoelasticity Measurement of EVA Film by MMT-100N
EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) film, highly elastic, yet stress crack resistant, is widely used as a film for bonding of solar cells. Solar cells reach high temperatures in the daytime when exposed to sunlight, but cool down at night. This requires that the EVA filmhas sufficientdurability to withstand the daily range of thermal expansion and thermal contraction. EVA flm is also gradually deteriorated with prolonged usage due to the constant exposure to ultraviolet rays during the daytime. Here, we introduce examples of tensile fatigue (endurance) testing and dynamic viscoelasticity measurement of EVA film before and after ultraviolet irradiation.
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Measurement of Press-Through Package Force and Tablet Break Force
Using the Shimadzu EZ-Test compact table-top universal testing machine and the Trapezium X material testing software, we introduce an example of the adhesive strength of the PTP package, addition to the force required to break a tablet in half.
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Tensile Test for Metallic Materials Using Strain Rate Control and Stress Rate Control
Here, we introduce examples of strain rate control and stress rate control tensile testing of metallic samples, including cold-rolled steel, austenitic stainless steel, aluminium alloy and brass, according to ISO 6892, using the Shimadzu Autograph AG-50kNX Precision Universal Tester, and the SSG50-10H strain gauge type one-touch extensometer.
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Evaluation of Temperature-Dependent Strength Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Separator by Piercing and Tensile Testing
Here, you can clearly see from the results of piercing and tensile testing of lithium-ion battery separators under atmospheric temperature control, the mechanical properties of lithium-ion battery separators can be reliably evaluated using the Shimadzu Precision Universal Tester AG-X with its abundant array of accessories.
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Texture Evaluation of Care Food
We conducted measurements of commercially available care food based on the test methods specified for reviewing the suitability of foods for people with dysphagia. We then classified the food according to the specific standard based on the obtained hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness data.
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Transmittance Measurement of IR-Cut Glass Using a UV-2600 UV-VIS Spectrophotometer with ISR-2600Plus Integrating Sphere
With the evolution of mankind and the accompanying development of technology, energy consumption has steadily increased. However, because energy sources such as oil and natural gas are limited, a variety of innovations have been introduced with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of these is IR-cut glass, which effectively limits the rise of indoor temperature by filtering out near-infrared rays. On the other hand, while cutting near-infrared radiation is an effective means of conserving energy, it is also important to ensure that visible light is effectively transmitted to the interior to permit outside light to help illuminate the interior of a room. Here we introduce use of the auto point pick feature newly added to the standard software to verify the effectiveness of IR-cut processing in window glass.
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Measurement of Sodium and Potassium in Portland Cement by Flame Atomic Absorption Method
Here, using flame atomic absorption method, we introduce an example of analysis of Na and K in a standard sample of Portland cement (211R) obtained from the Japan Cement Association to determine their respective concentrations.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 44)Analysis of Pre-Column Derivatized Amino Acids by SIL-30AC Autosampler
Here, using the RF-20Axs Fluorescence detector and the SIL-30AC autosampler with its automated pretreatment functions, we introduce the analysis of amino acids using pre-column derivatization with OPA and FMOC.
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Analysis of Geniposidic Acid and Chlorogenic Acid in Tochu Tea Using a Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS [LCMS-8030]
Tochu tea made using tochu (Eucommia ulmoides) leaves is well known as one of the 缀ve great traditional Chinese medicines. Tochu tea leaves contain abundant amounts of geniposidic acid (an iridoid glucoside) and chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid). Geniposidic acid is known to possess several pharmacological functions, one of which is the ability to reduce blood pressure. LC/MS is widely used for the analysis of these types of polyphenols in plant extracts. Here, we introduce an analysis of geniposidic acid and chlorogenic acid in tochu tea using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.
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Qualitative Analysis of Tochu Tea Using a Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS [LCMS-8030]
The LCMS-8030 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer is used in qualitative analysis to conduct precursor ion scans to search for precursor ions that produce common product ions, and to conduct neutral loss scans to detect ions that dissociate to common neutral fragments. Here, we describe the precursor ion scan in the search for active ingredients in Tochu tea using the LCMS-8030.
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Analysis of 3-MCPD Fatty Acid Diesters in Palm Oil Using a Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS [LCMS-8030]
This application note illustrates that it is possible to use a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for detection of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters using a simple pretreatment procedure that is limited to sample dilution.
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Analysis of Perchlorate in Water by Non-Suppressed Ion Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Perchlorate is a chemical substance that occurs both naturally and as a manufactured compound, and is used in a wide range of applications. It is a common accelerant in rocket engines and an explosive in the pyrotechnics industry. From the standpoint of health, however, it is now suspected to be associated with hypothyroidism. A non-suppressed single LC/MS system is a low-cost, easy-to-operate system for monitoring perchlorate in water such as factory wastewater.
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Analysis of Malachite Green Using a Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS [LCMS-8030]
Malachite green, besides being used as a dye in the textile and paper industries in Japan, is also used as a synthetic antibacterial drug to treat diseases such as water mold disease in aquarium fish. Due to concern related to its carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, not to mention the persistence of its metabolite, leucomalachite green, application of malachite green with aquaculture animals is prohibited under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. The United States in 1981, and the European Union and China in 2002 prohibited its use with all food-related items. However, due to its low price, effectiveness, and easy availability, cases of its detection in eel, salmon and other farmed fish continue to appear, resulting in strengthened worldwide monitoring.Here, we show the quantitative analysis of malachite green and leucomalachite green using the LCMS-8030.In addition, we report the results of spiked-recovery measurements conducted using a salmon extract solution as an actual sample.
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Analysis of Pesticides in Foods Using a Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS [LCMS-8030]
Pesticides are widely used in agricultural products to protect crops from insect infestation during cultivation and product transport. With the heightened concern for food safety, “Positive List System” was introduced in Japan on May 29, 2006. These limits ban the sale of food containing pesticides that exceed specified concentrations to ensure the safety of food circulating in the market. Currently, residue standards and analytical methods have been established for about 800 kinds of pesticides and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and this number is expected to increase even further. Therefore, there is increasing need for simpler analytical methods capable of simultaneous multi-residue analysis.Here, using the LCMS-8030, we optimized methods for the simultaneous multi-residue analysis of 43 pesticides, and report the results of the analysis of actual vegetable extracts (paprika and leek) in solution.
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Analysis of Haloacetic Acids in Tap Water Using LC/MS/MS [LCMS-8030]
This Application News introduces an example of analysis of the 3 haloacetic acids using the LCMS-8030 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and is in accordance with this legislative measure.
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High Throughput LC-MS-MS Analysis of Carbendazim in Orange Juice
Highly sensitive analytical methods are necessary to prevent contaminated produce from entering the food supply. This poster showcases the development of an ultrafast UHPLC-MS-MS method for analysis of carbendazim in orange juice using a new high-speed UHPLC autosampler in tandem with a newly developed high-sensitivity triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.
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Quantitation of dsDNA Using the Micro-Volume BioSpec-nano Spectrophotometer
Offering detection limits up to 10 times better compared to the competition, the BioSpec-nano is the perfect instrument for quantitation of DNA, RNA, Protein analysis, and photometric measurements. This communication presents data on the detection limits of the BioSpec-nano for analyzing dsDNA.
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Analysis of Hemoglobin Variants using an Automated Sample Preparation Workstation Coupled to LC-MS
There are over 2000 known hemoglobin variants, and it is important to be able to structurally identify and quantitate them quickly and precisely. This poster presents a quick, reproducible method of identifying differences between normal and abnormal hemoglobin utilizing an automated sample preparation system, which reduces sample complexity, coupled to mass spectrometry.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using MRM via GC-MS/MS
GC#27;MS provides excellent chromatographic separation, and is capable of highly sensitive and stable measurements. Consequently, GC#27;MS is widely utilized when measuring low#27;molecular#27;weight metabolites in living organisms and performing metabolomicanalysis to assess their fluctuations. When analyzing biological samples featuring a large number of matrix components, however, separation from the matrix can be difficult using GC#27;MS. An alternative is GC#27;MS/MS, which provides excellent separation performance via MS. In this Application Datasheet, an analysis of metabolites in rat urine is performed using GC#27;MS/MS. Results comparing this data with GC#27;MS data are also introduced.
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Analysis of Dimethicone Based on USP-Specified Method
Viscous dimethicone samples were analyzed by ATR spectroscopy, and excellent repeatability was obtained.Quantitative analysis by the solution method has the advantage of high sensitivity with the ability to detect low-level absorption through appropriate selection of a solid cell. However, for analysis of samples having some degree of viscosity, as those presented here, the ATR method with its simple measurement and easy cleaning of the prism, is very effective.
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Emission Spectrum Measurement for LED Lamp by the UV-2600 UV-VIS Spectrophotometer
We conducted measurement of the emission spectra of several LED bulbs using the UV-2600 ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, and report here on their spectrum proꀀles and light distributions.
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Analysis of Vinyl Chloride in Polyvinyl Chloride Plastics by Headspace Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID)
This Application News describes the test method for analysis of vinyl chloride contaminants in polyvinyl chloride injection containers used for aqueous solutions as specified in the 16th revision of the Japanese Pharmacopeia.
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QC Analysis of Magnesium Alloy Die Castings by EDXRF
Magnesium alloy is the lightest of the metal alloys, with a density about two thirds that of aluminum alloy. Furthermore, due to its rich array of functionality, including strength, electromagnetic shielding, vibration absorption, and thermal radiation, etc., it is used in digital cameras, notebook computers, automobile parts and other products, and in the future, it is expected to replace aluminum alloy in many applications due to the ongoing trend toward lightweight products. Here, we introduce the standard quality control analysis by EDX of the widely specified magnesium alloy die casting, AZ91D.
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EDXRF Analysis of Arsenic and Lead in Dietary Supplement
Using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, we conducted quantitative analysis of As and Pb in a dietary supplement (herbal medicine), and evaluated their lower limit of detection and quantitation, respectively.
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Analysis of Sewage and Sewage Sludge by ICPE-9000
Here, we introduce the quantitative analysis of sludge and sewage waste water using the ICPE-9000 multitype ICP emission spectrometer. The ICPE-9000 is a multitype inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer that permits both axial and radial observation. Thus, a wide range of analyses are supported, from trace elements like cadmium, to high-concentration elements like iron and zinc, thereby enabling simultaneous analysis of samples having a wide range of element concentrations, including sewage waste water and sludge.
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Analysis of Additive Elements in Lubricating Oil Using ICPE-9000
Additives consisting of various types of organic metal substances are added to lubricating oils to enhance performance. They include detergents (to prevent and inhibit the deposition of degradation products formed during high-temperature operation of engines, etc.), antioxidants (which react with free radicals and peroxides to suppress the formation of varnish and sludge that originate during oxidation of oil), corrosion inhibitors (to neutralize the corrosive oxidation products formed due to degradation of the lubricant), solid lubricants (used as powder or thin film to reduce friction and wear), etc. Analysis of these additive elements is important for quality management of lubricating oils, and ICP emission spectrometry is one of the effective methods available for this analysis.Here, using the ICPE-9000 multitype inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, we conducted analysis of additive elements in commercially available engine oil, ATF oil and gear oil. The ICPE-9000 can simultaneously measure multiple elements, and quickly analyze many additive elements.
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Measurement of Lead in Lead-Free Solder by ICP-AES, FAAS and EDX
The RoHS directive stipulates that the concentration of lead in electrical and electronic equipment be restricted to less than 1000 ppm. Therefore, lead-free solder is used to comply with this directive, and lead-free solder such as SnAgCu and SnZnBi are being used instead. Here, we introduce examples of analysis by ICP emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS), and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDX) of lead (Pb) in a lead-free solder sample (candidate standard NMIJ CRM 8202-a) that is used for proficiency testing by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology.
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Post-Column pH Buffered Electric Conductivity Detection of Organic Acids with Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Here, we introduce an example of ultra fast simultaneous analysis of organic acids in which this detection technique was applied to organic acid separation by UHPLC.
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Quantitation by HPLC and Identification by LC/MS for Total Aflatoxins in Food
Aᜀatoxins are mycotoxins that are extremely carcinogenic and acutely toxic. In Japan, foods in which the total aflatoxins (sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2 aflatoxins) are detected at levels exceeding 10 µg/kg are in violation of Article 6, Item 2 of the Food Sanitation Act1).Previously, in Application News articles L422, L428 and L430, we introduced examples of simultaneous analysis of these 4 substances (B1, B2, G1 and G2) using HPLC and UHPLC. In accordance with the test method2) specified in the notification of August 16, 2011, after pretreatment using an immunoaffinity column, we conducted (1) quantitation using an HPLC system compliant with the test method, (2) identification using a LC/MS system compliant with the test method, and (3) rapid quantitation and identification using the Nexera UHPLC. Here, we present these analyses in addition to the results of the validation.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (5): Analysis of Alkyl Halides
Alkyl halides are used as an alkylating agent for raw ingredients in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals or are generated as a byproduct of drug synthesis. They have been identified as potential carcinogens or genotoxins. This Application Data Sheet shows an example of analyzing 18 alkyl halides using headspace-GC-MS.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters In Polymers Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GC-MS System (1): PBBs and PBDEs
In recent years, an analysis method is required to determine not only polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are regulated under the RoHS Directive, but also phthalate esters and other brominated flame retardants not governed by the directive (such as tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane). The method was developed to analyze those compounds under the same analytical conditions using EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMSQP2020 Ultra systems. This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing the brominated flame retardants PBB and PBDE using the developed method.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters In Polymers Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GC-MS System (2): Phthalate Esters
In recent years, an analysis method is required to determine not only polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are regulated under the RoHS Directive, but also phthalate esters and other brominated flame retardants not governed by the directive (such as tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane). Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and bis(2-ehtylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are specified in the REACH SVHC (Substance of Very High Concern) list. This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing seven phthalate esters in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra systems.
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Volume 17 of FTIR Talk Letter
Topics in this issue: Infrared spectroscopy using a gas cell, Measurement method ABCs: Specular Reflection Method, How Does Raman Spectroscopy differ from infrared spectroscopy?
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Analysis of 2-Alkylcyclobutanones by GC/MS: Detection of Irradiated Foods
In this Application News, we introduce an example of fat can be extracted (beef, pork, chicken, salmon, and Camembert cheese , etc . )
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GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database
In recent years, abuse of stimulants and other illegal drugs, particularly hallucinogens, shows no signs of abating; crime and poisoning events due to medicines, agricultural chemicals, and psychotropic drugs are on the increase, presenting a growing and serious social problem. In crime laboratories and forensic research laboratories, these chemicals are analyzed using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The detection of these harmful drugs by GC-MS requires investigation to determine the optimum analytical conditions and data processing conditions specific to each of the drugs. To eliminate the need to conduct these cumbersome operations, Shimadzu has developed its own proprietary "GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database," which contains critical information for more than 1000 drugs*, including psychotropic drugs, narcotics, stimulants, and pesticides. With emphasis on harmful drugs of abuse, difficult-to-obtain standard samples of these drugs and their metabolites are registered in the library, making the library ideal for forensic toxicological analysis. In addition, the database contains a library of mass spectra, method files containing the names, quantitation and reference ions, standard mass spectra, and retention indices specific to each of these drugs of abuse. Here we introduce quick and easy techniques for detecting and conducting semi-quantitation of harmful drugs using method files.
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Quantitation of dsDNA Using the Micro-Volume BioSpec-nano Spectrophotometer and its Repeatability
The rapid quantitation of DNA is an important and critical function of the modern biological and biochemistry laboratory. The Shimadzu BioSpec-nano micro-volume spectrophotometer is an ideal instrument to meet this critical need. The BioSpec-nano can determine the concentration of DNA every fifteen seconds by placing a 1-2 uL drop of sample directly onto the sample target and pressing the “Start” button. The DNA quantitation value is displayed within seconds followed by automatic wiping of the sample target, readying the instrument for the next sample. Measurement, recording, and wiping all occur in seconds allowing for high operational performance and throughput, a perfect fit for the modern laboratory. In addition, the Shimadzu design provides for the accuracy and repeatability required in today’s research settings.
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Utility of a System Consisting of EGA/PY-3030D and GCMS-QP2010 Ultra: Analysis of Eyeliner and Pyrolysis of a Mural Paint at 1000°C
The analysis of eyeliner and museum quality paint are used to demonstrate the capabilities of a system consisting of an EGA/PY-3030D pyrolyzer and a GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. The eyeliner was first analyzed using evolved gas analysis (EGA-MS). The EGA thermogram shows that the eyeliner contains compounds with a wide range of properties – from volatile organic solvents to nonvolatile polymers. The compositional analysis of each temperature zone on the EGA thermogram was determined using a high-resolution capillary column interfaced to the GC-MS. The high temperature pyrolysis of an ancient mural paint illustrates of the value of pyrolysis-GC-MS to characterize a material of interest.
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Automatic Identification and Semi-quantitative Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Serum Using “GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database”
A sample consisting of serum extract from a patient administered with psychotropic drugs was analyzed by GC/MS; identification and semiquantitation of the substances were conducted using the “GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database”. All three administered substances were identified, and their semi-quantitative values were calculated. The results indicated that it is possible to qualitatively and semi-quantitatively determine drugs using this database.
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Fast LC-MS/MS Screening Method for Antipsychotics
A fast screening method for a group of typical and atypical antipsychotics has been developed which incorporates the acquisition of full scan MS and data dependent product ion spectra to screen for any untargeted analytes.
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Study of an Efficient Method Development and Analysis Preparation Process using UHPLC
An actual analytical HPLC workflow requires time and labor in order to optimize analytical conditions. In this presentation, different processes, including automatic solvent blending and method scouting, as well as the Nexera Quaternary System, are presented, with an emphasis on improving the method development procedure.
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High-Sensitivity Quantitative Analysis of Trace-Level Impurities and Active Ingredients with HPLC
As the trend toward smaller and smaller analyte concentrations progresses, conventional analytical methods are becoming less and less able to address trace-level analyses. For example, not only do product impurities affect product quality, there are increasing instances of product safety being compromised as well. This has prompted increasingly stringent impurity control across a wide range of business enterprises, where concern about quantitative analysis of extremely low levels of impurities is the current reality. On the other hand, when the analyte is the active ingredient itself, it becomes increasingly difficult to establish a quantitative method as the concentrations decrease to minute levels. While the typical approach to addressing this situation is to increase sensitivity by taking such measures as increasing the sample concentration, there is always the concern that the solubility of the principal ingredient may be adversely affected, or that the analyte might not be sufficiently separated from possibly large numbers of obstructing substances in the sample matrix (see Fig. 1). Addressing this situation often necessitates the use of pretreatment procedures such as extraction and concentration, which also adversely affects efficiency due to the extra time and labor involved in conducting complicated pretreatment procedures. Thus, it becomes necessary to satisfy two very different requirements for the quantitation of trace-levels of analytes: increasing measurement sensitivity and speeding up operations. The key point in achieving this is to automate the entire process from the fraction collection (fractionation) and concentration of the analytes to final quantitation.
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Auto Dilution of Standard and Sample Solutions Using the SIL-30AC Autosampler
Pretreatment operations were shown to require less time and effort when using the automatic dilution feature of the SIL-30AC. Furthermore, these automated functions allow highly accurate results, free of technician-related errors. When using the SIL-30AC, automatic dilution and automatic reagent addition can easily be set up by using standard templates. Also, use of pretreatment programs makes it possible to set up very complex operations for a wide range of functions to be executed automatically.
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Using a Phenyl Column When Separation with C18 (ODS) Is Insufficient
The C18 column is an ODS type of column that is marketed by instrument and column manufacturers, in which octadecyl groups are bonded to a silica base to provide wide separation applicability. An appropriate ODS column is typically the first type selected from the various types available at the start of a reverse-phase analysis. However, in the process of investigating the mobile phase conditions, there are cases in which the separation conditions cannot be improved. Selecting a different ODS column or exchanging it with a C8 column to improve separation is also possible, but even then, it may not be possible to achieve sufficient separation.
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Measuring TOC in Brine Solutions
The TOC-L with the high salt kit is capable of analyzing large numbers of samples containing very high salt concentrations with minimal maintenance. Results were very good for over 1,000 injections of 28% NaCl with no maintenance performed.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC-MS/MS (2)
This Application Datasheet introduces the results of Scan/MRM measurements of metabolites extracted from rat urine. Five target components are measured with MRM, and unknown peaks are identified through a library search of the mass spectrum obtained with Scan.
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Selective Detection Using Neutral Loss Scan in GC-MS/MS
Neutral loss scan is a measuring mode of GC-MS/MS and is used to study a class of compounds showing a common neutral molecule loss during CID (Collision-Induced Dissociation). Both Q1 and Q3 are scanned with a fixed m/z difference corresponding to the neutral fragment during the CID. This application datasheet presents the results from measuring PCBs in transformer oil by neutral loss scanning.
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Analysis of PBDEs in Sediment Using GC-MS/MS
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants (BFRs) widely used in plastics. Due to their toxicity and persistence, their industrial production is to be eliminated under the Stockholm Convention. Contamination from PBDEs is widespread in the environment, including in sediments. In order to determine PBDEs in sediments, they need to be separated from a large amount of interferences co-extracted during sample preparation. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS were evaluated for this purpose.
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Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Processed Foods Using GC-MS/MS
This application datasheet presents a study of an analysis of residual pesticides in retort-pouched curry (curry packaged in a sealed pouch) using QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS. QuEChERS method is commonly used for extraction and cleanup of food products prior to GC/MS/MS analysis, due to its speed and simplicity, while GCMS/MS is able to selectively separate residual pesticides from a large quantity of co-extracted substances.
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GC-MS/MS analysis of residual pesticides in spinach using Scan/MRM (2)
The triple-quad GCMS-TQ8030 is equipped with a scan/MRM mode that allows simultaneous full-scan and MRM data measurements. With this mode, target compounds are selectively determined from a MRM data and unknown compounds are identified from a full-scan data, respectively. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the effectiveness of the scan/MRM mode when analyzing residual pesticides in a vegetable after QuEChERS extraction.
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GC-MS/MS analysis of residual pesticides in spinach using Scan/MRM
The triple-quad GCMS-TQ8030 is equipped with a scan/MRM mode that allows simultaneous full-scan and MRM data measurements. With this mode, target compounds are selectively determined from a MRM data and unknown compounds are identified from a full-scan data, respectively. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the effectiveness of the scan/MRM mode when analyzing residual pesticides in a vegetable after QuEChERS extraction.
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Quantitation of Protein Using the Micro-Volume BioSpec-nano Spectrophotometer
Protein analysis is commonly carried out in the life sciences laboratories. The need for a rapid and simple analysis tool for protein samples is met with the use of the micro-volume BioSpec-nano. The included software for the BioSpec-nano provides the instrumental capabilities needed for protein analysis in the modern laboratory.
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EPA Method 415.3 - Determination of TOC in Source Water and Drinking Water
Shimadzu’s TOC-LCPH exceeds all of the requirements outlined in method 415.3 for analyzing source water and drinking water.
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GC-MS/MS Analysis of Pesticides in Drinking Water
According to Japan’s list of drinking water quality control substances, pesticides are included as supplemental items subject to analysis. Designed to complement the standards, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare encourages water utilities to monitor pesticide levels and achieve specified targets. Among the 102 listed pesticides, 84 are simultaneously analyzed using solid-phase extraction and GC-MS. In this datasheet, those pesticides were analyzed using GC-MS/MS and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode.
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Measurement of Cesium in Tap Water and Soil by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Recently, technologies that can efficiently remove radioactive cesium (chiefly Cs-137) from water and soil have been actively researched. The study and evaluation of these removal technologies can be conducted using Cs-133, an easy-to-handle, stable substance, yet chemically similar to Cs-137. Cesium can be analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and ICP emission spectroscopy, which are therefore effective for researching and evaluating the various removal technologies. Here, we introduce examples of analysis of cesium in tap water and soil using the AA-7700 atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
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Determination of Interstitial Atomic Oxygen and Substitutional Atomic Carbon in Silicon Wafers and Hydrogen in Silicon Nitride Films on Silicon Wafers by FTIR
Wor ldwide silicon wafer production is steadily increasing due to increasing demand not only for semiconductors that has continued for decades, but for solar cells as well, where demand has been expanding since 2000. In both applications, however, control of the various types of impurities that can occur is required for ensuring the quality of silicon wafers. Quantitative analysis of interstitial oxygen and substitutional carbon in silicon wafers is known to be relatively easy using infrared spectroscopy. Fur thermore, infrared spectroscopy can also be used for the determination of hydrogen in silicon nitride films that are deposited on the surface of silicon wafers as anti-reflective and insulating coatings. Here, we introduce examples of this type of measurement on such samples using the IRsolution Macro Program.
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High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 45) Analysis of Pre-Column Derivatized Amino Acids by the Nexera SIL-30AC Autosampler (Part 2)
Here, we introduce an example of the determination of 26 amino acids using a different column size and different mobile phase conditions than were used in L432. The automatic pretreatment feature of the SIL-30AC was utilized for derivatization of the amino acids during analysis, thereby enabling the overall analysis time to be substantially shortened.
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Quantitation Limit Data for Tap Water Using TOC-LCPH
The reference value for "organic matter (Total Organic Carbon (TOC))" in tap water is 3 mg/L according to the Water Quality Standards specified in Japan's Water Supply Act. Thus, the lower limit of quantitation of the TOC analyzer used for this measurement must be 0.3 mg/L, that is, 1/10 the reference value. Here, we introduce examples of measurement at 0.3 mg/L, that is, 1/10 the concentration specified in the standards, using the Shimadzu TOC-LCPH with the regular catalyst and the high sensitivity catalyst.
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Analysis of Steviol Glycosides in Stevia Extract
We introduce an example of analysis of the 9 major steviol glycosides in the stevia extract by reversed phase chromatography.
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LC/MS/MS Analysis of Vitamin D by the Co-Sense for Impurities System
The Co-Sense for Impurities system, as previously described in Application News No. L424, is a complete HPLC configuration that automates the sample pretreatment process in trace level analysis. The earlier article presented an example of high sensitivity detection using analyte extraction and concentration. This system offers analyte concentration and removal of
impurities, and therefore comprises 3 flow lines: one for primary separation, another for concentration, and the third for secondary separation. Since a different mobile Detector B
phase and column can be selected for each flow line, a combination of conditions can be used, including those that are conducive for separation at the primary separation stage and that are appropriate for detection for the secondary separation stage. Here we introduce
an example in which Vitamin D3 capsules were analyzed
by LC/MS/MS using such a method.
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Spectroscopic Measurement and Multivariate Analysis for Classification of Beer Types
In this application we introduce the results of our investigation into the differences in absorption spectra obtained from measurement of a variety of beers using the UV-3600 Ultraviolet-Visible Near-Infrared Spectrophotometer. Also presented here is our attempt to classify different types of beer using multivariate analysis.
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Analysis of Corrosive Liquids Used as Wax Remover with Disposable IR Cards
Spectrophotometric analysis of liquid samples can be conducted simply and effectively using the ATR method. However, when the liquid sample has corrosive properties, which is common with the strong acids and strong alkalis used as wax removal substances, ATR is not suitable for analysis because these corrosive substances can cause damage to the prism crystal and metal parts (typically consisting of SS) used to secure the prism. In such cases, transmission measurements using a disposable IR card is an effective alternative method. Here we introduce examples of measurement of weakly alkaline, corrosive ethanolamine and strongly acidic methanesulfonic acid utilizing these disposable IR cards.
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Particle Size Distribution Measurement of Hair Treatment
The role of hair conditioner is to supplement the oil lost during shampooing, so as to soften and make the hair supple. It also loosens entanglements that occur due to shampooing, smoothing the hair to make it easier to comb and brush. At the same time, it acts to suppress static electricity that can occur while brushing the hair, preventing the adherence of dust. To achieve these effects, cationic surfactants, oils and emulsifiers, etc. are blended in as ingredients of hair conditioner. Hair conditioner typically has a creamlike consistency, indicating that these ingredients exist as particles in an emulsion. Here, we report on the results of measurement of the particle size distribution in hair conditioner using the SALD-7101 nano particle size analyzer.
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Particle Size Distribution Measurement of Chocolate
This article describes the use of a SALD-2300 laser diffraction particle size analyzer to measure the size distribution of particles in chocolate. Chocolate is a mixture of cocoa mass, which consists of ground cocoa beans mixed with milk, sugar, cocoa butter, and other ingredients. This can be considered as a mixture of various particles in fat. Consequently, the particle size distribution presumably varies depending on the dispersion conditions. In this example, isopropanol at about 45 °C was used as the dispersant.
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Particle Size Distribution Measurement of Powdered Young Leaf Blade of Barley
Powdered barley grass is often used in health food products. At the distribution stage, it is packaged in dry powdered form, but it is normally mixed with water, milk, or other liquids, to form a suspension for actual consumption. In other words, from the time it is shipped until it is consumed, the barley grass exists in a variety of different states. Particle size distribution is a physical property that is dependent on the dispersion status. Given the same sample, measurement results can differ depending on how the particles are dispersed. This article describes the results obtained from measuring the particle size distribution of the same sample in which the particles were dispersed using three different dispersion methods. Note the difference in particle size distributions, depending on the dispersion conditions. Measurements were obtained using a Shimadzu SALD-2300 laser diffraction particle size analyzer.
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TOC Application Handbook
TOC Application Handbook. Various TOC applications from various industries such as Environmental Analysis, Pharmaceutical Industry, Chemical Industry, Special Applications, TOC in daily use and process analysis with a TOC. Over 70 pages of applications.
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TOC Application Handbook-Environmental Analysis applications.
Determination in drinking water. Determination in waste water. Determination in surface and groundwater. Particulate organic carbon after filtration
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TOC Application Handbook. Pharmaceutical Industry applications.
TOC determination in ultrapure water. Determination in cleaning validation. Determination in cleaning validation.
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TOC Application Handbook. Chemical Industry applications
Determination in hydrochloric acid.Determination in nitric acid. Determination in sulfuric acid. Determination in brines.Determination in sodium hydroxide solution. Determination in soda solution. Determination in ammonia or ammonium salt solutions. Determination in sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite
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TOC Application Handbook. Special applications
Determination in algal biomass. Determination in liquid manure and fermentation fluids. Carbon dioxide determination in beer
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TOC Application Handbook. TOC in daily practice applications.
Determination methods according to EN 1484. Determination of the purgeable organic carbon (POC). Application - Total bound nitrogen. Kit for high-salt samples. Kit for small sample volumes. Blank value consideration in TOC analysis. TOC – Measurement principle Catalytic combustion at 680°C
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TOC Application Handbook. TOC process analysis applications.
Continuous TOC/TN determination in wastewater treatment plants. TOC process analysis in the paper industry. Continuous TOC determination in the chemical industry. Continuous condensate monitoring using the TOC-4200.
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Ultra-high Speed Analysis of Ibuprofen within USP <621> Allowed Limits by Nexera Method Scouting
This application note shows an example of Ibuprofen analysis from the USP-NF. This analysis was based on USP <621> and done by using the Nexera Method Scouting System, with a conventional column, Shim-pack VPODS, and a core-shell column, Kinetex XBC18.
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Analysis of Herbal Medicines by ICPE-9000
We present the results of our analysis of herbal medicines using the Shimadzu ICPE-9000 multitype ICP emission spectrometer.
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Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Seafood by EDXRF
X- ray fluorescence analysis , in addition to its effectiveness in analysis of inorganic materials such as metals and ceramics, is also effective for the detection and quantitative analysis of minerals and heavy metals in foods. Not only can samples be analyzed directly without conducting time-consuming pretreatment, sensitive and accurate measurement is also possible using simple preparation measures, such as pressure forming. Quantitative analysis by XRF does not necessarily require a standard sample, as approximate quantitative results can easily be obtained even when the principal components are organic matter. Here we introduce these preparat ion methods and our investigat ion of their respective di fferences in quantitation values and detection limits. Furthermore, we also examined the differences attributable to instrument model, as well as the use of iodine and cesium.
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Quantitative Analysis of Antimony (Sb) in Plastics by EDXRF
We present the results of sensitivity evaluation testing of commercially available antimony-spiked PE (polyethylene) plastic standards using the EDX-720/GP. In addition, since quick screening evaluation analysis of these restricted elements is often judged by the OK/Gray/NG method using a dedicated instrument, an example of this analysis is also presented here.
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Structural Elucidation of Complex Lipids Using MALDI-TOF with High-Energy CID
MALDI-MS of sodiated triacylglycerols using true highenergy CID TOF/TOF conditions (ELAB = 20 keV) as provided by the AXIMA Performance has proven a valid alternative to sector-field analyser based experiments. More significantly, the AXIMA Performance has been shown to allow accurate differentiation of positional isomers within this class of lipids.
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ISDn: In-Source Decay and MSn of Intact Proteins using an AXIMA Resonance MALDI-QIT-TOF Mass Spectrometer
ISD<sup>n</sup> performed on the AXIMA Resonance high vacuum MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometer offers several advantages for detailed characterisation of biomolecules compared with ISD performed on conventional MALDI-TOF-TOF instruments. The high performance of the AXIMA Resonance affords good resolution (>8000 (FWHM)) across the various stages of MS (MS<sup>n</sup>) and provides good mass accuracy on the detected ISD and MS<sup>n</sup> fragment ions essentially independent of the laser fluence. Using the ion trap, precursors can be efficiently isolated and subsequent CID fragmentation is controllable, allowing up to pseudo MS<sup>5</sup> to be performed.
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Volume 18 of FTIR Talk Letter
January 2013 - Our FTIR Talk focuses on Lasers Used in FTIR Systems and Measurement Method ABCs: Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy
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Volume 10 of UV Talk Letter
Characteristics of Single and Double Monochromator UV-VIS Spectrophotometers, What is the relationship between transmittance and absorbance, Turbidity measurements in accordance with JIS K 0101, Testing methods for industrial water
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Volume 9 of UV Talk Letter
Characteristics of Single and Double Monochromator UV-VIS Spectrophotometery, Analyzing mineral water using multivariate analysis, How should cells be cleaned?
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Simultaneous Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods via the QuEChERS Method Utilizing GC-MS/MS
This application demonstrates the simultaneous analysis of residual pesticides in foods using the QuEChERS method.
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Scan/MRM Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods Using GC-MS/MS (3)
This application presents an investigation of residual pesticides in food using the Scan/MRM mode
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Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Whole Blood Utilizing Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurements (2)
This Application Data Sheet introduces the application of scan data from simultaneous scan/MRM measurement to the Forensic Toxicological Database, leading to comprehensive screening for medicinal toxicants in a whole blood sample. Please refer to this in conjunction with Application Datasheet No. 74, which introduces an example of the mass separation of cholesterol from triazolam and etizolam in whole blood, utilizing MRM data from simultaneous Scan/MRM analysis.
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Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Whole Blood Utilizing Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurements (1)
When analyzing medicinal toxicants using GC-MS, the presence of fatty acids and cholesterol, which exist in large quantities in whole blood, can interfere with detection. In fact, profiles for triazolam and etizolam, benzodiazepine psychotropic drugs, overlap with the cholesterol chromatogram, making data analysis difficult with a single GC-MS system.
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Volume 19 of FTIR Talk Letter
FTIR and water. Measurement Method ABCs: Multiple Reflection ATR Method. What are the key considerations when using a diamond cell for infrared microscope analysis?
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Ultra Fast Method Scouting − Maximizing Efficiency for Method Development
The traditional process of investigating analytical conditions during method development is often complicated and time-consuming, and only when it becomes possible for anyone, regardless of skill level, to carry out this task easily, quickly, and ideally as an automated procedure, will greater speed and efficiency raise the overall level of analytical operations. This Report introduces the Nexera Method Scouting system, a UHPLC (ultra high performance LC) system for identifying and resolving the limiting factors associated with traditional method development techniques.
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Aroclors in Human Blood Serum by Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS
The Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS simplifies detection and quantitation of PCBs at sub-ppb concentrations in complex human blood serum with virtually no interference from the background matrix. Ability to independently optimize each instrument parameter, such as MRM transition, collision energy, and quadrupole resolution, produces the level of sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy required for TEQ measurements and related programs. The method can be used to screen complex biological samples for individual PCB congeners or Aroclor mixtures, and to estimate total PCB concentrations.
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Methods 8260C and 8270D on a Single GCMS without Changing Columns
The Twin Line MS Kit allows the user to install two chromatographic columns in the same mass spectrometer, providing greater flexibility for those laboratories wishing to perform volatile and semi-volatile analyses on a single GCMS unit without breaking the MS vacuum. This configuration incorporates two injection ports and two chromatographic columns simultaneously connected to a single MS. With this configuration, the user can easily switch between volatile and semi-volatile applications without venting the MS vacuum system to change the analytical column.
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Evaluation of Hydrogen as a Carrier Gas for Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry
The Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 SE, with its inert, low-nickel source, was used for analysis of a wide range of compound classes using hydrogen as the carrier gas without requiring any changes to the instrument hardware. Chromatography with hydrogen carrier gas was excellent, and retention times were easily reproduced using the constant linear velocity feature of the GCMSsolutions software. MS tuning was essentially equivalent, and passed all acceptance criteria with both hydrogen and helium.
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Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Baby Foods Using a Triple-Quadrupole GC/MS/MS System
A Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 system operated in the MRM mode was shown to be a rapid, sensitive, and selective technique for analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in baby foods. Reliable, precise measurements were obtained at 1 ng/mL for all 24 OP pesticides. The Shimadzu AART function and GC/MS/MS Pesticide Database simplified development of the MRM method.
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Measurement of Metal Ion in Plating Solution by Flame Atomic Absorption
In the measurement of principal component elements in plating solution, changing the burner angle permits the reduction of error due to dilution. Furthermore, use of an appropriate background correction method allows accurate measurement of trace-level elements. Thus, the AA-7000 is capable of measuring metal ions present in a wide range of concentrations in plating solution, from principal components to trace-level elements.
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Measurement of Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Products by ICP-AES and ETAAS
The ICPE-9000 used for measurement is equipped with an Echelle spectrometer and CCD detector, making it possible to conduct simultaneous analysis of all elements at all wavelengths, thereby permitting high-throughput measurement even for multiple analytes, such as in impurity elemental analysis in pharmaceutical products. Further, compared to a conventional torch, the mini torch offers lower consumption of argon gas, thereby reducing running costs. The ETAAS method using the AA-7000 provides high-sensitivity analysis of small-volume samples.
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Polarized ATR Measurements of Uniaxially Drawn PET Film
This application presents an example of evaluation of uniaxially drawn polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film using the polarized ATR measurement technique.
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Measurement of TOC in Electroplating Solution by TOC-LCSH
The TOC value in the used plating solution was greater than that in the new, unused solution. These results demonstrate that TOC measurement can be used for management of the organic substance concentration in electroplating solution.
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Transmittance Measurement of Smartphone Proximity Sensor Window
The transmittance of the proximity sensor window and illuminance sensor window in smartphones is an important factor related to the operation of the sensor. Further, with the recent development of smaller and smaller sensors, it has become extremely important to conduct transmittance measurement in extremely small areas. Here, using a specially designed sample holder, we measured a micro-sized proximity sensor window and confirmed that measurement can be conducted for a target as small as 1 mm in diameter. There was little scattering with the samples used here. The decrease in transmittance due to scattered light had therefore little effect on the measurement values. In cases where light scattering must be considered due to particular sample characteristics, the use of an integrating sphere may be necessary for accurate measurements.
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Measurement of Band Gap of Titanium (IV) Oxide
A Tauc plot is typically used for determining the band gap of a sample, but the calculations used are both complex and time consuming. Using this software macro, band gap can easily be calculated by inserting the appropriate low and high energy values for specifying the tangent line.
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Analysis of Contaminant Adhering to Frozen Pizza
The steady stream of consumer complaints related to foods reflects continuing high concern for food safety. To address these concerns and specific contaminationrelated complaints, it is important to quickly and accurately report the analysis results and clearly elucidate the contamination pathway. Here, using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX), in addition to an electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA), we present the results of analysis of a contaminant adhering to the surface of frozen pizza.
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Measurement of the Ultra Violet Protection Factor assigned to Ultraviolet Protection Clothes
For humans, long exposure to UV radiation can cause skin blemishes such as freckles and in the worst case, cancers. Given the current concern for UV exposure, there are many UV protected textile fabrics on the market . In this application, we use UV-Visible spectrophotometry to measure the UV protection value for these items to verify how well they protect the wearer from harmful UV radiation. The Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) value is a regulated Standard in Europe, America, and Oceania. Here we examine common UPF values for UV protected clothing.
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Ultra Fast Method Scouting − Maximizing Efficiency for Method Development
The traditional process of investigating analytical conditions during method development is often complicated and time-consuming, and only when it becomes possible for anyone, regardless of skill level, to carry out this task easily, quickly, and ideally as an automated procedure, will greater speed and efficiency raise the overall level of analytical operations. This Report introduces the Nexera Method Scouting system, a UHPLC (ultra high performance LC) system for identifying and resolving the limiting factors associated with traditional method development techniques.
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Improved R&D Efficiency Through Speedier Method Development (3)
Method scouting is the search for analytical conditions (column, mobile phase, and gradient settings) that optimize an LC separation. When used with a UHPLC (ultra high performance LC) system, the time to produce a robust, validated method is greatly shortened, which leads to an increased interest in and application of UHPLC systems for method development. In this report, we introduce an example of such scouting using the Nexera Method Scouting System together with its specialized Method Scouting Solution software to conduct a search for simultaneous analytical conditions to be used in analysis of 13 cephem antibiotic substances.
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Measurement of Residual Solvents in Pharmaceuticals by Headspace GC - USP <467> Residual Solvents - Procedure A -
Residual solvents in pharmaceuticals are defined as volatile organic compounds used in or generated from the manufacture of drug substances, pharmaceutical additives, or drug products. They are strictly controlled according to risk classifications from Class 1 to Class 3, which are based on the risk to human health. Headspace GC methods specified in the USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia), General Chapters <467> Residual Solvents, are commonly used for analysis of residual solvents. These USP methods were created based on the analytical methods specified in the EP (European Pharmacopoeia), in accordance with policies specified by the ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use). This Application Data Sheet presents data obtained using the Shimadzu HS-20 Headspace Sampler and Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus Gas Chromatograph, from Class 1 and Class 2 standard solutions, in accordance with Water-Soluble Articles, Procedure A, in USP <467> Residual Solvents.
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Measurement of Residual Solvents in Pharmaceuticals by Headspace GC - USP <467> Residual Solvents - Procedure B -
Residual solvents in pharmaceuticals are defined as volatile organic compounds used in or generated from the manufacture of drug substances, pharmaceutical additives, or drug products. They are strictly controlled according to risk classifications from Class 1 to Class 3, which are based on the risk to human health. Headspace GC methods specified in the USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia), General Chapters <467> Residual Solvents, are commonly used for analysis of residual solvents. These USP methods were created based on the analytical methods specified in the EP (European Pharmacopoeia), in accordance with policies specified by the ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use). This Application Data Sheet presents data obtained using the Shimadzu HS-20 Headspace Sampler and Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus Gas Chromatograph, from Class 1 and Class 2 standard solutions, in accordance with Water-Soluble Articles, Procedure B, in USP <467> Residual Solvents.
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High-Sensitivity Analysis of 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Wine Using Headspace-Trap GC/MS
2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) emitted from wine corks can taint wine and cause an objectionable odor. Due to the low threshold value for sensing the odor, highly sensitive measurements are required for monitoring. Conventionally, TCA was measured using methods such as purge and trap, which is very effective in concentrating samples, or thermal desorption. The HS-20 headspace sampler includes a trap function that is able to concentrate headspace gases. This Data Sheet describes an example of high-sensitivity measurement of TCA in wine using an HS-trap GC/MS system.
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Analysis of VOCs in Water Using Headspace-GC/MS
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in water are regulated by environmental water quality laws or standards because of health hazard factors. Purge and trap methods and Headspace methods are commonly used for analysis of VOCs because of their sensitivity and ease of use. This application presents an example of analysis of VOCs in drinking water using the Shimadzu HS-20 headspace sampler.
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Introduction of a Search System for Contaminants in Tap Water
Various contaminants, both organic and inorganic, can be present in tap water. It is therefore necessary to identify not only contaminants that are organic, but also those that are inorganic in nature. Without information on both of these types of contaminants, adequate determination is not possible. Here, we present the determination of organic and inorganic contaminants in tap water using both infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for analysis of organic substances, and X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDX) for inorganic elements. This paper presents the analysis of these two types of contaminants in tap water and introduces how a tap water contaminant search system can be utilized for identification of the substances.
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Material Testing by Strain Distribution Visualization – DIC Analysis –
Here we introduce examples of DIC analysis of CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) and ABS resin highspeed tensile impact testing.
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Mechanical Strength Evaluation of Functional Film Used in Smartphones
This paper introduces an example of the strength evaluation of self-repair coating film used on the functional protective film that covers the LCD screens of such products as smartphones and tablets.
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Cookie Cutter Proteolysis: Achieving Reproducible, Efficient Digestions for Proteomic Workflows
Protein sample preparation workflows for mass spectrometric analysis that involve proteolysis are often labor-intensive, time consuming and user dependent. These workflows often involve digestion, solid phase extraction, drying, and re-suspension prior to reversed phase separation into the mass spectrometer. The introduction of variability at many of these steps hinders discovery initiatives as well as the ability to convert these discoveries into viable assays. Recently, an automated protein digestion platform was developed which accelerates the digestion process through use of immobilized enzyme reaction (IMER) columns. Furthermore, online digestion is integrated with desalting and reversed phase chromatography to create a seamless workflow to the mass spectrometer once the sample is injected. The benefit of streamlining these processes can be demonstrated by the reproducibility achieved.
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Determination of Drugs in Serum using Heart-cutting Two-dimensional Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography
HPLC separation and quantitation are often used for measurement of drug concentrations in the blood. When analyzing the concentration of a drug in blood using HPLC, it is necessary to separate analytes from other compounds. However, the separation of analytes and other compounds in blood is not easy because of the complex matrix. Sample preparation is useful for these cases to reduce matrix, but it can take a long time. In this poster, we analyzed propranolol in serum using heartcutting two-dimensional ultra high performance liquid chromatography. This method was developed on our UHPLC system equipped with a high-pressure switching valve.
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Quantitation of dsDNA Using the Shimadzu UV-1800 Spectrophotometer and Starna Scientific DMV-Bio Cell
The Shimadzu UV-1800 spectrophotometer, when combined with the Starna Scientific DMV- Bio Cell, demonstrates the ability to quantitatively measure the amount of dsDNA in a sample. The combination of the UV-1800 and Bio Cell readily meets the need to analyze micro-volume samples quickly and accurately.
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Quantitation of Protein Using the Shimadzu UV-1800 Spectrophotometer and Starna Scientific DMV-Bio Cell
The Shimadzu UV-1800 spectrophotometer, when combined with the Starna Scientific DMV-Bio Cell, demonstrates the ability to quantitatively measure the amount of protein in a sample. The combination of the UV-1800 and Bio Cell readily meets the need to analyze micro-volume samples quickly and accurately.
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GCxGC Handbook: Application Compendium of Comprehensive 2D GC Vol. 1-5 (Japan)
GCxGC Handbook: Application Compendium of Comprehensive 2D GC Vol. 1-5 (Japan)
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GCxG Handbook: Fundamental Principles of Comprehensive 2D GC
GCxG Handbook: Fundamental Principles of Comprehensive 2D GC
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Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Oral Fluids
The methods in this booklet are a compilation of work collected from working forensics laboratories. Each of these labs is a Shimadzu customer and all of the data was generated using the GCMS-QP2010 series of instruments. Analytes include: Opiates, Cocaine, BZE, Phencyclidine, THC, Methadone
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Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 1
Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 1, GCMS in drug screening and clinical chemistry, TLC/MS offline coupling, Higher speed through Fast-GCMS, Determination of oil in water according to DIN H53
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Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 2
Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 2. Fast GC and GC/MS using narrow-bore columns: Principles and Applications, Basics of separation in fast GC
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Rapid Quantitation of Micro-Volume Protein Samples
Quantitation of micro-volume Protein and DNA samples is important for life science laboratories. The purpose of this study is to analyze labeled and non-labeled proteins using the Shimadzu BioSpec-nano UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The measurement technique used is especially suited for low sample volumes of 1 to 4 μL using adjustable pathlengths of 0.2 and 0.7mm. This study focused on a working linear range of 0.5 – 2.1 mg/mL for the non-labeled protein samples and 0.1 - 2.1 mg/mL for the labeled protein samples.
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Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (1)
This Application Data Sheet reports on MRM sensitivity and analytical repeatability when using simultaneous scan/MRM measurements with respect to PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. Application Data Sheet No. 79 presents an example of the quantification of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by using the MRM data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements of a river water sample. In addition, Application Data Sheet No. 80 features an example of screening for environmental pollutants not suited to MRM measurement by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements.
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Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (2)
This data sheet introduces an example of the accurate quantification of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in river water using the analytical conditions for simultaneous scan/MRM measurements introduced in Application Data Sheet No. 78. It presents sensitivity and repeatability results for PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in MRM mode, acquired with simultaneous scan/MRM measurements, in Application Data Sheet No. 78. In addition, Application Data Sheet No. 80 introduces an example of the screening for environmental pollutants not suited to MRM measurement by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan data acquired with simultaneous scan/MRM measurements.
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Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (3)
This Application Data Sheet introduces an example of screening for environmental pollutants other than PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, which are targeted for MRM measurements, by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements. Also introduced is an accurate trace quantitation analysis of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides with the MRM data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements in Application Data Sheets No. 78 and No. 79.
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Simultaneous Analysis of Evolved Gas Produced by the Degradation of a Lithium-Ion Battery
Simultaneous Analysis of Evolved Gas Produced by the Degradation of a Lithium-Ion BatteryIn evaluating the degradation of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, it is necessary to analyze the gases produced inside the battery. The composition of the sampled internal gases can be investigated by conveying them to a gas chromatograph. The Shimadzu Tracera High-Sensitivity Gas Chromatograph uses a revolutionary plasma technology to detect all compounds except He and Ne. The system is capable of the simultaneous analysis of C1 to C3 hydrocarbons and inorganic gases including hydrogen, so it eliminates the conventional need for carrier gas switching or combined use of multiple systems. In addition, the Tracera's high sensitivity makes it possible to analyze small quantity gas samples. This Data Sheet introduces the simultaneous analysis of internal gases from a lithium-ion rechargeable battery utilizing the Tracera system.
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High-Sensitivity Simultaneous Analysis of Inorganic Gases and Light Hydrocarbons
With conventional analytic methods, the high-sensitivity detection of CO, CO2 and light hydrocarbons requires a Methanizer plus a flame ionization detector (FID), while the detection of inorganic gas components requires a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). This requires a system with a complicated flow channel configuration. However, if the appropriate analysis column can be selected utilizing a barrier discharge ionization detector (BID) as the detector, then a mixed gas sample containing inorganic gases and light hydrocarbons can be simultaneously analyzed with high sensitivity. This Data Sheet introduces an example of the high-sensitivity simultaneous analysis of inorganic gases and light hydrocarbons utilizing the Shimadzu Tracera High-Sensitivity Gas Chromatograph system.
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Analysis of Reaction Products in Artificial Photosynthesis Research
Artificial photosynthesis refers to a technique for the manufacture of high-energy substances using energy from sunlight. It is expected to become the 4th type of sunlight-based renewable energy after solar cells, solar heating, and biomass technologies. This data sheet introduces an example of the simultaneous analysis of CO and H2, generated in a photochemical carbon dioxide reduction utilizing a photo-catalyst, using the Shimadzu Tracera High-Sensitivity Gas Chromatograph system.
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Ultra-Fast, High-Sensitivity Analysis of Degradation Products in Valsartan
The need for reliable separation and quantification of minute quantities of pharmaceutical impurities suspected of genetic toxicity continues to grow. Using the SPD-M30A high-sensitivity photodiode array detector permits high-sensitivity detection of extremely trace amounts of components. Introduced here is an example of ultra-fast, high-sensitivity simultaneous analysis of valsartan degradation products.
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Ultra-Fast, High-Sensitivity Analysis of Artificial Colorings Using the SPD-M30A Photodiode Array Detector
The newly-designed capillary SR-Cell (Sensitivity and Resolution Cell) has been adopted for the SPD-M30A high-sensitivity photodiode array detector in the Nexera SR Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatograph. By optimizing the cell's optical path length and diameter, both low noise levels and high sensitivity have been achieved. This article introduces the high-speed, high-sensitivity simultaneous analysis of artificial colorings using the Nexera SR UHPLC.
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High-Speed, High-Resolution Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins Using SPD-M30A
The Nexera SR is a high-end model within the Nexera X2 series of ultra high performance liquid chromatographs. It features the SPD-M30A high-sensitivity photodiode array detector which incorporates the newly designed capillary SR-Cell (Sensitivity and Resolution Cell). Optimization of the optical path length and diameter results in both high sensitivity and low noise. Introduced here is an example of high-speed, high-sensitivity simultaneous analysis of water-soluble vitamins using the Nexera SR ultra high performance liquid chromatograph.
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High-Speed and High-Sensitivity Analysis of Cefazolin Using SPD-M30A
Impurities present in drugs that are suspected of genotoxicity must be subjected to separation and quantitation at trace levels lower than typically required. With the SPD-M30A high-sensitivity photodiode array detector, even extremely trace level components can be detected and quantitated. Here we introduce an example of ultra-high-speed, high-sensitivity analysis of the degradation products of cefazolin.
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Analysis of Commerical Honeys for Corn Syrup Adulteration by FTIR Spectroscopy
Honey is a valuable food commodity that gains a lot of attention due to its potential health benefits and usage to sweeten foods and beverages. To save on manufacturing costs, honey is susceptible to deliberate adulteration with sugar syrups such as corn syrup. Honey adulteration does not pose significant health problems, but it negatively influences market growth and consumer confidence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) was used to collect absorption spectra of various commercial honey samples. Partial-least squares (PLS) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the potential adulteration of honey samples. The techniques presented in this work provide and alternative to determine the purity and authenticity of foods, such as honey, and other natural products.
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Screening Medical Marijuana for Pesticides by GC-MS/MS
Triple-quadrupole GC-MS/MS operated in MRM mode provides significant sensitivity and selectivity, but method development can be expensive and time consuming. This poster describes streamlined method development process for analysis of pesticide residues in MM using a QuEChERS sample preparation method, followed by GC-MS/MS detection and quantitation.
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Analysis of Illegal Sudan and Para Red Dyes in Eggs by LC‐MS/MS
Generally, egg yolk color is an indication of its nutritional value and freshness. Eggs with yelloworange hue are the most desired ones. Hence, egg producers enhance the color of their products by feeding the egg laying hens with feed containing various synthetic dyes. This can be proved by confirming the presence of illegal dye residues in eggs. A method for pre-treatment and subsequent LC/MS/MS analysis has been developed for highly sensitive quantitation of these dyes from egg using LCMS-8040, a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer from Shimadzu Corporation, Japan.
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Checking for meat authenticity using targeted LC-MS/MS analysis
In this work previously published proteotypic peptides were selected to detect horse, pork, beef and chicken using Skyline software (MacCoss Lab Software - University of Washington). These were used to interrogate a Uniprot database FASTA download for myosin (43263 proteins) and collagen (44531 proteins) to determine no other species cross reactivity to pig myosin and collagen.
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Research on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetables by online GPC‐GC/MS
7 kinds of PCBs in two complicated matrix–carrot and ginger were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GPC–GCMS), which could remove majority of macromolecules such as oil and pigment.
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Analysis of 32 Synthetic PDE‐5 Inhibitors Drugs & Analogues Adulterated in Health Supplements by LC-MS/MS
In recent years, synthe-c phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme (PDE‐5) inhibitors like sildenafil (active component of VIAGRA) were found as adulterant in some health supplements described as plant or herbal products. Only seven synthe-c PDE‐5 inhibitors, namely, sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, avanafil, udenafil, mirodenafil and lodenafil carbonate are approved officially to be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. The adulteration is illegal and may be also dangerous for consumers, because not only the above PDE‐5 inhibitors, many newly appeared analogues that are synthesized with minor modification of the parent structures are also found used as adulterants. Analytical techniques like HPLC and LC/MS/MS have been applied for screening and quantitation of PDE‐5 inhibitors and their analogues. We describe here a high sensitivity LC/MS/MS method for detection and quantification of thirty‐two synthetic PDE‐5 inhibitors and analogues spiked in health products.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System - TBBPA and BPBPE
This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing TBBPA and BPBPE in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra systems
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System (3) - HBCDD
This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing HBCDD in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (4) - Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol, Part 2
This Application Data Sheet reports on results with respect to a method for quantitating haloalcohols (2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, and 2-iodoethanol) and glycidol in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) utilizing the GCMS system. For the analysis conditions as well as the total ion current chromatogram and mass spectra for the haloalcohols and glycidol, refer to GCMS Application Data Sheet No. 41, "Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (3), Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol Part 1."
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (3) - Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol, Part 1
Haloalcohols are used as synthetic materials in pharmaceuticals, and are considered potential genotoxic impurities (PGI). In addition, glycidol has been identified as a cancer-causing agent, and has been assigned to Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) in terms of carcinogenic risk by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This Application Data Sheet introduces analysis of haloalcohols and glycidol in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) using the GC-MS.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Activie Pharmaceutical Ingredients (2)
This Application Datasheet introduces evaluation results with respect to quantification in the GC/MS analysis of sulfonate esters, so-called PGI (potential genotoxic impurities), in active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Please refer to GC-MS Application Datasheet No. 18, “Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients,” for the analysis conditions and the total ion current chromatogram for the sulfonate esters.
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Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Cheese
Volatile compounds, including aroma compounds, in Parmesan and Blue cheese were analyzed using adsorption and thermal desorption GC/MS (TD-GC/MS). MonoTrap was used as adsorbant. It is a state-of-theart silica monolithic and hybrid adsorbent having a large surface area and properties based on silica, activated carbon (graphite carbon for Mono Trap TD) and the octadecyl functional group. GC-MS equipped with the OPTIC-4 multi-purpose injector was used for thermal desorption. The OPTIC-4 allows direct introduction of desorbed gas into a capillary column without re-adsorption.
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Analysis of Aroma Components in Peach Juice by GCMS Using the OPTIC-4 Multimode Inlet and Mono Trap
The OPTIC-4 is a multimode injection system with a thermal desorption function that enables performing thermal desorption by placing an adsorbent in the injection port liner cup. In combination with the new MonoTrap adsorbent, the system enables analyzing aroma components with high sensitivity.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC-MS/MS (1)
This Application Datasheet introduces results from the measurement of metabolites extracted from rat urine, utilizing Scan/MRM mode with 5 component MRM measurements added to a Scan measurement method from the GC/MS Metabolites Spectral Database.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC-MS/MS (2)
The GCMS-TQ8030 is a GC-MS/MS system equipped with Scan/MRM mode to allow simultaneous Scan and MRM data measurements. Using Scan/MRM mode, it is possible to perform high-sensitivity analysis through high selectivity via MRM, while simultaneously performing qualitative analysis utilizing the mass spectrum via Scan.
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Analysis of Automobile Cabin Air by Thermal Desorption GCMS Using the OPTIC-4 Multimode Inlet
This datasheet shows the results where volatile organic compounds in automobile cabin air were adsorbed using Tenax TA (2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide), a sorbent material commonly used for atmospheric analysis, and analyzed by TD-GC-MS.
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Characterization of Paint from Art Work Using Automatic Reactive Pyrolysis in the OPTIC-4 Inlet
Pyrolysis GC-MS provides an extremely useful method for art research, because it allows solid samples to be directly analyzed and requires only small sample quantities. However, pyrolysis of natural polar substances can generate polar compounds that cannot be measured by GC. To overcome this limitation, the thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography (THM-GC) method can be used. This method converts polar macromolecules into weakly polar hydrolyzed and methylated degradation compounds. The information obtained from THM-GC is useful for identifying the composition of paints, varnishes, coatings, or binders (natural) in art work. However, performing THM-GC methods using a Curie-point or filament type pyrolyzer can result in problems with repeatability or quantitative analysis. In contract, the OPTIC-4 enables performing all THM reactions within the inlet. Therefore, by optimizing the TMH conditions, it enables obtaining good repeatability. This datasheet presents the results from applying the THM-GC/MS method to characterize complicated samples characteristic to paint from air work.
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Analysis of Detergent Residues on Clothing Using DMI-GC/MS
This datasheet investigates the effectiveness of using GC/MS to analyze non-volatile matrices, by using DMI-GC/MS to analyze detergent residues on clothing.
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Analysis of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by GC-MS Using Hydrogen Carrier Gas
This data sheet presents the application of hydrogen carrier gas to the analysis of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a Dual Inlet Turbo Molecular Pump.
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Simultaneous Analysis of 66 Pesticides by GC-MS Using Hydrogen Carrier Gas
This data sheet presents the application of hydrogen carrier gas to the simultaneous analysis of a standard sample of 66 pesticides using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a Dual Inlet Turbo Molecular Pump.
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Analysis of Pesticides in Food Matrix using QuEChERS by Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS
Inspection results for 138 pesticides using GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS have been reported by the EURL (European Union Reference Laboratory). Of the 138 substances, it was recommended that 66 of those substances be analyzed using the triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS, and that the remaining 72 substances be analyzed by the triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Thus, the pesticides were analyzed using the GCMSTQ8030 and LCMS-8040 as recommended. The combined use of GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS permits high-sensitivity comprehensive analysis of residual pesticides in foods.
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Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using GC-MS
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are byproducts of burning fuels, such as mineral oils, and are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. These compounds are regulated in many countries as harmful pollutants in environmental water and the atmosphere. In Japan, the "Measuring method manual for toxic air pollutants" and "Measuring method manual for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust gas emissions" were revised in March 2011. In addition, environmental standards, including fine particle regulations (PM2.5) and fine particles, can include PAHs. Consequently, there is an increasing need to measure PAHs. This application datasheet introduces an example of measuring 36 PAHs.
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Flavor/Fragrance Analysis by Fast-GC/MS
Fast-GC/MS is an effective way to improve laboratory productivity by shortening analysis cycle times. Fast-GC/MS methods require a system with a high-performance AFC controller that is compatible with narrow bore capillary columns and high-speed data acquisition technology. Shimadzu GCMS systems offer the high-performance levels necessary to satisfy these requirements. This Application Datasheet shows results from analyzing lavender oil using conventional methods and Fast-GC/MS methods.
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Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods Using Twin Line GC-MS
To obtain highly reliable data from analyzing residual pesticides in foods by GC requires confirmation tests using columns with different liquid phases. In contrast, with GC-MS, confirmation is possible by using not only retention times, but also m/z values. Therefore, normally only one type of column is used for tests. However, due to the increased number of pesticides and the diversification in substances subject to inspection, users are demanding higher reliability by using columns with different liquid phases, even for GC-MS analysis. Therefore, a Twin Line MS Kit, which enables the installation of two types of columns with different liquid phases in one MS, without the use of splitters or flow restrictors, was used to analyze residual pesticides in food.
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Analysis of Chelate Compounds Through Direct Sample Introduction
Chelate compounds are generally refractory compounds composed of ligands and metal ions. Therefore, they are difficult to measure with gas chromatographs. To obtain an electron ionization mass spectrum of refractory compounds requires a pure sample that should be introduced by direct introduction (DI). In this Application Datasheet, a chelate with ring-shaped phthalocynanine ligands, which are cross linked to four phthalic imides by nitrogen atoms, is measured using the DI method.
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Analysis of Specific Aromatic Amines Formed From Azo Dyes and Pigments
Reductive cleavage of azo radicals from azo dyes and azo pigments comprising azo radicals (-N=N-) can form aromatic amines that are suspected carcinogens. Of these aromatic amines, 22 are designated as specific aromatic amines in Europe (EN 14362:2003) and 24 in China (GB/T 17592-2006), and the use of azo dyes and pigments that form these specific aromatic amines are regulated. The total ion current chromatogram (TIC) obtained from using GC-MS to measure a standard sample of the specific aromatic amines is shown here.
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Analysis of a Benzodiazepine-Based Drug Using GC-MS
Benzodiazepine drugs are commonly used in sleeping aids and tranquilizers, and sometimes in crimes or suicide. Therefore, these chemical substances are often analyzed by forensic laboratories for criminal or academic investigations. This datasheet shows the results from using GC-MS to measure 9 types of benzodiazepine drugs.
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Analysis of Fatty Acids in Butter Using GC x GC-MS
Analysis of Fatty Acids in Butter Using GC x GC-MS
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Analysis of Light Oil Utilizing a GC x GC-MS System
GC x GC systems use the latest chromatographic technology to achieve high-level separation through direct connection of 2 different types of columns. This method is optimal for the separation of target substances from complicated matrices that are problematic for ordinary GC or GC-MS systems, and for analysis by type from 2- dimensional chromatogram patterns. It can be used for analysis in a variety of fields, including natural products, foodstuffs, fragrances, environmental science, and petro chemistry.
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Analysis of Metabolic Components Contained in Dog Cerebrospinal Fluid
Dog cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed with a GC-MS system after pretreatment and trimethylsilylation (TMS). This analysis was performed in cooperation with Dr. Shigeo Takenaka from the Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Vegetable Juice
Amino acids contained in vegetable juice were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Miso Soup
Amino acids contained in miso soup were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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Analysis of Gas Generated from Lithium Ion Rechargeable Battery Cells
Electrolytic solutions in lithium ion rechargeable batteries consist of organic solvents (mainly composed of the carbonate series), electrolytes, and additives. GC-MS systems are effective for the analysis of the denatured components of electrolytic solutions resulting from the charging and discharging of batteries. This article introduces a sample analysis of gas produced from a lithium ion rechargeable battery cell stored for 5 days at 80oC.
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Analysis of Gasoline Using a GC-MS
Regular gasoline was analyzed utilizing a GC-MS. To minimize gasoline fuel consumption, the average boiling point is adjusted to about 100oC. In addition, as adjustment to the optimal boiling point depends on the air temperature, the composition will differ between summer and winter, and between cold areas like Hokkaido and hot areas like Okinawa.
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Analysis of Soft Drinks Utilizing Headspace GC-MS
With the headspace method, samples are inserted into vials, and the headspace gas is introduced into a GC column, enabling simple measurement of fragrant components. This article introduces the results of the measurement of various soft drinks using Headspace GC-MS.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
Methanesulfonic acid (mesylate), benzenesulfonic acid (besilate), and p-toluenesulfonic acid (tosylate), chemicals used in the process of synthesizing active pharmaceutical ingredients, are likely to generate sulfonic acid ester (Fig. 1) as a reaction byproduct. These compounds are known as potential genotoxic impurities (PGI) and are a significant cause for concern among pharmaceutical manufacturers. This article introduces the analysis of sulfonic acid esters utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.
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Paint Thinner Analysis Utilizing Headspace GC-MS
Paint thinners, which are utilized to lessen the viscosity of paints, consist primarily of toluene, and contain other substances such as ethyl acetates and alcohols. As these compounds have anesthetic and excitatory properties, “paint sniffing”, or abuse by intentional inhalation, has become a social problem, leading to regulations targeting the inhalation of paint thinner for such purposes [1, 2]. Since GC-MS systems are often utilized in place of GC in scientific crime detection, this experiment investigated the ability of Headspace GC-MS to measure ethyl acetate, toluene, and methanol.
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Analysis of Light Oil Using a GC x GC-MS System
GC x GC, the latest in chromatographic technology, achieves high-level separation through direct connection of 2 different types of columns. The following shows an example of light oil analysis using a GC x GC system.
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Analysis of Metabolic Components Contained in Puffer Fish Blood Serum
Puffer fish blood serum was analyzed with a GC-MS after pretreatment and trimethylsilylation (TMS). This analysis was performed in cooperation with Dr. Shigeo Takenaka from the Graduate School of Life and Environmental Science, Osaka Prefecture University.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Green Tea
Amino acids contained in green tea were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained