Graphene and Other 2D Materials

Graphene and Other 2D Materials

Testing, Analysis and Inspection of Graphene and Other 2D Materials

Graphene, a single-layer sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb structure, has been hailed as a wonder material for its extraordinary combination of mechanical, electrical, optical, and thermal properties, and its ability to impart those properties to other materials. Since its discovery, graphene has spawned a rapidly expanding field of research into monolayer or “two-dimensional” materials – other examples include borophene and molybdenum disulfide – and researchers have incorporated these exceptional materials into an ever-growing list of potential applications, including composites, electronics, energy storage, energy harvesting, sensors, coatings, filtration, and more.

The investigation and characterization of such materials requires sensitive instrumentation to examine their atomic-level properties and interactions. Shimadzu Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPM) use nanometer-sized probes to scan the surface of samples, creating images of their topology and local properties. Kratos surface analysis instruments utilize X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and several other spectroscopic techniques to offer high-sensitivity and high-resolution analysis of chemical composition and chemical shifts with unrivaled automation and sample handling features.

SPM-Nanoa Scanning Probe Microscope/Atomic Force Microscope

Featured Applications

Building the energy level diagram of a 2D material using coincident UPS and IPES

AXIS Supra+ XPS surface analysis instrument

Understanding the nature of the electronic configuration and properties of these materials is important for their development. Conventional methods to analyse 3D materials struggle to determine the properties for ultra-thin films, and these thin layers are what exhibit the revolutionary properties. Using a combination of the surface sensitive techniques Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy (IPES) and Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS), however, we demonstrate how the analyst can obtain information on the nature of the electronic properties for single and multi-layer stacks. In this example the properties of a thin layer of MoS2 are investigated. Bulk MoS2 is a diamagnetic, indirect bandgap semiconductor similar to silicon, with a bandgap of ~1.2 eV. However, with reduced thickness the bandgap increases [1,2], with a confinement-induced shift of the indirect gap from the bulk value. Thickness/growth control is therefore critical to the performance of this material in next-generation devices.

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Graphene - macro/microscopic imaging and thickness metrology

AXIS Supra+ XPS surface analysis instrument

Here we analyse graphene flakes deposited on a 10 mm x 10 mm piece of Si wafer with a 100 nm thick oxide overlayer. The motivation was to determine the distribution, shape and thicknesses of particular flakes of interest and to illustrate the application of XPS as a metrological tool for these materials.

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Journals & Papers

Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene based Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Nanocomposite Using Fused Deposition Method

Shinde, Dattaji & Kulkarni, Sachin & Bohara, Aliasgar. (2018). Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene based Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Nanocomposite Using Fused Deposition Method.

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Biocompatible, Electroconductive, and Highly Stretchable Hybrid Silicone Composites Based on Few-Layer Graphene and CNTs

Barshutina, M.N.; Volkov, V.S.; Arsenin, A.V.; Yakubovsky, D.I.; Melezhik, A.V.; Blokhin, A.N.; Tkachev, A.G.; Lopachev, A.V.; Kondrashov, V.A. Biocompatible, Electroconductive, and Highly Stretchable Hybrid Silicone Composites Based on Few-Layer Graphene and CNTs. Nanomaterials 202111, 1143. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051143

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Amperometric L-Lactate Biosensor Based upon a Gold Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyallylamine Hydrochloride Modified Screen-Printed Graphite Electrode

Istrate, O.-M.; Rotariu, L.; Bala, C. Amperometric L-Lactate Biosensor Based upon a Gold Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyallylamine Hydrochloride Modified Screen-Printed Graphite Electrode. Chemosensors 20219, 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9040074

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Design and Synthesis of Graphene Oxide-Based Glass Substrate and Its Antimicrobial Activity Against MDR Bacterial Pathogens

Salah, Ali & Mohammed, Faras & Takz, Mala. (2021). Design and Synthesis of Graphene Oxide-Based Glass Substrate and Its Antimicrobial Activity Against MDR Bacterial Pathogens. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research and Developments. 43. 11-17. 

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The effect of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and thermally exfoliated graphite (TEFG) on the mechanical properties of “nickel-graphene” composites

Kurapova, Olga & Smirnov, Ivan & Solovyeva, Elena & Archakov, Ivan & Konakov, Vladimir. (2020). The effect of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and thermally exfoliated graphite (TEFG) on the mechanical properties of “nickel-graphene” composites. Letters on Materials. 10. 164-169. 10.22226/2410-3535-2020-2-164-169. 

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Observation of magnetic domains in graphene magnetized by controlling temperature, strain and magnetic field

Alimohammadian, M., Sohrabi, B. Observation of magnetic domains in graphene magnetized by controlling temperature, strain and magnetic field. Sci Rep 10, 21325 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78262-w

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Corrosion Protection of Monel Alloy Coated with Graphene Quantum Dots Starts with a Surge

Bopp, C.; Santhanam, K. Corrosion Protection of Monel Alloy Coated with Graphene Quantum Dots Starts with a Surge. ChemEngineering 20193, 80. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering3040080

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Fabrication of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Ag Nanocomposites and Analysis on the Interaction with BSA

Hindawi Journal of Nanomaterials Volume 2019, Article ID 2707909, 7 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2707909

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Mechanical Properties of the Combined Single Lap-Shear Connections with Graphene Doped Epoxy Adhesives

SETSCI - Volume 4(1) (2019) ISAS2019-ENS - 3rd International Symposium on Innovative Approaches in Scientific Studies (Engineering and Natural Sciences), Ankara, Turkey, Apr 19, 2019

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Extraordinary tensile strength and ductility of scalable nanoporous graphene

Hamzeh Kashani, Yoshikazu Ito, Jiuhui Han, Pan Liu, Mingwei Chen Science Advances 15 Feb 2019: Vol. 5, no. 2, eaat6951 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat6951

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Graphene quantum dots as nanoprobes for fluorescent detection of propofol in emulsions

Diao J, Wang T, Li L. Graphene quantum dots as nanoprobes for fluorescent detection of propofol in emulsions. R Soc Open Sci. 2019;6(1):181753. Published 2019 Jan 23. doi:10.1098/rsos.181753

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Aqueous Preparation of Platinum Nanoflowers on Three-Dimensional Graphene for Efficient Methanol Oxidation

Zhang, Y.; Shao, Z.; Shen, Q.; Li, M.; Xu, L.; Luo, Z. Aqueous Preparation of Platinum Nanoflowers on Three-Dimensional Graphene for Efficient Methanol Oxidation. Catalysts 20188, 519. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8110519

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Reduction Band Gap Energy of TiO2 Assembled with Graphene Oxide Nanosheets

Timoumi, A. (2018) Reduction Band Gap Energy of TiO2 Assembled with Graphene Oxide Nanosheets. Graphene, 7, 31-38. https://doi.org/10.4236/graphene.2018.74004

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Model of Formation Graphene from Graphite with Ammonia

Sihotang, Hotmaulina & Pasaribu, N. & Siburian, Rikson & Simanjuntak, Crystina. (2018). Model of Formation Graphene from Graphite with Ammonia Reduktor. 1036-1038. 10.5220/0010096210361038. 

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