Trace Metals

ICPMS Application - Analysis of Heavy Metal Contaminants in Cannabis Flower using the Shimadzu ICPMS-2030
The recent evolution of legislation in the United States of America and other countries has opened up the cultivation and sale of cannabis and related products for medical and recreation use in a variety of states and municipalities. With the availability of cannabis as a commercial product comes the need for analysis and regulation of potency, pesticides, biological contaminants, and heavy metals, among others. Some of these metals contained in plants have beneficial metabolic uses, such as iron in beans and leafy greens, whereas others, such as lead, can have deleterious effects including toxicity and carcinogenicity. Here, we explore and discuss the applicability of the Shimadzu ICPMS-2030 to the detection of the “Big Four” heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in digested cannabis flower samples for compliance with local and state regulations.
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ICPMS Analysis - Quantitation of Arsenic Species in White Rice and Brown Rice Using LC-ICP-MS System
Rice is one of the agricultural products that incorporates a relatively significant amount of arsenic in which the ratio of inorganic to organic arsenic is known to be high. Both inorganic and organic arsenic species are known for their potential for harm, however, inorganic arsenic is known to be more toxic than organic arsenic. As such, the Codex Alimentarius Commission held in July 2014 determined 0.2 mg/kg to be the maximum concentration of inorganic arsenic in processed rice. An LC-ICP-MS system which connects an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) in-line with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system allows high sensitivity and high accuracy measurement of arsenic species. This report demonstrates the quantitation of inorganic arsenic species [As(III) and As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid in white rice and brown rice that was accomplished by connecting the Shimadzu ICPMS-2030 in-line with a HPLC system.
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ICPMS Analysis - Quantitation of Trace Elements in Beer Using Shimadzu ICPMS-2030
Raw materials and the brewing process affect the concentrations and speciation of trace elements included in beer. Such trace elements can have a significant effect on the taste, color, shelf-life, and the safety of beer. The ICPMS-2030 allows the precise measurement of the trace elements in beer at low cost.
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EDX and FTIR Application - Contaminant Analysis Using EDXIR-Analysis Software for Combined EDX-FTIR Analysis
When contaminants are generated, it is important to quickly identify them, ascertain the source, and take measures against further occurrence. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are very effective techniques for the identification of contaminants. Using EDX and FTIR together provides a simple method of obtaining information on both the elements and compounds present in a contaminant. However, making a comprehensive assessment of sets of EDX and FTIR data to identify a contaminant requires substantial experience and knowledge. EDXIR-Analysis has been recently developed by Shimadzu as software specially designed to identify contaminants to a high degree of accuracy, and contains within it a database of actual contaminant samples and the cumulation of Shimadzu's expertise. In this article, we will describe an example contaminant analysis and in doing so demonstrate the functions and features of EDXIR-Analysis software.
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AA Application - Analysis of the Lead Content of a Coffee Beverage by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS, electrically heated atomic absorption, flameless atomic absorption) is capable of highly sensitive analysis of many different elements. GFAAS can also remove organic materials in particular from samples during analysis as it performs atomization via drying and ashing steps using a temperature program. GFAAS can consequently be used to analyze beverages, watersoluble foods, biological samples, organic solvents, and water-soluble organic compounds without needing to perform degradation pretreatments. However, the properties of these untreated samples differ from those of aqueous solutions subjected to degradation pretreatment, and corresponding care is needed during sample injection and drying. This Application News describes the direct analysis of lead in a commercially available coffee beverage without pretreatment using GFAAS, and introduce the GFA-TV graphite furnace atomizer camera‒a convenient optional product that allows observation inside the furnace during sample injection and drying.
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ICPMS Application - Analysis of Minerals and Harmful Elements in Formula Milk Powder Using ICPMS-2030
Formula milk powder is formulated to contain a good balance of minerals necessary for infant growth. Japan's Health Promotion Law includes stipulations on the essential mineral content, including calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu), of food for special dietary use (e.g., formulated milk powder for infants) and requires the labeling of their content. Harmful elements like lead (Pb) have a negative effect on infant development, and require strict safety controls from raw materials to the finished product. We describe using Shimadzu's ICPMS-2030 inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to perform a simultaneous analysis of elements present in formula milk powder (National Metrology Institute of Japan certified reference material [NMIJ CRM]). In addition to being highly sensitive, the ICPMS-2030 uses a helium gas collision system that greatly reduces the spectral interference caused by argon and chlorine.
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Quantitative Analysis of Metals in Wine Using ICP-MS Spectrometry (SEG
Strict and steady control from the origin of the food to the final product is needed to protect consumers against undesired contaminations and guarantee a high level of quality. This is achieved by controlling limits of maximum allowable concentrations of hazardous substances. Recent examples are the European drinking water regulation, the European food safety regulations, the recent food and packaging directive, and the European wine regulation, which includes the classification of wines from different locations, but also the production process, alcohol concentrations and the classification of organic and inorganic contaminants. The ICPMS-2030 allows a fast and sensitive determination of heavy metals in wine and is a reliable tool in order to guarantee the highest level of quality and safety according to the European wine regulations.
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ICPMS Application - Analysis of Heavy Metals in Pet Food Using the ICPMS-2030
In Japan, a law related to ensuring the safety of pet food (the Pet Food Safety Law) was enacted on June 1, 2009. Based on this law, standards are prescribed regarding the raising and safekeeping of domestic animals, show animals, farm animals, and test animals respectively to ensure the health and safety of the animals, and at the same time to prevent the animals from causing people problems or harm. The manufacture, sale, and import of pet food not in accordance with the regulations are prohibited, and manufacturers, vendors, and importers must comply with the component standards. A ministerial ordinance regarding component standards for pet food was also enacted on March 1, 2012 in Japan. This ordinance specifies three heavy metals; cadmium, lead, and arsenic. Here, we introduce a simultaneous analysis performed on toxic elements in pet food using the Shimadzu ICPMS-2030 ICP mass spectrometer.
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ICPMS Application - Analysis of Plant Materials Using the ICPMS-2030
Foods contain many different types of elements with a variety of concentrations. It is important to assess the concentrations of elements in order to know the intake of nutrients and manage the health risks from toxic elements. A variety of analytical instruments are used for elemental analysis. Among these, ICP mass spectrometers are ideal for the analysis of foods because they can analyze many elements at a time with high sensitivity. In this study, we performed a simultaneous analysis of plant materials using the Shimadzu ICPMS-2030 ICP mass spectrometer. The ICPMS-2030 contains a database of all the elements, so it can assess concentrations even for elements with no standard sample. Therefore, we also conducted qualitative analysis.
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ICPMS Application - Analysis of Toxic Elements in Supplements as per USP 2232 Using the ICPMS-2030
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 2232 designates permitted daily exposure (PDE) levels for four elements for which toxicity is a concern in dietary supplements. PDE values need to be converted to concentrations when evaluating metallic impurities in formulations or their structural components. Compliance with these regulations is also obligatory for supplements imported to the U.S. from other nations. Here, we introduce a quantitative analysis performed on arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in supplements using the Shimadzu ICPMS-2030 ICP mass spectrometer.
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LCMS-8060 Application - 500 Years German Beer Purity Law – Searching Contaminants_Glyphosate_Metals_Shimadzu
Beer is made from natural grain and vegetable base products which are exposed to environmental impacts as well as agricultural treatment. Beer may therefore contain a variety of heavy metals such as arsenic, lead and cadmium and additional undesired substances such as mycotoxins and pesticides. To track and analyze these elements and compounds various analytical technologies and sensitive analytical systems are required. Shimadzu is offering the full solution such as UV-Vis spectrophotometers, atomic absorption-, ICPOES/MS spectrometers, liquid- and gas chromatography as well as mass spectrometry, and TOC analyzers to permanently guarantee the highest quality of the most popular alcoholic drink in Europe.
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Analysis of Fatty Acid Content Ratios in Polysorbate 80
Polysorbate 80 is a highly safe water soluble emulsifier that, in addition to its use in ointments (creams) as an emulsifier, is also used as an injectable solubilizing agent for oil-soluble vitamins as well as in health drinks. There was a partial revision of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (2011 Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Notification No. 65) as reported by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in its Notification No. 47 (February 28, 2014), and which became effective that same day. In this Pharmacopoeia Supplement, the section "Composition of fatty acids" was added to the Polysorbate 80 article in the official monographs. A system suitability test has been established for this test method, and the system must conform to the test requirements. Regarding the actual sample analysis, the product is to be dissolved in sodium hydroxide, and when conducting gas chromatographic analysis of the sample solution derivatized with boron trifluoride-methanol reagent, the required fatty acid content ratios have been specified as: myristic acid 5.0 % or less, palmitic acid 16.0 % or less, palmitoleic acid 8.0 % or less, stearic acid 6.0 % or less, oleic acid 58.0 % or less, linoleic acid 18.0 % or less, and linolenic acid 4.0 % or less. This Application News introduces the system suitability test associated with the analysis of fatty acid content ratios specified in Polysorbate 80 in the official monographs.
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Purity Testing of Polysorbate 80
Polysorbate 80 is a highly safe water soluble emulsifier that, in addition to its use in ointments (creams) as an emulsifier, is also used as an injectable solubilizing agent for oil-soluble vitamins as well as in health drinks. There was a partial revision of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (2011 Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Notification No. 65) as reported by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in its Notification No. 47 (February 28, 2014), and which became effective that same day. In that Pharmacopoeia Supplement, the section "Purity (2)" was added to the Polysorbate 80 article of the official monographs. This Application News introduces the analyses described in Purity (2), Polysorbate 80 of the official monographs.
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AA Application - Measurement of Arsenic and Selenium in White Rice and River Water by Hydride Generation-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-AAS) with Electric Cell Heating
In this example, hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) with an electric cell heater for heating the absorption cell was used to measure arsenic and selenium in certified white rice reference material and certified river water reference materials (JSAC 0301 with nothing added and JSAC 0302 with As and Se added)
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Spectroscopic Analysis of Wines for Authenticity and Trichloranisole (TCA) Contamination (SEG)
Food and drinks are always a hot topic discussion and in the focus of “state of the art” analytical techniques. Food scandals all around the world from eggs to horsemeat, tainted wine, oil, and milk forces the European community to establish an integrated approach on food control. The target is a high level of food safety, animal health, animal welfare and plant health within the European Union through so called “farm-to-table” measures and monitoring, ensuring the effective functioning of the European market.
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