LITERATURE


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TOC Application - TOC - Environmental Analysis by TOC - TOC Application Handbook from SEG -1 of 6
The individual application notes (for instance ‘TOC determination in hydrochloric acid, brines or sodium hydroxide’) contain further information. In addition to applications in the chemical industry, application notes are also available on ‘Pharmaceutical industry’, ‘Environmental analysis’, ‘TOC special applications’, ‘TOC in daily practice’ and ‘TOC process analysis.’
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TOC Application Handbook. TOC process analysis applications.
Continuous TOC/TN determination in wastewater treatment plants. TOC process analysis in the paper industry. Continuous TOC determination in the chemical industry. Continuous condensate monitoring using the TOC-4200.
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TOC Determination by the Addition Method. TOC=POC+NPOC
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TOC Application - TOC - Process Analysis by TOC - TOC Application Handbook from SEG -6 of 6
With its TOC analyzers, Shimadzu offers systems that are suitable for many different TOC analysis issues in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition to the lowest detection sensitivity, the robust analyzers offer the highest precision and accuracy. Just like the analyzers themselves, the operation and evaluation software complies with all requirements of the FDA and the Pharmacopoeia.
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TOC Application - TOC - TOC Environmental analysis - A Collection of Applications
Shimadzu offers various solutions for these different applications. The TOC-L family is module-based. Two basic analyzer types can be equipped with many options, kits and numerous accessories and customized to any particular application. This makes the TOC-L one of the most universal TOC analyzers.
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TOC Application - TOC - COD and TOC correlation factor – Conversion
Shimadzu offers various solutions for these different applications. The TOC-L family is module-based. Two basic analyzer types can be equipped with many options, kits and numerous accessories and customized to any particular application. This makes the TOC-L one of the most universal TOC analyzers.
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Measurement of TOC in Sulfuric Acid Solution and Ammonium Sulfate Solution Using the TOC-VCSH
This Application News introduces examples of TOC measurement in 1 % sulfuric acid solution and in 1 % ammonium sulfate solution using the Shimadzu TOC-VCSH total organic carbon analyzer.
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TOC Application - TOC - TOC –Determination in drinking water
Here we introduce an example in which Vitamin D3 capsules were analyzed by LC/MS/MS using such a method.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - USP-Specified TOC System Suitability Test by TOC-LCPH
Here, we introduce an example of measurement of a nickel plating solution containing nickel sulfamate using the Shimadzu TOC-L CSH analyzer.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC determination in soils, sludges and sediments using the solid sample module
The TOC method by using the catalytic combustion is not suitable for the determination of phosphoric acid, because the phosphoric acid damages the combustion tube and the catalyst. Due to this, the wet chemical TOC method is used to measure TOC in phosphoric acid.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Characterization of Algae by TOC
TOC-process analyzers (TOC-4200) are used in different applications from monitoring of cooling water or condensate up to high contaminated wastewater. For this, the TOC analyzers have to provide a broad measurement range.
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TOC Application - TOC - Chemcial Analysis by TOC - TOC Application Handbook from SEG -3 of 6
Here, we introduce the results of our investigation into the differences in absorption spectra obtained from measurement of a variety of beers using the UV-3600 Ultraviolet-Visible Bear-Infrared Spectrophotometer. Also presented here is our attempt to classify different types of beer using multivariate analysis.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC in daily practice - Options, Kits and Tricks
In this particular field of application notes, specific sets of subjects ‘TOC in daily practice’ are listed that are not covered by one of the special applications. These are subjects that are related to the TOC parameter, independently of the matrix.
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TOC Application - TOC - TOC process analysis - A Collection of Applications
With its TOC analyzers, Shimadzu offers systems that are suitable for many different TOC analysis issues in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition to the lowest detection sensitivity, the robust analyzers offer the highest precision and accuracy. Just like the analyzers themselves, the operation and evaluation software complies with all requirements of the FDA and the Pharmacopoeia.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Recovery Test for Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate by TOC-LCPH
Here, we introduce an example of recovery testing with a sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate solution using the Shimadzu combustion catalytic oxidation model TOC-L CPH, and an example analysis of a sample with a TOC concentration below 0.050 mg/L.
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TOC Application - TOC - TOC in the Pharmaceutical industry - A Collection of Applications
In order to cover this wide range of analytical tasks in the chemical industry, flexible systems are needed that are easily adapted to the task in question via various options, kits and modules. Shimadzu offers TOC systems that are highly suitable for such analytical problems. Because of their modular design, the instruments in the TOC-L series can be equipped for any possible measurement task.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Measurement of TOC in Electroplating Solution by TOC-LCSH
Here we present an example of the separation of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) using simultaneous measurement with four different EX and EM wavelength combinations.
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TOC Application - TOC-VW - TOC determination in phosphoric acid
In 1996, the US Pharmacopeia has introduced the TOC parameter for the determination of impurities in purified water and water for injections. For other waters used in the pharmaceutical industry, the wetchemical potassium permanganate test continued to be used. Meanwhile however, TOC determination has proven to be so effective that it now replaces the wetchemical test.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC determination with solid module
Here, we introduce an example of a unique application in which the TOC-L CPH total organic carbon analyzer is used to characterize microalgae by directly measuring, without conducting and pretreatment, the TOC content in a suspended culture of microalgae cells. The data presented here was provided by the University of Tsukuba Shiraiwa laboratory.
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TOC Determination by the Addition Method TOC=POC+NPOC (TOC-5)
Current measurement methods in TOC analysis (Total Organic Carbon) are the so-called difference method and the NPOC method (Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon)
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TOC Application - TOC - TOC Application Notebook from SEG covering Environmental, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Process, & Special TOC Applications - 13MB Size - 79 Pages
With its TOC analyzers, Shimadzu offers flexible systems that can be modularly upgraded using various kits, modules and options. In this way, the TOC analyzer can be customized to the specific measurement task.
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Cleaned Flue Gas Analysis of an Incineration Plant by TOC
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Determination of the TOC Content in Landfill Leachate
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Determination of the Total Organic Carbon(TOC) in Solid Samples
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Determining theCorrect Concentrations of TOC in Purified Water and Water For Injection
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On-line TOC Measurement in the Food Industry
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TOC Analysis of Drinking Water
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TOC Determination in Sludge
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TOC Application Handbook. Pharmaceutical Industry applications.
TOC determination in ultrapure water. Determination in cleaning validation. Determination in cleaning validation.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Analysis of Brine Solution with Shimadzu TOC-L Series Total Organic Carbon Analyzer
An example of a high-speed analysis of 10 catechin components was introduced in Data Sheet No. 55. This data sheet shows results for a simultaneous analysis of 14 components.
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TOC Application Handbook
TOC Application Handbook. Various TOC applications from various industries such as Environmental Analysis, Pharmaceutical Industry, Chemical Industry, Special Applications, TOC in daily use and process analysis with a TOC. Over 70 pages of applications.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC – Determination according to USP 643
Two oxidation techniques are now commonly used in TOC analysis: catalytic combustion and wet-chemical oxidation. In catalytic combustion, carbon compounds are converted to CO2 using high temperatures and a catalyst, with subsequent detection of the resulting CO2 using an NDIR detector. Wet-chemical oxidation uses a combination of UV irradiation and persulfate oxidation.
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TOC Application - TOC-VW - TOC determination with wet chemical UV-oxidation
The quality of ultra pure water is of crucial significance in a large number of application areas such as monitoring of water quality in water treatment plants, and in industries such as chip manufacture or pharmaceutical production. Determination of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) is playing an increasingly important role in quality control.
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A guide for the TOC-Vc to low level analysis
A 2 page guide for the TOC-Vc to low level analysis. The guide covers your environment conditions, preparing standards and the preferred method of analysis.
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A guide for the TOC-Vw to low level analysis
A 2 page guide for the TOC-Vw to low level analysis. The guide covers your environment conditions, preparing standards and the preferred method of analysis.
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Measuring TOC in Brine Solutions
The TOC-L with the high salt kit is capable of analyzing large numbers of samples containing very high salt concentrations with minimal maintenance. Results were very good for over 1,000 injections of 28% NaCl with no maintenance performed.
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EPA Method 415.3 - Determination of TOC in Source Water and Drinking Water
Shimadzu’s TOC-LCPH exceeds all of the requirements outlined in method 415.3 for analyzing source water and drinking water.
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Measurement of TOC in Electroplating Solution by TOC-LCSH
The TOC value in the used plating solution was greater than that in the new, unused solution. These results demonstrate that TOC measurement can be used for management of the organic substance concentration in electroplating solution.
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TOC – Determination in hydrochloric acid
TOC determination in concentrated hydrochloric acid poses an enormous challenge to the analyzers that are used for this purpose. This note presents an example showing how the TOC-L analyzer can easily handle such a difficult application.
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TOC Application - TOC - Pharmaceuctical Analysis by TOC - TOC Application Handbook from SEG -2 of 6
TOC analysis is therefore carried out in a wide variety of environmental matrices: from groundwater to seawater, from drinking water to wastewater, from soils to sewage sludge. The diversity in environmental applications creates many different challenges for the analytical systems being used. In addition to the different concentration ranges, TOC analysis repeatedly faces different types of conditions such as salt content or number of particles. Shimadzu offers various solutions for these different applications.
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TOC Application - TOC-V - Recovery Test of Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate using TOC-VCPH
Here we conducted an overall evaluation of texture in fried chicken heated over different time periods. DSC was to measure protein denaturation, and a precision universal testing machine was used to measure the hardness and elasticity.
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TOC Application - TOC-V - Measurement of Oil Residues on Copper Wire Surface by TOC Solid Sample Measurement System
Here, we introduce an example analysis of a mixture of synthetic quinolone antibacterials using the Nexera ultra high performance LC system with the RF-20Axs high-sensitivity fluorescence detector.
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TOC Application - TOC-V - Recovery Test for Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate by TOC-LCPH
Here we report on the effectiveness of the rinse method reported in Application news No L425, and demonstrate its effectiveness as a rinse method applicable to measurement of a wide range of drugs in plasma.
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TOC Application - TOC-V - Stirred Not Shaken TOC in Wastewater
In this study, a high throughput method for the quantification of 14 mycotoxins in beers was developed. Highest sensitivity of analysis is crucial to food safety, additionally, autosampler and system carry over need to be monitored to ensure these factors do not become a problem. In these experiments elimination of carry over was investigated through novel rinse condition cycles of the UHPLC autosampler.
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TOC Application Handbook. TOC in daily practice applications.
Determination methods according to EN 1484. Determination of the purgeable organic carbon (POC). Application - Total bound nitrogen. Kit for high-salt samples. Kit for small sample volumes. Blank value consideration in TOC analysis. TOC – Measurement principle Catalytic combustion at 680°C
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC – Determination in diluted hydrofluoric
Control samples are important tools in analytical quality control. Specially prepared solutions of known concentration are used to test the system and the validity of the specific calibration. The control samples are treated like unknown samples to determine the concentrations or recovery. The user’s quality management system specifies a tolerance range the target value should be in
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TOC Application - TOC - TOC-determination of surfactants - Silanisation of the syringe
In addition to an extensive selection of accessories, the expandable LabSolution IR software offers a variety of sophisticated modules to accommodate a diverse range of analytical needs. These accessories and modules allow researchers to customize Shimadzu FTIR systems to meet their specific industry and application needs
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TOC Application - TOC - TOC Application Handbook Version 2
Quantification of testosterone in serum using an internal standard calibration on a LCMS-8050 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was performed. Two MRM transitions for testosterone were monitored and the limit of detection in serum was in the femtograms (fg) level on column.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Measurement of TOC and TN in Marine Water Algae Culture Solution
Seventy six analytes and their internal standards are described below. Multiple drug classes (barbituates, opiates, amphetamines, tricyclic antidepressants, synthetic cannabinoids, cannabinoids, club drugs, bath salts and hypnotics) were analyzed in a five minute polarity switching LCMS-8050 method.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Measurement of a Cement Admixture by a TOC Solid Sample Measurement System
This document introduces an example of the measurement of a cement admixture in pulverized concrete using the TOC solid sample combustion system which combines the TOC-L total organic carbon analyzer with the SSM-5000A solid sample combustion unit
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TOC Application - TOC-V - Security Made Easy - TOC determination in a regulated laboratory environment
Since the American and European Pharmacopoeia requirements of TOC determination for testing ultrapure water (Water for injection, Water highly purified), TOC measuring systems have been used extensively in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition to the ultra-pure water analysis application, TOC determination is also used for cleaning validation. This is why TOC systems are used in a regulated laboratory environment and why these systems are subject to various regulations that particularly apply to instrument software.
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TOC Application - TOC - Special Analysis by TOC - TOC Application Handbook from SEG -4 of 6
With its TOC-4200 series, Shimadzu offers an online analyzer that, with its various modules, kits and options, provides exactly the flexibility needed and can be equipped for the most diverse applications. A selection of sampling techniques is available: from a singlestream sampler to a sample exchanger for six different sample streams, without or with homogenizer for water containing particles.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC Analysis in Daily Practice -TOC Application Handbook from SEG -5 of 6
With its TOC-4200 series, Shimadzu offers an online analyzer that, with its various modules, kits and options, provides exactly the flexibility needed and can be equipped for the most diverse applications. A selection of sampling techniques is available: from a singlestream sampler to a sample exchanger for six different sample streams, without or with homogenizer for water containing particles.
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New and Improved TOC Online Sampling Method for Water and Wastewater
The TOC value is an index for the total amount of organic compounds in water and is gaining increasing popularity in process analysis.
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Sample Table Importing Using the TOC Control V Software
The TOC Control V Software is designed to adapt to the needs of our most versatile users.
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POC measurement with TOC 4000 to prevent explosive gas mixture in closed waste water system
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Shimadzu TOC-V Series, TOC Measurements on Tap Water, TOC Adopted as Water Quality Standard for Tap Water
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TOC Analysis for Purified Water, Water for Injection and Clean-In-Place Applications (System Suitability Test)
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Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Measuring of Compost with the TOC-5000A Solid Sample TOC Analyzer
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TOC Application Handbook. Special applications
Determination in algal biomass. Determination in liquid manure and fermentation fluids. Carbon dioxide determination in beer
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TOC Application - TOC-V - Measuring Samples Per USP 32 Using Shimadzu TOC-VC*H
The United States Pharmacopoeia has established guidelines for determining system suitability and established the acceptance of Water For Injection (WFI) purposes and Purified Water (PW) (USP Revision 32 Method <643>). Shimadzu’s TOC-V*W analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Rev. 32 Method <643>. The TOC-V*W analyzer utilizes three forms of oxidation (heat, UV, and persulfate) to provide a low maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0005 mg per liter.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Measuring Samples per USP <643> Using Shimadzu TOC-LC*H - Long Version
The United States Pharmacopoeia has established guidelines for determining system suitability and established the acceptance of Water For Injection (WFI) purposes and Purified Water (PW) (USP Method <643>). Shimadzu’s TOC-LC*H analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Method <643>. The TOC-LC*H analyzer utilizes 680°C heat and platinum catalyst to provide a lower maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0040 mg per liter.
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TOC Application - TOC-VW - TOC determination in ultra pure water with TOC-VW
When carrying out etching processes, it is important to ensure that the etching agent used will etch the respective layers and not leave any contaminants. This raises questions on the impurities of etching agents, where both the purity of the starting acid and that of the etching solutions after the etching process are of interest. To determine the degree of contamination, the TOC parameter is particularly suitable, as it is a sum parameter that detects all organic carbon compounds.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC – Control samples and control charts
The TOC determination of a surfactant solution was not reproducible, nor did they correspond with the theoretically calculated values. Subsequently, TOC direct determination of the surfactant was executed using the solid sampler SSM. The measurement values obtained this way corresponded well with the theoretical values. This led to the conclusion that conversion of carbon to CO2 was not the problem, rather that the surfactant exhibits interactions with the glass surface. Consequently, carbon is being removed from the surfactant solution, which explains the lower TOC measurement values.
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Determination of the TOC Content in Landfill Leachate (TOC-6)
TOC analysis is a simple method to measure the total content of inorganic and organic carbon in aqueous solutions as well as in solid samples. Since TOC analysis is a very sensitive method with detection limits of about 4 ppm, it offers the possibility to perform secondary analysis without much expenditure.
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Water Management in the manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products with TOC-5000A
Water is a raw material in the manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products and is also used for cleaning. This Application News edition features reports on the ability of the Shimadzu TOC-5000A to accomodate the requirements of GMP, JP (Japanese Pharmacopoeia) and USP (United States Pharmacopoeia) as well as comparisons with competitor TOC analyzers.
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New Breakthrough in Wet Chemical TOC Analysis
The goal of this discussion is to demonstrate that the Shimadzu TOC-VW can effectively oxidize the Humic Acid (HA) matrix at high accuracy and precision levels never before witnessed by the wet chemical TOC community. The Shimadzu TOC-VW Carbon analyzer is the only TOC on the market that uses three oxidation techniques of UV light, Heat, and persulfate in a single analyzer
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New Breakthrough in Wet Chemical TOC Analysis
The goal of this discussion is to demonstrate that the Shimadzu TOC-VW can effectively oxidize the Humic Acid (HA) matrix at high accuracy and precision levels never before witnessed by the wet chemical TOC community. The Shimadzu TOC-VW Carbon analyzer is the only TOC on the market that uses three oxidation techniques of UV light, Heat, and persulfate in a single analyzer.
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Measuring Samples Per USP <643> Using Shimadzu TOC-LC*H
Shimadzu’s TOC-LC*H analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Method <643>. The TOC-LC*H analyzer utilizes 680°C heat and platinum catalyst to provide a lower maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0040 mg per liter.
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Determination of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Solid Samples
With growing environmental concerns in the scientific community, government, and the public, waste disposalhas become a critical topic. Before solid waste is disposed, it is necessary to determine the Total OrganicCarbon (TOC) concentration.
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TOC Measuring of Electroplating Solution with TOC-5000A
Organic additives are added to plating solution used in the plating process for printed circuit boards. And the additive concentration effects the drawing qualities and thermal shock of the plate.
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Comparison of three TOC methods on a single analyzer
In the past, persulfate-based total organic carbon (TOC) analyzers were noted for their ability to achieve highly sensitive TOC analysis. However, with the advantages came disadvantages
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Determining the Correct Concentrations of TOC in Purified Water and WFI
The need for increased sensitivity in the pharmaceutical industry has lead to many stricter requirements for analyzing samples for TOC.
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Swab / Direct Combustion Carbon Analysis of Drug Residue by TOC-VCPH
This Application News introduces an example of measurement of a drug substance using the TOC-VCPH Total Organic Carbon Analyzer with the SSM-5000A Solid Sample Combustion Unit.
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TOC Monitoring Upstream of Paper Mill Wastewater Treatment Facility Using Online TOC Analyzer
Continuous and stable measurement of TOC in highpollution samples such as the influent water in wastewater treatment facilities is not easy. In particular paper mill wastewater, in addition to containing large amounts of pulp residue, provides an environm
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Measurement of TOC in Perfluorochemical (PFOS) Solution
Here, we demonstrate measurement of PFOS using the TOC-LCPH high-temperature catalytic combustion and the TOC-VWS wet chemical oxidation total organic carbon analyzers.
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Determination of Organic Carbon in Ultra Pure Water
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Measurement of TOC and TN Sea Water using TOC-VCSH with TNM-1
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Measurement of TOC in Ammonia Solution by TOC-Vcsh
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Measurement of TOC in Bottled Mineral Water and Raw Water by TOC-VCSH
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Measurement of TOC in Chloroisocyanuric Acid using the TOC-VCSH
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Measurement of TOC in Copper(II) Sulfate Solution and Nickel Sulfamate Solution Using TOC-Vcsh
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Measurement of TOC in Electroplating Solution Using TOC-VWS
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Swab Method for TC-Determination of polluted surfaces
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TOC Measuring of Boiler Water with Shimadzu's On-line TOC Analyzer
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TOC Measuring of Electroplating Solution with TOC-5000A
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TOC Measuring of Etching Solutions for Etching Process by using the TOC-5000A
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TOC System Suitability Test of USP by Combustion Catalytic Oxidation TOC-VCSH
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TOC (+TNb) determination in seawater
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TOC in the cement manufacturing process
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Flakes, fibres and particles - TOC in wastewater
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Blank value determination - TOC trace analysis
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TOC Application - TOC - TOC in the Chemical Industry - A Collectin of Applications
TOC analysis is therefore carried out in a wide variety of environmental matrices: from groundwater to seawater, from drinking water to wastewater, from soils to sewage sludge. The diversity in environmental applications creates many different challenges for the analytical systems being used. In addition to the different concentration ranges, TOC analysis repeatedly faces different types of conditions such as salt content or number of particles. Shimadzu offers various solutions for these different applications.
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TOC Application - TOC-4110 - Full Steam Ahead with Ultrapure Steam- Continuous Candensate monitoring using the TOC-4110
The chemical and petrochemical industry uses superheated steam as energy carrier in order to provide energy for the various steps during thermal processing. The superheated steam is usually generated from ultrapure water, which is used to prevent damage to the boilers. In order to use as little water as possible, the reflux condensate is redirected to the boiler. It is therefore important that the condensate is free from organic contaminants. The TOC parameter provides information on organic contamination. TOC analysis can be carried out quickly and reliably online.
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TOC Application - TOC-4200 - TOC-4200 High Concentration Measurement
Important for TOC determination is the differentiation between organic and inorganic carbon. Carbonates and hydrogen carbonates are, after all, present in all natural waters. The most widely used method for TOC determination is the so-called NPOC method. In this method, the sample is acidified to convert the carbonates and hydrogen carbonates present in the sample to CO2. The resulting carbon dioxide is subsequently purged using a gas stream passed through the sample.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Measurement of TOC in Perfluorochemical (PFOS) Solution
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a man-made organic straight-chain compound consisting of an 8-carbon chain with fluorine atoms bonded to each carbon, and a sulfonic acid terminal group. It is a surfactant that easily dissolves in both oil and water, and is used, among other things, as a stain repellent, fabric protector, and in firefighting foam. PFOS is an extremely stable compound with strong carbon - fluorine bonds, and reports of its accumulation in wildlife and the environment have attracted international attention and concern, leading to the designation of PFOS as a persistent organic pollutant (POP). The persistent nature of PFOS prevents oxidative decomposition using wet chemical oxidation TOC analyzers, however, the Shimadzu high-temperature catalytic combustion TOC analyzer quantitatively recovers PFOS with high sensitivity and accuracy. Here, we demonstrate measurement of PFOS using the TOC-LCPH high-temperature catalytic combustion and the TOC-VWS wet chemical oxidation total organic carbon analyzers.
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TOC PC Quality Control Tracking
Growing regulatory demands have been placed on industries who must monitor either the water influent, effluent or both for levels of Total Organic Carbon (TOC). To meet these demands, analysis require a TOC analyzer capable of tracking Quality Control (QC) samples.
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Measurement of TC and IC in Hydrogen Peroxide (TOC-001)
The Shimadzu TOC-5000/5050 can measure TC and IC (TOC=TC-IC) in high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide without any pretreatment. Therefore, accurate measurement may be achieved without danger of contamination and loss of time due to the pretreatment method.
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Measurement of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon (NPOC) in Salt Water (TOC-003)
Salt water and/or seawater samples are frequently analyzed for total organic carbon/non-purgeable organic carbon (TOC/NPOC) using Total Organic Carbon analyzers. The TOC-5000 series of analyzers employs the 680C catalytically aided combustion technique. This technique minimizes the potential interferences and the corrosive effects normally associated with high salt samples.
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Determining the Correct Concentrations of TOC in Purified Water & Water For Injection
The need for increased sensitivity in the pharmaceutical industry has lead to many stricter requirements for analysing samples for total organic carbon (TOC). The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is regarded as one of the foremost authorities on standards for water for injection (WFI) and Purified Water (PW). The USP method that details analysing WFI and PW for TOC is USP23.
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TYPES OF TOC DETECTORS
Total Organic Carbon (TOC), can be detected by using either the Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) or the conductivity detector. The NDIR is more popular than the conductivity detector, due to stability and interference issues. NDIR detectors measure carbon, or more specifically CO2 in the gas phase, while conductivity detectors measure CO2 in the liquid or aqueous phase.
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The Effectiveness of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) as the Defining Test for Wastewater Treatment Plants
Traditionally, Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (CBOD) has been the defining test to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment. However, this technique has limitations. This paper examines those issues, and addresses how TOC can enhance and someday replace CBOD as the defining test for wastewater treatment plants.
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Monitoring of Algae Growth by TOC Measurement
Here, we introduce an example of a unique application in which the TOC-LCPH total organic carbon analyzer is used to track the growth process of microalgae by directly measuring, without conducting any pretreatment, the TOC content in a suspended culture of microalgae cells.
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TOC Application - TOC-VW - Measuring Samples Per USP 32 Using Shimadzu TOC-V*W
Carbon black nano particles are very small and absorb light strongly. Therefore, it has been difficult to measure them with good sensitivity by conventional methods. However, it is now possible to measure carbon black nano particles with good sensitivity using the IG-1000 single nano particle size analyzer, which adopts a new measurement principle, the "induced grating" IG technique.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Measuring Samples per USP <643> Using Shimadzu TOC-LC*H - Short Version
Here, we introduce the quantitative analysis of sludge and sewage waste water using the ICPE-9000 multitype ICP emission spectrometer. The ICPE-9000 is a multitype inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer that permits both axial and radial observation. Thus, a wide range of analyses are supported, from trace elements like cadmium, to high-concentration elements like iron and zinc, thereby enabling simultaneous analysis of samples having a wide range of element concentrations, including sewage waste water and sludge.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Measuring TOC in Brine Solutions
The Shimadzu BioSpec-nano is a low-maintenance micro-volume spectrophotometer designed for the modern life science laboratory. It is the perfect instrument for the quantitation of protein. The “Drop and Click” design combined with easy sample mounting and automated cleaning offers a rapid three-second analysis time and a ten-second cycle time between samples. The instrument features three different path length settings of 0.2, 0.7 and 5 mm. The focus of this study is on the quantitation of protein using the 0.2 and 0.7 mm pathlength settings. This communication presents data on the detection limits of the BioSpec-nano for protein analysis.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - EPA Method 415.3 - Determination of TOC in Source Water and Drinking Water
Drinking water is one of the main important and life-sustaining food stuffs and is essential to the survival of all known organism. It is a crucial component for metabolic processes and serves as solvent for many bodily solutes. Water for human consumption must be free from pathogens, pleasant to drink and pure. Continuous monitoring is carried out according to European Drinking Water Regulation to ensure the greatest possible security
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Are You Reporting Valid TOC Numbers ?
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzers use two oxidation processes, combustion and UV/Persulfate oxidation. <br>Reprinted from Proceedings of 1998 Water Quality Technology Conference Copyright 1998, American Water Works Association
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Determining the Correct Concentrations of TOC in Purified Water and WFI
The need for increased sensitivity in the pharmaceutical industry has lead to many stricter requirements for analyzing samples for total organic carbon (TOC)
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Conditioning TOC Catalysts
There are several methods that may be used to condition and activate the Regular Sensitivity Catalyst. The 'regeneration' program available in the instrument software is often insufficient to thoroughly condition a new catalyst bed.
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TOC-5000 PC Series Quick Setup
The directions below are designed a Quick Setup procedure so that the novice user can set up an analysis in just a few minutes.
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TOC Application Handbook-Environmental Analysis applications.
Determination in drinking water. Determination in waste water. Determination in surface and groundwater. Particulate organic carbon after filtration
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Measurement of TOC in High-Salt Sample with High-Salt Sample Combustion Tube Kit
Here, we introduce an example of measurement of organic carbon in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride using the TOC-LCSH total organic carbon analyzer with the high-salt sample combustion tube kit installed.
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TOC System Suitability Test for Sterile Water According to USP
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifies that total organic carbon (TOC) content be used for management of organic impurity values permitted in bulk purified water, water for injection, in addition to sterile purified water and sterile water for inj
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Automatic Export using TOC Control V Software Version 1.05.01 and Greater
The automatic ASCII export can be enabled in [the Administration] window of the software.
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MEASURING POC AND NPOC USING TOC-V CSH
The chemical and physical properties of organic solvents affect their solubility in water.
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Determination of Calcium Carbonate in Secondary Cement Products using the TOC-5000A Solid Sample TOC Analysis System
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Measurement of TOC and TN in effluent using Shimadzu TOC-V combined with TN Unit
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Measurement of TOC and TN in Hydrogen Peroxide by TOC-VCSH Combind with TN(Total Nitrogen) unit TNM-1
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Measuring of Organic Components in Fiberglass Using the TOC-5000A Solid Sample TOC Analysis System
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Water Quality Control at Water Purification Plants and Water inlets on Rivers Using the Online TOC Analyzer TOC-4100
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Information on relationships between common parameters: COD, BOD, TOD and TOC
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TOC determination according to USP 24 / EP 2.2.44 with TOC-V CPH
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Laboratory and online TOC measurement in paper production
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Around the clock operation: the TOC-4100 in wastewater treatment plants
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Online-Analysis at its best - Online TOC measurement in the food industry
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Sum parameters on trail - continuous TOC determination in environmental analysis
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Drinking water even purer with TOC - European drinking water guidelines are now national law
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Successful participation in round robin tests TOC susension mehtod for sediments and soils
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Continuous measurement of ultra pure water - The TOC-V CSH online option
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CO2 determination in Beer - Fast help with TOC
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Fine, finer, finest - TOC determination in ultra pure water
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Cleaning Validation: Which TOC Technique is Best?
In this experiment, 0.5 mg of polystyrene was loaded into a glass tube for the TD-20. Both ends of the tube were fastened with 5 mg of quartz wool. The gas emitted when the sample was heated at 250oC for 30 minutes was then analyzed, and the total ion current chromatogram (TIC) obtained is shown below. It can be confirmed that, in addition to the polystyrene monomer styrene, dimer, trimers, and tretramers were produced when the sample was heated at 250 °C .
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC Determination in Algal Biomass
The excessive global CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels (for instance in power plants) causes the search for climate-friendly uses of carbon dioxide. One of the approaches for environmentally sound recycling is to convert the emitted CO2 into biomass using photobioreactors. The CO2 gas is introduced into the photobioreactor in order to be used for the growth of algae. The biomass, or algae, can be used in many different application areas: in the cosmetics industry, the construction industry, and the food segment, in agriculture as fertilizer or for energy utilization.
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TOC Application - TOC - Comparison of different sum parameters – COD, BOD and TOC
The determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is time-consuming and complex. After the sample has been mixed with various reagents, it is left to boil at 120°C (according to DIN regulation) under reflux (air cooler), subsequently an aliquot of the mixture is back-titrated or photometrically measured (rapid test). In addition, environmentally hazardous substances, such as a mercury-containing sulfuric acid and a potassium-dichromate solution are used.
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TOC Application - TOC-4200 - High Sensitivity Option Data
Identification of organic pollutants in wastewater is essential for performance evaluation, construction and operation of a wastewater treatment plant. Several parameters are currently used in wastewater analysis applications. Some of these are based on oxygen demand, for instance BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), COD (chemical oxygen demand and TOD (total oxygen demand). Using TOC analysis, however, the total organic carbon content is determined directly so the method is relatively free from matrix effects. The advantages of TOC analyses are apparent especially during continuous monitoring.
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TOC Application - TOC-4200 - On-Line TOC Measurement Of Airport Runoff
Ultra pure water is one of the most widely used reagents in industry and its quality is therefore of utmost importance in all industrial processes. Quality control has, for many years, been carried out and documented via conductivity measurements, which provide an assessment of the concentration of all inorganic species present in water. This detection method does not take organic pollutants into account, as they typically do not contribute to conductivity. Organic pollutants can, however, greatly influence further industrial processes and it has become increasingly more important to include quantitative determination of all organic species in quality control of water samples.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC System Suitability Test for Sterile Water According to USP
Together, the comprehensive two-dimensional Nexera-e, offering exhaustive analysis of diverse compounds, and the Co-sense series, permitting high resolution and enrichment of specific fractions, make it possible to compare the overall compound patterns in the target sample. Combination of the Nexera-e and Co-Sense series also allows precise separation of the elution fraction of interest. With this method, the two workflows consisting of the differential analysis of a sample with a complex matrix, and a detailed analysis of the compounds of those results to reveal differences, can be conducted simultaneously, quickly and conveniently. Here, we introduce an actual example using phospholipids.
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TOC Application - TOC-4200 - TOC Monitoring Upstream of Paper Mill Wastewater Treatment
This Application News introduces examples of high-speed, high-sensitivity analysis of four drug substances, including the endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA) bosentan and ambrisentan, and the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors sildenafil and tadalafil. All of these substances are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and the analysis was conducted by LC/MS/MS using ESI in positive mode.
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TOC Analysis for Standard Methods 5310B: High-Temperature Combustion Method
The Shimadzu TOC-L total organic carbon analyzer is ideal for TOC measurement by Standard Methods 5310B. The TOC-L, with a 680 °C furnace and platinum catalyst, utilizes high-temperature catalytic oxidation to completely oxidize organic carbon. Moreover, the ability to auto-generate a calibration curve from a single standard, coupled with the capability to auto-dilute and re-inject over-range samples, ensures that one method can analyze all samples.
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TOC Application - SSM - Cleaning Validation by TOC Analyzer with Easy Wiper
In the pharmaceutical industry, "cleaning validation" where residues on manufacturing equipment are quantitated to verify whether the amount is within tolerance, has been a valuable criterion for quality controla and safety. To perfrom cleaning validaton by Shimadzu TOC analyzer, the following three methods are available depending on selected sampling and analysis methods. Swab Sampling - Direct Combustion Method. Swab Sampling - Water Extraction - TOC Analysis Method. Rinse Sampling - TOC Analysis Method
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Measurement of CO2 in an Ethanolamine Solution (TOC-004)
In an effort to reduce the amount of CO2 discharged into the atmosphere, several technologies have been developed. One of these is to absorb the CO2 typically discharged from a fossil fuel power plant into an Ethanolamine scrubbing solution. The CO2 can be easily measured using the inorganic carbon (IC) measuring capability of the TOC-5000 series Total Organic Carbon analyzer.
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Determination of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Solid Samples (TOC-2)
Our environmental situation, which is getting more and more critical, forces politicians as well as scientists to find possibilities for the minimization of pollutant emissions. One way for a pollutant reduction is the incineration of organic waste instead of disposing it. This possibility is the target of the German regulation “TA-Abfall” (Technical Instruction-Waste)
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Sample Table Importing Using the TOC Control V Software
The TOC Control V Software is designed to adapt to the needs of our most versatile users. To increase the user-friendliness, the TOC Control V software incorporates an import function that allows the user to import a sample table directly from an ASCII *.txt file.
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Creating and Verifying an Electronic Signature Using the TOC Control V Software
Due to the requirements of the 21 CFR Part 11 rule, software systems must include features such as user access rights, audit trails, and electronic signatures. The Shimadzu TOC Control V software strives to fully comply with 21 CFR Part 11 by adopting these features. This quick guide will focus solely on the implementation of electronic signatures using the TOC Control V software.
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Quality Control Tracking using the TOC Control V Software
Due to increased regulatory demands for high quality data, industries must have in place a stringent Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) program. Industries and Laboratories, who monitor water influent, effluent, or both for levels of Total Organic Carbon (TOC), must be able to validate the TOC data results with Quality Control (QC) samples.
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Around the clock operation: The TOC-4100 in wastewater treatment plants
The central wastewater treatment plant in Ans-bach, Germany, processes, since the start up operation in 1980, the wastewater of a city of 40.000 people and all local industrial wastewater, particularly from the meat processing companies in the area.
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Measuring Samples Per USP 26 Using Shimadzu TOC-VC*H
Shimadzu’s TOC-VC*H analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Rev. 26 Method <643>. The TOC-VC*H analyzer utilizes 680°C heat and platinum catalyst to provide a lower maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0040 mg per liter.
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Measuring Samples Per USP 26 Using Shimadzu TOC-VW
Shimadzu’s TOC-VW analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Rev. 26 method <643>. The TOC-VW analyzer utilizes three forms of oxidation (heat, UV, and persulfate) to provide a low maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0005 mg per liter.
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TOC Application - SSM - Carbon Measurement Method for Cleaning Validation - Comparing Direct Combustion with Rinse and Swab Sampling Methods
The TOC-L with the high salt kit is capable of analyzing large numbers of samples containing very high salt concentrations with minimal maintenance.
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Monitoring and Characterization of Algae by TOC Analysis
Microalgae can be used for the production of oil without competing with food production. The following presents applications in which the TOC-LCPH total organic carbon analyzer was used to track the growth process of, and characterize, microalgae by directly measuring, without conducting any pretreatment, the TOC content in a suspended culture of microalgae cells.
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TOC – Determination according to USP 661.2 Testing of Plastic Packaging Systems and their Materials of Construction
These results show that the TOC-CPH with high sensitivity catalyst covers the required linear dynamic range from 0,2 – 20mg/L. This means both applications, purified water and this extraction solution can be measured with a single TOC-L CPH instrument.
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TOC – Determination according to USP 661.1 Testing of Plastic Packaging Systems and their Materials of Construction
These results show that the TOC-CPH with high sensitivity catalyst covers the required linear dynamic range from 0,2 – 20mg/L. This means both applications, purified water and this extraction solution can be measured with a single TOC-L CPH instrument.
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TOC/TN Measurement for the Control and Evaluation of Methane Fermentation of Food Waste using TOC and TN Measurement System
The Industrial Research Institute of Shizuoka Prefecture (hereinafter referred to as “IRI Shizuoka Pref.”) uses a Shimadzu TOC (Total Organic Carbon) and TN (Total Nitrogen) measurement system for ontrolling and evaluating methane fermentation of food waste. This Application News introduces the contents of IRI Shizuoka Pref.’s researches
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Conditiioning TOC Catalysts
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Control of Oil Contamination in Aqueous Cleaning Equipment using the TOC-5000A
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Recovery Test for Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate by TOC-VWS
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TOC Online Management of Collected Reusable Water In a Water Network Washing System
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Total Carbon Measuring in the Gas samples With the TOC-5000A Gas Sample Measuring Kit
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Water management in the manufacturing process of Pharmaceutical products with TOC-5000A
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Determination of drinking water with TOC-V CPH
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TOC determination in Cleaning Validation
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Cleaning Validation by TOC Analyzer
To ensure quality control and safety in manufacturing facilities within the pharmaceutical industry, it is important that cleaning validation be conducted following the cleaning of production-related equipment. Cleaning validation ensures that the quantity of residual substances collected from the surfaces of the equipment is within permissible limit. Depending on the sampling method and measurement method used for this cleaning validation using a TOC analyzer, the following 3 types of methods are available. (1) Rinse sampling – TOC measurement method (2) Swab sampling – aqueous extraction – TOC measurement method (3) Swab sampling – direct combustion carbon measurement methodHere we introduce the features of each of these methods, using the TOC-LCPH total organic carbon analyzer in the measurement of residual pharmaceutical products and their constituent substances. Here we introduce the features of each of these methods, using the TOC-LCPH total organic carbon analyzer in the measurement of residual pharmaceutical products and their constituent substances.
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Determining the Injection Volume and/or Range for TOC-500
There is correlation between the Range, Injection Volume, and Sample Concentration that is expressed in the following equation: (Injection Volume x Concentration) / Instrument Range = 300 (constant)
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Humic Acid- Complex Problem, Simple Solution
The goal of this article is to demonstrate that the Shimadzu TOC-VW can effectively oxidize the Humic Acid (HA) matrix.
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Environmental protection within our own hands - Continuous monitoring of wastewater of Shimadzu production sites using TOCN-4100 and AA-6300
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TC Measurement and Elemental Composition Analysis of Fly Ash – Quantitation by TOC and XRF
Here, we introduce examples of fly ash analysis using the TC measurement values as standard values in conjunction with the calibration curve method associated with X-ray fluorescence.
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Measurement of TOC and TN in Marine Water Algae Culture Solution
The culturing of microalgae in various types of nonedible biomass has been receiving considerable attention in recent years. In particular, microalgae that inhabit seawater are favored due to the low cost of the culture solution and the wide choice of cu
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TOC Determination in Sludge
To characterize and limit the amount of organic substances in waste the TOC-parameter (total organic carbon) was incorporated as determination parameter in the new TA Siedlungsabfall (TA: Technical instruction, June 1st 1993). This sum parameter which is a firm component in the water analysis already for years also becomes more and more important in the solid sample analysis. In this case, the waste depending on the content of TOC is assigned to different dump classes. In order to be classified under dump class 1 (mineral material dump) the waste may at the most include a TOC content of 1 mass percent of dry residue. For rating in dump class 2 (settlement waste dump), a maximum of 3 mass percent of dry residue is permitted.
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Improving TOC Productivity: Four Solutions to over range samples
TOC measurements are becoming more and more assimilated into today's manufacturing protocols and processes. Whether it is qualifying raw material, quality assuring of a product or monitoring effluent for discharge; stopping production can be expensive. For this reason the TOC-V series of instruments offers four solutions to over range samples; automatic selection of best of three calibration curves, automatic reduction of injection volume, automatic dilution of over range sample, and automatic concentration correction for bench top dilutions.
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Quantitation Limit Data for Tap Water Using TOC-LCPH
The reference value for "organic matter (Total Organic Carbon (TOC))" in tap water is 3 mg/L according to the Water Quality Standards specified in Japan's Water Supply Act. Thus, the lower limit of quantitation of the TOC analyzer used for this measurement must be 0.3 mg/L, that is, 1/10 the reference value. Here, we introduce examples of measurement at 0.3 mg/L, that is, 1/10 the concentration specified in the standards, using the Shimadzu TOC-LCPH with the regular catalyst and the high sensitivity catalyst.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - Determination in algal biomass – Suspension Method
Impurities present in drugs that are suspected of genotoxicity must be subjected to separation and quantitation at trace levels lower than typically required. With the SPD-M30A high-sensitivity photodiode array detector, even extremely trace level components can be detected and quantitated. Here we introduce an example of ultra-high-speed, high-sensitivity analysis of the degradation products of cefazolin.
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TOC Application - TOC-4110 - StrategicRole of the Shimadzu on-line Nutrient Analyzer
This application data sheet presents a list of targets and an example for measuring lipid mediators in various biological tissues. Furthermore, 87 arachidonic acids and its metabolites, 11 ethanolamids, 23 metabolites of other fatty acids, Azelaoyl_PAF, PAF and Lyso-PAF are all included as registered compounds in the method in order to analyze a total of 158 components with optimized MRM transitions and retention times.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC Determination according to USP661.1 Testing of Plastic Packaging Systems and their Materials of Construction
Plastic packaging systems for pharmaceutical products must be suitable for their intended use. The US Pharmacopeia revised the related chapter. It is published in USP 39-NF34, which will be valid from May 2016. Besides to the change of the title “Plastic Packaging Systems and their materials of Construction”, two new chapters are established. This application note is related to the first chapter 661.1.
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TOC Application - TOC-L - TOC Determination according to USP661.2 Testing of Plastic Packaging Systems and their Materials of Construction
In the pharmaceutical industry plastic packaging is used in various forms – for example for intravenous bags, bottles, cartridges or pre-filled syringes. The packaging must be tested for suitability for these uses. It is published in USP 39-NF34, which will be valid from May 2016. Besides to the change of the title “Plastic Packaging Systems and their materials of Construction”, two new chapters are established. This application note is related to the second chapter 661.2.
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A Method for Performing a TC Blank Check for Regular Sensitivity Catalyst
The area counts generated by injecting carbon free water into the Total Carbon (TC) combustion tube of the TOC-5000A series analyzer will give the system blank of the instrument. This feature is called the TC Blank Check
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Using Standard 40 ml VOA vials with your Shimadzu ASI-5000A
Now, your Shimadzu ASI-5000A can use standard 40 ml VOA vials for analysis of TC, IC, TOC by difference (ie TC-IC) and POC. Note: NPOC can not be performed with these vials at this time.
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Analyzing Samples As Per USP 23 Using Shimadzu TOC-5000A
The United States Pharmacopoeia has established guidelines for determining system suitability for the analysis of purified water and water for injection (USP Revision 23). This guideline also provides a means to qualify unknown samples as passing or failing.
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More Results Analyzing Samples As Per USP 23 Using Shimadzu TOC-5000A
The United States Pharmacopoeia has established guidelines for determining system suitability for the analysis of purified water and water for injection (USP Revision 23). This guideline also provides a means to qualify unknown samples as passing or failing.
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High Precision Measurement of Total Carbon Dioxide in Sea Water (TOC-002)
The Green House Effect is the effect of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and is an environmental phenomena being investigated globally. Investigation of the circulation of CO2 in the environment, the role of ocean absorption of CO2, and the changes in the quantity of inorganic carbons (of which CO2 is a portion) in the oceans are important keys to understanding this phenomena
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High Accuracy Measurement of TOC below 5ppb Levels
The current regulatory demands of the industry require analytical instruments that can measure at increasingly lower detection limits with high precision and accuracy. For example, some ultrapure applications in TOC require trace level detection to ensure highly accurate and precise results.
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Shimadzu’s Unique TOC/TN Sampling System Improves
Shimadzu’s TOC-VC 8-port valve sampling system was developed with the needs of the user in mind. This unique system saves laboratory time and work while increasing productivity and efficiency. This is the most capable and functional sampling system ever developed
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Measurement of Oil Residues on Copper Wire Surface by TOC Solid Sample Measurement System
In this application, we introduce an example of measurement of copper wire using the solid sample measurement system comprising the TOC-VCPH total organic carbon analyzer and the SSM-5000A solid sample combustion unit.
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TOC Application - TN - A high temperature combustion instrument comparison measurement of dissolved organic nitrogen in seawater
AA analysis often uses Matrix modifier. Matrix modifier rises sensitivity and improve reproducibility. This news describes matrix modifiers for furnace AA system.
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TOC Application Handbook. Chemical Industry applications
Determination in hydrochloric acid.Determination in nitric acid. Determination in sulfuric acid. Determination in brines.Determination in sodium hydroxide solution. Determination in soda solution. Determination in ammonia or ammonium salt solutions. Determination in sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite
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Continuous TOC determination in the chemical industry
The chemical industry generates a huge amount of wastewater, which must be pretreated before being discharged into public sewage treatment plants. This application presents a real-world example of the reliability and robustness of the online TOC-4200 analyzer during an endurance test at a German chemical park.
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Speedy and smart screening technique of algal biomass, carbon contents and dry weight using TOC analyzer and Thermal analyzer
The purpose is to introduce a new, much simpler, and quicker analysis method using a Total Organic Carbon analyzer / Solid Sample Module(TOC+SSM) and Thermogravimetric analyzer(TG/DTA) for measuring organic contents and dry weight of algae.
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5310 Total Organic Carbon and Waste Water
The organic carbon in water and wastewater is composed of a number of organic compounds in various oxidation states.
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Analysis of Effect on Water Quality due to Leaching from Water Works Equipment Materials using the TOC-VCSH
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Cleaning Validation – Direct Swab method procedure using TOC-V and SSM-5000A
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Determination of TOC in solids according to the European Standardisation EN 13137
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'Direct Swab' TOC of E. Coli cells in biopharmaceutical cleaning validation
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Determination of the TNb in the trace range (TOC-V CPH + TNM-1)
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Simple TOC determination of sediments and soils using the suspension method
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Determination of waste water with TOC-V CPH by using the autodilution function
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Determination of the detection and determination limit of NPOC with the standard catalyst
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Calibration and measurement in the high sensitive range with TOC-V WP
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Swab test of E. Coli cells - Biopharmaceutical cleaning validation
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X-Ray Application - XRD - High-Speed X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Medicine Using OneSight
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifies that total organic carbon (TOC) content be used for management of organic impurity values permitted in bulk purified water, water for injection, in addition to sterile purified water and sterile water for injection. According to USP, TOC analyzers to be used for sterile water must satisfy the TOC system suitability test using test water having a carbon content of 0.8 mg/L, and must also be able to detect TOC at 0.1 mg/L or less. Here, we introduce an actual example of TOC system suitability testing using the Shimadzu TOC-L CPH combustion catalytic oxidation type analyzer.
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Total Organic Carbon Analyses for Water Purification, Injection using the 680C.
The changes to the US Pharmacopoeia monograph for the quality or purified water, water for injection, and cleaning water is under review and evaluation by the pharmaceutical industry. The current proposed method will include replacing the oxidizable substances test by measuring Total Organic Carbon (TOC) testing.
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Measuring TOC in Electroplating Solution through Wet Chemical Oxidation
Organic additives are used in electroplating solutions; these additives are used in a variety of electroplating applications form circuit board production to jewelry manufacturing. The concentrations of these additives affect the overall performance of the plating; so in many cases it is important to accurately monitor the addition of these additives.
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MDLs for Nitrogen Species by TrAAcS and Shimadzu
The method detection limits (MDLs) of high temperature oxidation (HTO); Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer with TNM-1 TN unit) and wet chemical digestion (WCD); Bran & Luebbe TrAAcs 800 Autoanalyzer) were compared using various reagent grade organic chemicals containing nitrogen:
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Monitoring Algae Growth in Marine Water Culture Solutions using TOC/TN
The culturing of microalgae in various types of nonedible biomass has been receiving considerable attention in recent years. Microalgae that inhabit seawater are favored due to the low cost of the culture solution and the wide choice of culture locations.
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Measurement of a Cement Admixture by a TOC Solid Sample Measurement System
Cement is used for concrete and other construction materials, which have been used for a variety of applications since ancient times. Many varieties are used, with different qualities and properties, depending on their function. To modify and improve the performance of concrete, water reducing agents, water proofing agents and other admixtures are added to cement. Accordingly, to confirm the strength and properties of existing building structures, it is important to assess the amount of cement admixtures included in the concrete. As an analysis method for organic admixtures, concrete is pulverized and extracted by boiling, and the filtrate is measured for COD and TOC. However, depending on the type of admixture, the extraction efficiency may be biased, and the concentration may be low, resulting in poor measurement accuracy. Using the Shimadzu TOC solid sample measurement system, the pulverized concrete can be directly loaded into the instrument to measure the amount of organic carbon. As a result, measurement process and time are reduced, and the impact of variance in the measurement values due to extraction can be reduced. This document introduces an example of the measurement of a cement admixture in pulverized concrete using the TOC solid sample combustion system, which combines the TOC-L total organic carbon analyzer with the SSM-5000A solid sample combustion unit.
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Swab / Direct Combustion Analysis of Detergent Residue Using SSM-5000A
Cleaning validation with respect to production equipment at pharmaceutical facilities refers to the scientific verification that residues of previously processed products and detergent used for equipment cleaning, as well as foreign material from the environment in the production equipment, do not exceed specified permissible limits. HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) is often used to conduct this evaluation, however, detection with HPLC is often difficult due to the large number of constituents in detergents, and further, measurement is not easy when preparation, such as sample enrichment, is required. On the other hand, if a TOC (Total Organic Carbon) analyzer is used, the residual amount of detergent constituents is easily detected because all of the carbon-containing substances are detected.The rinse method and swab method are tw
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[ARCHIVED] Supporting Pharmaceutical Cleaning Validation with TOC and UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Analysis
Analysis of impurities can be a challenging task especially when the main ingredient needs to be assayed at the same time, which requires a wider dynamic range and lower baseline disturbances. With an extra wide dynamic range, temperature-controlled flow cell and a stray-light correction function, both SPD-20A UV and SPD-M20A Photo Diode Array detectors offer a high level of stability, sensitivity and linearity for a confident analysis. The 100 Hz sampling of the SPD-20A/M20A ensures peak information can be captured without loss of resolution and exploits the full potential of ultra-fast LC columns.
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Continuous On-Line Monitoring of Purgeable Organic Compounds
A company with a closed wastewater system should be aware of dissolved flammable gases in the piping system. Two components present in wastewater pipes are wastewater and head space gases.
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TNb determination in the monitoring and control of municipal wastewater treatment plants
Regulations regarding continuous improvements in water protection, which accompany the changing needs of a growing metropolis, greatly increase the responsibilities and demands of municipal wastewater treatment plant operators.
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FTIR Application - IRTracer/100IRAffinity-1S Applications
In addition to aqueous samples, TOC determination can also performed on soil, sludge, sedimentation and other solid samples. By swabbing, the carbon in attached residues can be measured for cleaning validation. In some regulation (e.g regulation for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant) a limit value for TOC is mentioned.
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Nexera Application - High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 41) Performance Evaluation of Carryover Using Reserpine in Human Plasma by the Nexera UHPLC System
To ensure quality control and safety in manufacturing facilities within the pharmaceutical industry, it is important that cleaning validation be conducted following the cleaning of production-related equipment to ensure the quantity of residual substances collected from the surfaces of the equipment are within permissible limits. For this cleaning validation using a TOC analyzer, the following 3 types of methods are available. (1) Rinse sampling – TOC measurement method (2) Swab sampling – aqueous extraction – TOC measurement method (3) Swab sampling – direct combustion carbon measurement method Introduced here are the features of each of these methods, using the TOC-LCPH total organic carbon analyzer (Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan), in the measurement of residual pharmaceutical products and their constituent substances.
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i3D Application - An Enterprise Informatics Service: Labs Can Do What the "Biggest" Labs Do, Only 100x Faster, 30% More IDs, 1/5th the Cost and Zero Installations (SSI)
Here, using the Shimadzu TOC-L CPH combustion catalytic oxidation type analyzer, we introduce examples of TOC system suitability testing and measurement of TOC at a concentration below 0.05 mg/L.
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LCMS-8040 Application - High-Speed, High-Sensitivity Analysis of Drugs in Plasma Using Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS (Japan)
Here, we introduce an example of simultaneous measurement of TOC and TN in seawater using the TOC and TN measurement system consisting of the TOC-L CPH total organic carbon analyzer for microalgal biomass measurement and the TNM-L unit for total nitrogen (TN) measurement.
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TOC Application - TN - Whitepaper - New ASTM Method for TN and TKN by Calculation
ASTM D8086-16 is a new method for the determination of total nitrogen, and TKN by calculation, in water samples. The method compares favorably with the current EPA approved calculated total nitrogen in samples without interferences. ASTM D8083-16 saves laboratories time, uses less reagent and smaller sample volumes, and overcomes several known issues with current TKN and TN methods.
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TOC Analysis of Drinking Water
The importance of drinking water is undisputed. That fact is underlined, too, by the great number of german laws and regulations considering this topic. Water is classified into different qualities. Besides tap water, there is natural mineral water, medical draft water, spring water and soda water. Every water shows defined characteristics and qualities and is distinguished in particular by the method of its production. For the production of drinking water, for instance, different additives are allowed. Among others, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone are used for disinfecting.
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Drinking Water: TOC Analysis / When You Absolutely Need To Know
On Dec. 16, 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated two drinking water regulations of interest to the environmental testing and analytical community. The goal of the first regulation, the Stage 1 Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR)1, is to protect customers from disinfectants and disinfectant byproducts (DBP), while the primary goal of the second regulation, the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR)1, is to reduce microbial contamination in drinking water.
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Total Nitrogen Analysis: A New Perspective on TOC
Monitoring the nitrogen content is of great importance in many industries for many reasons. In waters and wastewaters the most interesting forms of nitrogen, in order of decreasing oxidation state, are nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen1. Organic nitrogen includes such natural materials as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, urea, and numerous synthetic organic materials. In excessive amounts, nitrate contributes to the illness known as methemoglobinemia in infants. As a preventative measure, the current EPA-imposed maximum contaminant level (MCL) for nitrate in drinking water is 10 mg/L.
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TOC Application - Carbon dioxide determination in beer (Germany)
This Application Data Sheet reports on results with respect to a method for quantitating haloalcohols (2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, and 2-iodoethanol) and glycidol in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) utilizing the GCMS system. For the analysis conditions as well as the total ion current chromatogram and mass spectra for the haloalcohols and glycidol, refer to GCMS Application Data Sheet No. 41, "Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (3), Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol Part 1."
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Evaluation of cleanliness of aluminum foil surface using the Shimadzu Total Carbon Analyzer
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High Precision Measurement of Total Carbon Dioxide in Sea Water
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Measurement of CO2 in an Ethanolamine Solution
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Measurement of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon in Salt Water and Sea Water
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Measurement of TC and IC in Hydrogen Peroxide
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Reliable Online-Determination of TNb
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Sugarsweet campaign using the TOCN-4100
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Using Standard 40ML VOA Vials with Your Shimadzu ASI-5000A
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Prominence Application - High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 32) Analysis of Phthalates Using Shim-pack XR Series Columns
Here we present an example of measurement of a sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate solution, in addition to measurement of a sample containing less than 0.050 mg/L TOC using the Shimadzu combustion catalytic oxidation type TOC-VCPH total organic carbon analyzer.
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Particle Size SALD-7101 Application - Relationship between Optical Path Length & Particle Concentration
The United States Pharmacopoeia has established guidelines for determining system suitability and established the acceptance of Water For Injection (WFI) purposes and Purified Water (PW) (USP Revision 32 Method <643>). Shimadzu’s TOC-VC*H analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Rev. 32 Method <643>. The TOC-VC*H analyzer utilizes 680°C heat and platinum catalyst to provide a lower maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0040 mg per liter.
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LCMS-8030/8040 Application - Steroids: Testosterone, Progestrone, Estradiol, Ethinylestradiol (SSI)
Shimadzu’s High Salt Kit (P/N 638-93176-01 & 638-93176-02) will allow 12 times more sample injections on to the catalyst before replacement and increase the quartz combustion tube life by a factor of five. This type of kit is available for laboratory TOC-L or on-line TOC-4110 (P/N 638-93176-00) analyzers.
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LCMS-8030/8040 Application - Qualitative Analysis of Tochu Tea Using a Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS [LCMS-8030] (Japan)
Here, we introduce an example of recovery testing with a sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate solution using the Shimadzu combustion catalytic oxidation model TOC-L CPH and an example of analysis of a sample with a TOC concentration below 0.050 mg/L.
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HPLC Application - Simultaneous Determination of Drug Compound and its Counter-ions by RPLC×IC
The United States Pharmacopoeia has established guidelines for determining system suitability and established the acceptance of Water For Injection (WFI) purposes and Purified Water (PW) (USP Method <643>). Shimadzu’s TOC-LC*H analyzer is perfectly adapted to meet the requirements of USP Method <643>. The TOC-LC*H analyzer utilizes 680°C heat and platinum catalyst to provide a lower maintenance instrument with a detection limit of 0.0040 mg per liter.
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UV-Vis Application - UV Talk Letter - (1) Characteristics of Single and Souble-Beam UV-Vis Spectrophotometry (2) Analyzing Mineral Water Using Multivariate Analysis V9 C101-E123
In this particular field of application notes, specific sets of subjects ‘TOC in daily practice’ are listed that are not covered by one of the special applications. These are subjects that are related to the TOC parameter, independently of the matrix.
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LCMS-8050 Application - A Rapid and Reproducible Immuno-MS Platform from Sample Collection to Quantitation (SSI)
To investigate the TOC in soils or other solids such as sediments or sludges, a solid sample module is used which enables TOC determination using the difference method and the NPOC method. Here, a subsample of the dried solids is weighed into a ceramic boat and combusted at 900 °C in a stream of oxygen. To ensure complete conversion to CO2, the generated gases are passed over a mixed catalyst (cobalt/platinum) for catalytic postcombustion.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Ethylene in Food Using GC/MS (Japan)
Continuous and stable measurement of TOC in high-pollution samples such as the influent water in wastewater treatment facilities is not easy. In particular, paper mill wastewater, in addition to containing large amounts of pulp residue, provides an environment that facilitates microorganism proliferation. This leads to such problems as obstructed flow lines and the formation of biofilms at surfaces that are exposed to direct contact with these organisms, such as at water sampling points. Here, using the online TOC-4200, we introduce an example of continuous measurement of paper mill wastewater having such characteristics.
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Example of Management of Nitrogen Removal in a Night Soil Treatment Plant, using the On-Line Total Nitrogen Analyzer TN-4100
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Waste water management in accordance with ISO 14001 using the Shimadzu On-Line Total Organic Carbon Analyzer
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Recovery rates of total organic compounds according to the European Standardisation EN 13137
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Secrets revealed from water - TN determination in the ultra trace range
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TNb determination in the monitoring and control of municipal wastewater treatment plants
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Analysis of Dietary Supplements
Analytical Instrumentation & Software for the Evaluation, Identification and QA/QC of Dietary Supplements
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Prominence Application - Applications of the Prominence RF-20AXS Fluorescence Detector (Part 2) High-Speed Analysis of Tocopherols and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Here we introduce an example of high-speed analysis of α-acids and β-acids in hops using the Prominence UFLCXR ultra fast, high resolution LC system with a high-speed, high-resolution column.
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HPLC Application 3rd party - Assessment of a New Generation of Evaporative Light Scattering Detectors for Liquid Chromatography: Sensitivity, Linearity, Dynamic Range, Analyte Dispersion and Response Variation with Eluent Compositions (SEDERE)
Here, we introduce an example of measurement of copper wire using the solid sample measurement system comprising the TOC-V CPH total organic carbon analyzer and the SSM-5000A solid sample combustion unit.
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Particle Size SALD-2300 Application - Particle Size Distribution Measurement of Chocolate - Q112
In the manual of the ‘central- European brewery technological analysis commission)’ (MEBAK) various methods for the determination of CO2 are listed. These are generally based on manometric or titrimetric method, or they are methods that use specialized detectors. Disadvantages of these methods are often the lack of selectivity for CO2 (other gases or substances are also determined), high expenditure in terms of personnel and time, and the lack of possibilities for automation. In order to develop a method that does not have these disadvantages, a TOC analyzer was used.
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A novel approach to cleaning validation for pharmaceutical manufacturing by online supercritical fluid extraction/supercritical fluid chromatography
Cleaning validation is necessary to establish the quality and safety of pharmaceutical drug products. In cleaning validation protocols, direct sampling is performed with swabs, which are sticks with textiles at one end. The sample on the swab after swabbing the surface of equipment is analyzed with a TOC analyzer and HPLC. Recently, HPLC has been more preferable because of the growing need for the individual analysis of products. Before the HPLC analysis, manual processes such as a sample extraction and a sample condensation are required. Such manual processes may affect to the quality of results. Thus, we evaluated the application of a novel on-line supercritical fluid extraction/chromatography system for the cleaning validation.
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A novel approach to cleaning validation for pharmaceutical manufacturing by online supercritical fluid extraction/supercritical fluid chromatography
Cleaning validation is necessary to establish the quality and safety of pharmaceutical drug products. In cleaning validation protocols, direct sampling is performed with swabs, which are sticks with textiles at one end. The sample on the swab after swabbing the surface of equipment is analyzed with a TOC analyzer and HPLC. Recently, HPLC has been more preferable because of the growing need for the individual analysis of products. Before the HPLC analysis, manual processes such as a sample extraction and a sample condensation are required. Such manual processes may affect to the quality of results. Thus, we evaluated the application of a novel on-line supercritical fluid extraction/chromatography system for the cleaning validation.
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Nexera UC Application - Application of Online SFE-SFC-PDA for Cleaning Validation
Cleaning validation is a process step that is extremely important for ensuring high quality and safety at pharmaceutical manufacturing sites. Cloth used for surface wiping, called a swab, is used to wipe a given part of a piece of manufacturing equipment, and analysis of the wiped area of the swab is performed by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or a total organic carbon analysis (TOC). Evaluations using HPLC have been increasingly used in recent years because HPLC enables determination of individual compounds.
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LCMS-8060 Application - 500 Years German Beer Purity Law – Searching Contaminants_Glyphosate_Metals_Shimadzu
Beer is made from natural grain and vegetable base products which are exposed to environmental impacts as well as agricultural treatment. Beer may therefore contain a variety of heavy metals such as arsenic, lead and cadmium and additional undesired substances such as mycotoxins and pesticides. To track and analyze these elements and compounds various analytical technologies and sensitive analytical systems are required. Shimadzu is offering the full solution such as UV-Vis spectrophotometers, atomic absorption-, ICPOES/MS spectrometers, liquid- and gas chromatography as well as mass spectrometry, and TOC analyzers to permanently guarantee the highest quality of the most popular alcoholic drink in Europe.
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500 Years German Beer Purity Law – Searching Contaminants
Beer is made from natural grain and vegetable base products which are exposed to environmental impacts as well as agricultural treatment. Beer may therefore contain a variety of heavy metals such as arsenic, lead and cadmium and additional undesired substances such as mycotoxins and pesticides. To track and analyze these elements and compounds various analytical technologies and sensitive analytical systems are required. Shimadzu is offering the full solution such as UV-Vis spectrophotometers, atomic absorption, ICPOES/MS spectrometers, liquid- and gas chromatography as well as mass spectrometry, and TOC analyzers to permanently guarantee the highest quality of the most popular alcoholic drink in Europe.
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Shimadzu’s Total Nitrogen Module Eliminates Environmentally Un-friendly Environmental Methods
For every two steps forward in technology we take one step back in terms of pollution. The same goes for monitoring the environment. For every test or method developed to identify and isolate toxins, a large amount of toxic waste is produced. Simply stated, environmental methods shouldn’t be harmful to the environment.
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