Multi-Dimensional GC and GCMS

Greatly Increased Separation Power

Introduction of Applications using MDGC/GCMS-2010 series

  • Petroleum Analysis (Batch Analysis of Oxygenated Components in Gasoline)
  • Fragrance Analysis (Batch Analysis of Fragrance Components in Essential Oil)
  • Environmental Analysis (Separation and Quantitation of Substances in River Water that Cause Mold Odor)
  • Tea Tree Oil Analysis (Analysis of Optical Isomers in Essential Oil)
  • Screening of Allergens in Cosmetic Products

Petroleum Analysis

Batch Analysis of Oxygenated Components in Gasoline
With gasoline, a large number of hydrocarbon peaks are eluted, making it difficult to completely separate oxygenated compounds, such as the alcohols that have been added in recent years, using GC-FID. Improving separation using MDGC analysis enables the analysis of components for which separation and quantitation would be difficult using conventional FID.

The analysis of the 13 components specified by ASTM D 4815-99*
is described below.

1st GC Chromatogram(Separation is insufficient for components indicated in red.)

1st GC Chromatogram(Separation is insufficient for components indicated in red.)

2nd GC Chromatogram (Separation is significantly improved.)

2nd GC Chromatogram (Separation is significantly improved.)

* Standard Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertialy-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography

Fragrance Analysis

Batch Analysis of Fragrance Components in Essential Oil
Aromatic analysis, in which large numbers of matrices are contained in the samples, is a field where MDGC analysis demonstrates its effectiveness. Combining nonpolar and polar columns enables the separation of aromatic components and impurity substances. Also, because no fatty acid esters with high boiling points are introduced into the polar column, the analysis time is reduced.

Analysis results for cologne

1st GC Chromatogram

1st GC Chromatogram

2nd GCMS Chromatogram

2nd GCMS Chromatogram

Environmental Analysis

Separation and Quantitation of Substances in River Water that Cause Mold Odor
In the analysis of substances in water that cause mold odor, because the concentration is low and there is a large number of matrices, the quantitative results obtained with GCMS contain large errors. In the example shown below, the peak for geosmin, which is insufficiently separated with conventional analysis, is completely separated.

1st GC Chromatogram

1st GC Chromatogram

2nd GCMS Chromatogram

2nd GCMS Chromatogram

Tea Tree Oil Analysis

Tea tree (or melaleuca) oil is essential oil obtained as steam distilled from the leaves of tea trees native to Australia. The oil has a fresh and pleasant odor, and some odor-eliminating as well as antibacterial and antiseptic medicinal properties.

The analysis of tea tree oil using the Shimadzu MDGC-2010 system is described below.

Tea Tree Oil Analysis
Component Minimum(%) Maximum(%)
α-Pinene 1 6
Sabinene trace 3.5
α-Terpinene 5 13
Limonene 0.5 1.5
1.8-Cineole(eucalyptol) trace 15
γ-Terpinene 10 28
Terpinolene 1.5 5
Terpinen-4-ol 30 48
α-Terpineol 1.5 8
Aromadendrene trace 3
Ledene(syn.viridoflorene) trace 3
õ-Cadinene trace 3
Globulol trace 1
Viridiflorol trace 1

Table.1

Tea tree oil components vary depending on the growing environment, including air and sunshine conditions. As the European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLPA) encourages tea tree oil contained in industrial commodities to be 1% or less, strict quality control is required. Fig. 1 shows the sharp peaks of each component in tea tree oil can be obtained by MDGC-2010. Table 1 shows the distribution of each component.

Application data by Universita degli

Application data by
Prof. Luigi Mondello, University of Messina, Italy

Screening of Allergens in Cosmetic Products

The EU Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC) mandates the labeling of ingredients and 26 chemicals, which are possible allergens, on commercial cosmetic products. According to the Directive, the regulated compounds should be 10ppm or less in cosmetics like creams, and 100ppm or less in cosmetics, such as soap, that are washed out with water. The analysis of allergens in a commercial cosmetic product using the Shimadzu MDGC-2010 system is described below.

Heart-Cut analysis in 1st column

Heart-Cut analysis in 1st column

Separation in 2nd column

ID Allergens Parfume Concentration
(ppm)
Extract Concentration
(ppm)
1 Limonene x 1.236 x 0.005
2 Linalool x 0.867 x 0.145
3 Benzyl alcohol x 0.624 x 0.006
4 Folione        
5 Citronellol x 1.321    
6 Citral x 0.179    
7 Geraniol     x 0.084
8 Citronellal, hydroxy        
9 Cinnamaldehyde        
10 Anisyl alcohol     x 0.011
11 Cinnamyl alcohol x 0.062 x 0.013
12 Eugenol x      
13 Isoeugenol        
14 Coumarin x 0.963    
15 Gamma-Methylionon x 1.057    
16 Lilial        
17 Cinnamaldehyde<amyl->        
18 Lyral x 0.026    
19 Cinnamyl alcohol <amyl->     x 0.024
20 Farnesol     x 0.017
21 Hexyl-Cinnamaldehyde        
22 Benzyl Benzoate x 0.764    
23 Benzyl cinnamate x 0.362    
24 Benzylsalicylate        

Table.1

This analysis shows that concentrations of the regulated compounds in commercial cosmetics products like perfume or cream are less than or equal to the prescribed limits. In this analysis, an allergen standard is injected into the MDGC-2010 to define peak positions of the standard in the 1st chromatogram. The heart-cut analysis is performed in the 2nd analysis.

Application data by
Prof. Luigi Mondello, University of Messina, Italy

For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Top of This Page