Batteries and Fuel Cells Testing and Inspection

FITR Talk Letter - FTIR analysis of Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery Electrolyte Solution

Batteries

Testing, Analysis and Inspection of Batteries and Fuel Cells

Advances in fuel cell and battery technology are enabling the proliferation of electric vehicles. Shimadzu manufactures a complete range of instrumentation to characterize the composition and thermal/mechanical behavior of battery cell membrane, electrolytes and electrodes.

Shimadzu SMX-225CT scanners enable precise nondestructive imaging of internal battery components.

Shimadzu subsidiary Kratos Analytical offers X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy instruments for advanced surface and electrochemical investigations.

Compression Test for Structural Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries by MCT

Analytical and Measuring Instruments for Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries

Analytical and Measuring Instruments for Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries

The lithium-ion rechargeable battery is a relatively new type of battery that was first used in the early 1990s. With their high voltage and high energy density, these batteries are widely used for consumer electronics applications, such as mobile phones and laptop computers. Due to enhanced consumer concerns for the environment and fuel savings, the automobile industry has also been developing these batteries for hybrid vehicle (HV) and electric vehicle (EV) applications, which should lead to enhanced output, efficiency, and performance. As a leading manufacturer of a broad range of analytical and testing instruments, Shimadzu provides a variety of solutions that contribute to research, development, and quality control of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries as they become more widely used in consumer electronics and eco-cars.


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Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Evaluation - Application Notebook

Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Evaluation - Application Notebook

Lithium-ion batteries are used widely in household electrical appliances such as cell phones and laptop computers. A considerable increase in demand for lithium-ion batteries is predicted in the transportation sector, where they will be used in aeroplanes, hybrid vehicles, and electric vehicles. These applications will require an increase in the power density, efficiency, lifespan, and stability of these batteries. Lithium-ion batteries are composed of a number of parts, including a cathode, anode, electrolyte, and separator. Increasing the performance of lithium-ion batteries will require detailed investigation and analysis of the properties of each of these components, and of the battery as a whole, by instrument analysis.


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Lithium-ion Rechargeable Battery Testing Instrument Matrix

Part Material Commonly Used Components Test Items (Instrument)
Positive Electrode Active Material LiCoO2 (lithium cobalt oxide)
Mn or Ni may be used instead of Co.
Composition (ICPES,ICPMS,XRF)
Crystallinity (XRD)
Particle Size (Particle Size Analysis)
Electron State (XPS)
Binder Vinylidene fluoride (polyvinilidene fluoride (PVDF)) Molecular weight distribution (GPC), Composition (FTIR)
Conduction enhancer Carbon (carbon black, acetylene black, graphite, etc) Crystallinity (XRD)
Negative Electrode Active Material Carbon, graphite Crystallinity (XRD), Particle Size (particle size analysis)
Trace Additive Li, P, Cu, Na, Co, Ca, K, etc Composition (ICP)
Binder SBR
CMC(carboxymethylcellulose), PVDF also used previously
Structure (FTIR)
Separator Polyolefins (high-density polyethylene) Structure (FTIR)
Thermal characteristics (TGA)
Electrolyte Solutions Solvent Carbonate ester, carboxylate ester, ether Composition (GCMS,GC)
Electrolyte LiPF6, LiBF4 Composition (ICP)
Additive Vinylene Carbonate Composition (GCMS)
Cells
Single-cell, module
    Compression strength(Universal testing machine)

Featured Applications

Observation of Automotive Computer Using inspeXio SMX-225CT FPD HR X-Ray CT System

inspeXio SMX-225CT X-Ray Computed Tomography System

Cars equipped with these electronic devices vibrate constantly while in operation, and are also affected by temperature changes due to the atmospheric temperature and heat from the engine and road. Normal operation is necessary even in this severe environment. Since reliability requirements are high, ECUs and other electronic devices are almost always enclosed in cases, but this means it is not possible to inspect the devices themselves from their external appearance. Thus, nondestructive inspection by Xray techniques is required. This article introduces an example of observation of an ECU by using an X-ray CT system.

Read More  Learn more about the inspeXio SMX-225CT 

 

Internal Observations of Electrodes and Separators (X-ray CT)

inspeXio SMX-225CT FPD HR Plus Micro-Focus X-Ray Computed Tomography System

X-ray fluoroscopy systems offer non-destructive observations of the internal structures of objects. They are effective instruments for identifying the cause of failure of industrial products. By simplifying the non-destructive tomographic imaging and 3D imaging of the interior of objects, observations of internal shapes, dimensional measurements, and density observations, these systems are powerful tools for defect analysis and quality control.

Read More  Learn more about the InspeXio SMX-225CT 

 

Simultaneous Analysis of Evolved Gas Produced by the Degradation of a Lithium-Ion Battery (GC)

SALD-2300 Particle Size Analyzer

In evaluating the degradation of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, it is necessary to analyze the gases produced inside the battery. The composition of the sampled internal gases can be investigated by conveying them to a gas chromatograph. The Shimadzu Tracera High-Sensitivity Gas Chromatograph uses a revolutionary plasma technology to detect all compounds except He and Ne. The system is capable of the simultaneous analysis of C1 to C3 hydrocarbons and inorganic gases including hydrogen, so it eliminates the conventional need for carrier gas switching or combined use of multiple systems. In addition, the Tracera's high sensitivity makes it possible to analyze small quantity gas samples.

Read More  Learn more about the SALD-2300 

 

Effective Evaluation of the Thermal Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Materials (DSC)

Thermal Analysis Instruments

Lithium-ion batteries may overheat due to overcharging and, in the worst case, catch fire. To investigate their safety, the battery materials must be evaluated for thermal stability. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is effective for these measurements. As battery materials readily react with moisture and oxygen, DSC measurements are performed on materials after they have been sealed in a stainless-steel pressure-resistant cell inside the glove box. This page introduces a system that uses accessories such as an extremely compact hydraulic press that can be easily operated in the glove box and presents some measurements made using the system.

Read More  Learn more about our Thermal Analysis Instruments 

 

Melting Measurements on Separator (DSC)

Thermal Analysis Instruments

Lithium ion battery separators are interposed between the positive and negative electrode sheets to prevent shorting due to contact between the positive and negative active materials, and to ensure electrical conductivity by retaining the electrolyte and allowing ions to pass through. The DSC-60 Differential Scanning Calorimeter is effective for the evaluation of separator melting, electrolyte deterioration or decomposition, and other thermal properties under heating.

Read More  Learn more about our Thermal Analysis Instruments 

 

Measurement of Separator Contraction Behavior (TMA)

TMA-60/60H Thermomechanical Analyzers

The TMA-60 Thermomechanical Analyzer is an effective tool for evaluation of the expansion and contraction behaviors of separators and other battery materials under heating. The contraction behavior was measured for two types of separators (1 and 2) extracted from lithium ion batteries.

Read More  Learn more about the TMA-60/60H 

 

Observations of Separator Pores

SALD-2300 Particle Size Analyzer

The separators keep the positive and negative electrodes separated. They consist of a porous material that provides a path (pores) for ions and the electrolyte. Images of three kinds of separators taken by a scanning probe microscope (SPM) permit visual evaluation of the sample surface irregularities.

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Evaluation of Temperature Dependent Strength Properties of Lithium Ion Battery

Universal Electromechanical Test Frames

The separators keep the positive and negative electrodes separated. They consist of a porous material that provides a path (pores) for ions and the electrolyte. Images of three kinds of separators taken by a scanning probe microscope (SPM) permit visual evaluation of the sample surface irregularities.

Download Application (PDF)  Learn more about our Universal Testing Machines 

 

Compression Test for Structural Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries by MCT

MCT Series Micro Compression Testing Machines

The separators keep the positive and negative electrodes separated. They consist of a porous material that provides a path (pores) for ions and the electrolyte. Images of three kinds of separators taken by a scanning probe microscope (SPM) permit visual evaluation of the sample surface irregularities.

Download Application (PDF)  Learn more about our Micro Compression Testing Machines 

Journals & Papers

Experimental study on the formability of aluminum pouch for lithium polymer battery by manufacturing processes

Yu, M., Song, M., Kim, M. et al. J Mech Sci Technol (2019) 33: 4353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-019-0831-y

 

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