Health, Dietary, Nutraceuticals, & Supplements

Simultaneous Analysis of Water-soluble and Fat-soluble Vitamins in Fish by Novel SFC-MS/MS Method
Vitamins, essential dietary nutrients, are principally classified into water-soluble and fat-soluble groups based upon the solubility. Multiple chromatographic systems are commonly employed to analyse water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins separately as both groups exhibit different chemical properties [1]. Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) has been extensively utilized as a common solvent due to its advantages including non-toxic, low viscosity, high diffusivity, and easily removed from the reservoir [2]. Despite its nonpolar characteristic, the polarity of SF-CO2 can be easily attuned by adding polar solvents such as methanol and ethanol. With the use of SF-CO2 as the mobile phase, supercritical fluid chromatography - mass spectrometry (SFC-MS) has attracted much attention for separation and analysis of diverse compounds. By changing the composition of mobile phase from supercritical to near liquid phase with addition of polar modifier (e.g., MeOH) up to 90%, we develop a novel SFC-MS/MS method for simultaneous analysis of 17 water soluble and fat soluble vitamins in fish samples. A novel SFC-MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of vitamins in fish sample was developed using a Raptor Biphenyl SFC column. Simultaneous analysis of eight water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B5, B6, B7, B3 acid, B3 amide and B12) and nine fat-soluble vitamins (D2, D3, E, E acetate, E succinate, K1, K2, A and β-carotene) was achieved in 6.5 minute using a gradient supercritical fluid chromatographic program with MeOH as the modifier.
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Simultaneous Analysis of Water-soluble and Fat-soluble Vitamins in Fish by Reversed-Phase LC-MS/MS Method
Vitamins are a group of compounds that are essential for maintaining good health. As most of them cannot be produced by human body, vitamins are obtained mainly from external sources such as fruits and fish. Analysis methods of HPLC-UV and LC-MS were reported for different types of vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins are analysed normally using normalphase chromatography, while water-soluble ones by reversed-phase chromatography [1,2]. Fish is an important source for both fat-soluble vitamins (D and E) and water-soluble vitamins (B) [3]. It is desired to develop methods enabling determination of both fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. We describe a novel LC/MS/MS method for simultaneous analysis of 17 fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, aiming at quantitation of total vitamins in fish samples using a single method.A quantitation method for simultaneous analysis of nine water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B5, B6, B7, B3 acid, B3 amide, B9 and B12) and eight fat-soluble vitamins (D2, D3, E, E acetate, E succinate, K1, K2 and A and) was developed by employing reversed-phase LC/MS/MS platform. This LC/MS/MS method demonstrated high sensitivity for quantitative profiling of vitamins in fish sample.
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Cannabis Analyzer Application News - Potency Testing in Cannabis Extracts Using a High Sensitivity Method with Cannabis Analyzer
Cannabis may be analyzed for different purposes, the most common of which is the potency, characterized by the quantitation of THC, CBD and CBN. This application note highlights the use of a high sensitivity HPLC method to determine the potency of cannabis extracts with the Shimadzu Cannabis Analyzer for Potency. With this method, the most commonly requested cannabinoids may be determined in under 10 minutes and with the sharpest chromatographic peaks.
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Analysis of Fat-soluble Vitamins Using the Nexera™ UC Supercritical Fluid Chromatograph​
Vitamins are essential micronutrients to maintain the normal functioning of organisms, but they must be ingested from food because they are not synthesized sufficiently in the body. Deficiencies of vitamins in the body cause symptoms such as disease and growth disorders. Vitamin A is associated with night blindness and skin abnormalities, vitamin D with rickets and osteomalacia, vitamin E with anemia and blood circulation disorders, and vitamin K with hemorrhaging, osteoporosis, etc. Therefore, it is very important to accurately analyze the fat-soluble vitamins in foods and supplements. The fat-soluble vitamins are broadly classified into vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K according to their chemical structure and physiological effects. Due to the large number of isomers, good separation is required for fat-soluble vitamin analysis. Here we introduce an example of a simultaneous analysis of fat-soluble vitamins using a supercritical fluid chromatograph (SFC) and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for detection.
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Analysis of Triglycerides Using the Nexera™ UC Supercritical Fluid Chromatograph
Triglycerides are a kind of neutral lipids that are stored in adipose tissue in the bodies of animals, and are broken down to supply energy to cells when they need it. They are known to be the main component of vegetable oils etc., which are included in a lot of food. Triglycerides are constituted of glycerol (glycerin) bonded to three fatty acids (acyl groups) and are highly hydrophobic; there are very many molecular species depending on the composition of the acyl groups and their bonding positions. In vegetable oils, the types of acyl groups that constitute the triglycerides differ depending on the ingredients. Here, we introduce examples of the analysis of triglycerides using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC).
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Separation of Lipids Using the Nexera™ UC Supercritical Fluid Chromatograph​
Lipids are often referred to as compounds derived from living organisms that dissolve in organic solvents, and there are many types including complex lipids that have polar groups such as phosphate groups and sugars in their structure, and simple lipids such as fatty acids and acylglycerol. They are classified into lipid classes with common functional groups in their structure, and the physical properties differ greatly depending on the class. There are also different molecular species of constituent fatty acids within the same lipid class. Therefore, a high separation capacity is required for lipid analysis, and with HPLC the normal phase mode and reversed phase mode are applied differently according to the purpose. Generally, the normal phase mode is used when separating into lipid classes and the reversed phase mode is used when separating molecular species. The mobile phases used in the two modes are completely different, and it is very troublesome to switch modes in an analysis. Here, we introduce separations by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using various columns with different stationary phases.
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LCMS-8060 Application - Developing a Chiral Amino Acid Analysis Method That Uses Column Switching (Japan)
Analysis of D-amino acids is susceptible to interference by a wide variety of peptides and amino compounds, and therefore requires high sensitivity and highly selective analysis methods for accurate measurement. Furthermore, conventional optical separation analysis of amino acids necessitated derivatization and long separation times of the amino acids. This article introduces a rapid analysis method that employs chiral columns to achieve high separation and high sensitivity and that dispenses with derivatization. This system uses two types of chiral columns alternately with high-pressure column switching valves (FCV) and allows fully automatic analysis of a wide range of D- and L-amino acids.
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Cannabis Analyzer Application News - Potency Testing in Cannabis Extracts Using a High Throughput Method with Cannabis Analyzer
Cannabis may be analyzed for different purposes, the most common of which is the potency, characterized by the quantitation of THC, CBD and CBN. This application note highlights the use of a high throughput HPLC method to determine the potency of cannabis extracts with the Shimadzu Cannabis Analyzer for Potency. With this method, the most commonly requested cannabinoids may be determined in under 8 minutes.
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Cannabis Analyzer Application News - Potency Testing in Cannabis Extracts Using a High Sensitivity Method with Cannabis Analyzer
Cannabis may be analyzed for different purposes, the most common of which is the potency, characterized by the quantitation of THC, CBD and CBN. This application note highlights the use of a high sensitivity HPLC method to determine the potency of cannabis extracts with the Shimadzu Cannabis Analyzer for Potency. With this method, the most commonly requested cannabinoids may be determined in under 10 minutes and with the sharpest chromatographic peaks.
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Cannabis Analyzer Application News - Potency Testing in Cannabis Extracts Using a High Resolution Method with Cannabis Analyzer
Cannabis may be analyzed for different purposes, the most common of which is the potency, characterized by the quantitation of THC, CBD and CBN. This application note highlights the use of a high resolution HPLC method to determine the potency of cannabis extracts with the Shimadzu Cannabis Analyzer for Potency. With this method, the most commonly requested cannabinoids may be determined in less than 30 minutes with full baseline resolution. Further, the method handles a growing number of cannabinoid targets.
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i-Series Application - Analysis of Low Molecular Weight Soluble Dietary Fiber by Prominence-i
This application news describes an analysis of the amount of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber by an enzymatic-HPLC method, based on the Food Labeling Standards ̶ Appendix: Methods of analysis of nutritional composition1). The instrument used was a Prominence-i integrated HPLC system installed with an RID-20A differential refractive index detector
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - Simplified Cannabis Terpene Profiling by GCMS
Terpene and terpenoid compounds are naturally occurring aromatic compounds that give cannabis its unique flavor and fragrance. Aside from their aromatic properties, terpenes have advantageous health benefits. They also have a synergistic relationship with cannabinoids, which further enhance the therapeutic effect of THC. Terpene analyses were conducted using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010SE single quadrupole mass spectrometer with the HS-20 headspace autosampler for sample introduction
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ICPMS Application - Analysis of Minerals and Harmful Elements in Formula Milk Powder Using ICPMS-2030
Formula milk powder is formulated to contain a good balance of minerals necessary for infant growth. Japan's Health Promotion Law includes stipulations on the essential mineral content, including calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu), of food for special dietary use (e.g., formulated milk powder for infants) and requires the labeling of their content. Harmful elements like lead (Pb) have a negative effect on infant development, and require strict safety controls from raw materials to the finished product. We describe using Shimadzu's ICPMS-2030 inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to perform a simultaneous analysis of elements present in formula milk powder (National Metrology Institute of Japan certified reference material [NMIJ CRM]). In addition to being highly sensitive, the ICPMS-2030 uses a helium gas collision system that greatly reduces the spectral interference caused by argon and chlorine.
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ICPMS Application - Analysis of Toxic Elements in Supplements as per USP 2232 Using the ICPMS-2030
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 2232 designates permitted daily exposure (PDE) levels for four elements for which toxicity is a concern in dietary supplements. PDE values need to be converted to concentrations when evaluating metallic impurities in formulations or their structural components. Compliance with these regulations is also obligatory for supplements imported to the U.S. from other nations. Here, we introduce a quantitative analysis performed on arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in supplements using the Shimadzu ICPMS-2030 ICP mass spectrometer.
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SFC/SFE Application - Improved Sample Pretreatment Using Offline Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Separation analysis using HPLC, SFC or GC requires a pretreatment step to ef ciently extract a target constituent from the sample in various forms (e.g., solid). Constituents are usually extracted from solid samples using dissolution or solid-liquid extraction methods. Dissolution methods can only be used when the sample is soluble in a given solvent, and they are dif cult to optimize depending on the analytical conditions. Solid-liquid extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet extraction) are not suited to the pretreatment of multiple samples as they require considerable time for extraction and non-extraction (e.g., cleaning, preparation) operations. However, extraction methods involving supercritical uids can utilize the characteristics of supercritical uids (e.g., high solubility, permeability) to achieve the elution of a target constituent from a solid sample with high ef ciency and also allow automation during the extraction process. This article describes the utilization of the Nexera UC SFE pretreatment system, which increases the ef ciency of sample pretreatment for analysis.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Multi Pesticides Residue analysis in Ayurvedic cough Syrup by GCMS/MS using QuEChERS’ extraction method (India)
Ayurveda is a Sanskrit term, which means ‘science of life’. In India, Ayurveda has been long practiced for medicinal purpose. Majority of it’s preparations involve presence of plants, herbs etc. For the normal, disease-free growth of these plants and herbs, pesticides are widely used. Some of these pesticides can act as toxins to animals & humans when consumed even as residues. Hence, it becomes important to quantitate the pesticides at residual levels in orally consumed preparations, especially which involve plant materials such as Ayurvedic cough syrups. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged & Safe) method was used for extraction and clean-up of the sample followed by analysis using GCMS-TQ8040 Triple Quadrupole (GCMS/MS) system from Shimadzu Corporation, Japan.
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LCMS-2020 Application - Quantitative Analysis of Cholesterol using LCMS-2020 (SSI)
This work demonstrates a rapid method for the detection and quantification of Cholesterol down to a LLOQ of 0.01ppm using a Shimadzu LCMS-2020.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Determination of pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicinal materials Milkvetch Root (China)
In the process of cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines, it’s often threatened by variety of diseases, the yield and quality of medicinal materials are impacted directly which causing significant economic losses. In 1997 the national Traditional Chinese Medicine Bureau organized relevant units to carry out research on Chinese herbal medicine plant protection, the result of investigation shows that the medicinal plant diseases and insect pests prevention is the weak link for the production of Chinese herbal medicine. Plant diseases and insect pests of many types, bring severe losses. Due to the lack of knowledge about medicinal pesticide, misuse of pesticides is the prominent problem. The problem of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicine, a direct impact on human health, hinder the traditional Chinese medicine into the international market. In this paper, using the SHIMADZU three triple quadrupole GC-MS realized the determination of multiple trace pesticide residues in Milkvetch Root by instrument GCMS-TQ8040, the method has high sensitivity and good accuracy.
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Nexera-e Application - Comprehensive 2D Separation of Lipid Species in Mussels Using the Nexera-e System Combined with LCMS-IT-TOF Detection
This article presents an example separation of lipids in mussels using the Nexera-e, which is an effective system for the comprehensive separation of a large number of lipid molecules. A semi-micro-scale separation via the HILIC column was used for the first dimension, and an ultra-high-speed reversed-phase separation was used for the second dimension. An ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LCMS-IT-TOF) was combined with the Nexera-e to perform detection.
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Nexera UC Appliccation - Analysis of Vitamin E in a Commercial Supplement by Offline SFE-SFC-PDA
Vitamin E, also called tocopherol is a fat soluble vitamin and an important chemical substance that exhibits an antioxidant effect, particularly in the human body. There are four tocopherols (α, β, γ and δ) that differ based on the number and position of methyl groups. The α-tocopherol exhibits the strongest antioxidant activity, and this is the tocopherol form found in most commercial supplements as vitamin E. Since it is highly fat-soluble, a quick and simple extraction method using supercritical fluid is expected to be applicable. In this article, we introduce a procedure for α-tocopherol pretreatment that uses supercritical fluid extraction (SFE).
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LCMS-8030 Application - Improvement in Suppression of Carryover of Auto-Sampler for High Sensitivity MS Detector (Japan)
As the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer has been greatly improved, the carryover of the sample remaining in the auto-sampler has become the most significant factor determining the quantitative performance of the whole LC-MSMS system. Meanwhile, as the demands arise for faster speed and higher resolution of the analysis, the higher-pressure HPLC has become available from many HPLC venders. However, users sometimes experience carryover problem in higher-pressure system that they have not experienced with conventional HPLC system pressure. We have studied how the carryover performance is affected by the system pressure, and in this paper we report how we can improve carryover in a higher-pressure application.
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