Agriculture, Soils, & Fertilizers

ICPMS Analysis - Quantitation of Arsenic Species in White Rice and Brown Rice Using LC-ICP-MS System
Rice is one of the agricultural products that incorporates a relatively significant amount of arsenic in which the ratio of inorganic to organic arsenic is known to be high. Both inorganic and organic arsenic species are known for their potential for harm, however, inorganic arsenic is known to be more toxic than organic arsenic. As such, the Codex Alimentarius Commission held in July 2014 determined 0.2 mg/kg to be the maximum concentration of inorganic arsenic in processed rice. An LC-ICP-MS system which connects an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) in-line with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system allows high sensitivity and high accuracy measurement of arsenic species. This report demonstrates the quantitation of inorganic arsenic species [As(III) and As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid in white rice and brown rice that was accomplished by connecting the Shimadzu ICPMS-2030 in-line with a HPLC system.
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LCMS-8060 Application - Full automated online sample extraction and analysis of mycotoxins in foods by online SFE-SFC-MS
Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight natural products produced by fungi and are capable of causing disease and death. They are strictly regulated around the world because of their strong carcinogenic effects. A simple and reliable method to analyze mycotoxins is required to ensure food safety. The current methods require time-consuming sample pretreatment. Here we report a fully automated online sample extraction and analysis of mycotoxins in foods by online SFE-SFC-MS.
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Prominence Application - Analysis of Melamine and Its Related Substances in Fertilizers
This article describes an example of pretreating and analyzing melamine and its related substances, namely ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid, in fertilizer, in accordance with the testing methods supervised by the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center (FAMIC) in Japan for fertilizers and other substances
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Prominence Application - Analysis of Nitrous Acid and Ammonium Thiocyanate in Fertilizers
Fertilizers with high concentrations of nitrous acid and ammonium thiocyanate have a negative effect on plant growth, therefore maximum content levels (permitted content levels) for toxic substances are prescribed in official specifications for commercial fertilizers according to the Fertilizer Control Law1). An example of simultaneous analysis of the nitrous acid and ammonium thiocyanate content of fertilizer by HPLC is described. Analysis was performed in conformance with the test method that appears in Testing Methods for Fertilizers (5.8.b and 5.9.a, 2016)2), published by the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center (FAMIC).
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Efficient extraction of residual pesticides in agricultural products and soils for GC/MS and LC/MS analysis using supercritical fluid extractionon
A solvent extraction is commonly used for pretreatment of residual pesticides in foods and soils. In the method, a substantial amount of time and effort are required and large quantities of organic solvents are consumed. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that employs supercritical carbon dioxide as an extraction solvent provides good extraction efficiency due to high diffusivity and solubility. It affords extremely short time as well as less damaging to the environment due to small consumption of organic solvent compared to that of solvent extraction methods. We have developed an efficient SFE system that can perform up to 48 automatic and serial extractions and applied it to extraction of residual pesticides in agricultural products and soils.
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LCMS-8060 Application - Multi-Residue Analysis of 18 Regulated Mycotoxins by LC/MS/MS (UK)
Mycotoxins are one of the most important contaminants in food and feed due to their widespread distribution in the environment and toxic effects on humans and animals. Structurally, mycotoxins are a very diverse group with a wide range of physicochemical properties and low molecular weights. They are produced by fungi (mould) frequently found on agricultural produce, and are often not visible to the naked eye. Some of the most commonly contaminated food stuffs include wheat, oats, rye, corn, barley, rice, nuts and milk. Due to the risks posed by mycotoxins in food they are regulated globally, including, the EU, US, China, Singapore and Brazil. In the EU, reporting limits are harmonised in Regulation (EC) No 1886/2006 (amended by (EC) No 1126/2007) and sampling and analysis in Regulation (EC) No 401/2006. LC/MS/MS is the technique most commonly employed for mycotoxin quantitation in order to achieve the necessary low reporting limits in complex food and feed matrices.
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ICPMS Application - Analysis of Plant Materials Using the ICPMS-2030
Foods contain many different types of elements with a variety of concentrations. It is important to assess the concentrations of elements in order to know the intake of nutrients and manage the health risks from toxic elements. A variety of analytical instruments are used for elemental analysis. Among these, ICP mass spectrometers are ideal for the analysis of foods because they can analyze many elements at a time with high sensitivity. In this study, we performed a simultaneous analysis of plant materials using the Shimadzu ICPMS-2030 ICP mass spectrometer. The ICPMS-2030 contains a database of all the elements, so it can assess concentrations even for elements with no standard sample. Therefore, we also conducted qualitative analysis.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Characterization of Wines Produced from Fungus Resistant Grapes (Germany)
The vineyards of the Styrian wine region are located in the southern part of Austria close to the Slovenian border covering approximately 4.500 hectares. Predominantly steep slopes are cultivated with inclinations up to 60%. This area is a classical cool-climate region with an average annual temperature of 10.5°C and precipitation of approximately 1.000 mm per year. Main rainfall months are especially May, June, July & ,August and September in which 55 to 70% of the annual precipitation falls. The mechanical management of the steep slopes is difficult and quite dangerous, too. The establishment of fungus- resistant grape varietals can clearly reduce plant protection efforts and also brings economic advantages. First experiments with fungus resistant grape varieties date back to the early '80s. Most varieties of the initial trials were not accepted by the consumers due to their sensory properties. The recent generation of fungus-resistant grape varietals show much more compromising results and a higher acceptance on the market.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Application for Plant Metabolome Analysis Using the GC/MS/MS Smart Metabolites Database
The GC/MS/MS Smart Metabolites Database contains analytical conditions for the high-sensitivity detection of 475 metabolites commonly involved in the central metabolism of all biological organisms. Using this database, 170 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, were detected in mature tomato leaves. Furthermore, by verifying the analytical accuracy of an internal standard substance, ribitol, based on the relative elution time, detection intensity, and reference ion ratio, we confirmed that it is possible to quantitatively detect metabolites with a high level of accuracy.
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LCMS-8050 Application - Comprehensive Analysis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruits Using an Automated Method Changeover UHPLC System and LC/MS/MS System (Japan)
Metabolome analysis, which is the comprehensive analysis of all metabolites present in a living organsim, is now being apploed in a variety of areas and not just to analyze the metabolites of living organisms. Metabolome analysis is becoming an important tool in the food sector in areas such as food processing and plant breeding. In food analysis, it is very important to carry out comprehensive analysis of primary and secondary metabolites that contribute to the color, smell, taste, and functional properties of food. To date, there has been only a few examples of performing these anlyses simultaneously. In this article, we describe a method of performing comprehensive analysis of primary and secondary metabolites in food (major organic acids, amino acids, sugars, carotenoids, and flavonoids) using LC/MS/MS, and also present an example application of this analytical method using citrus fruits as an actual sample.
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LCMS-8060 Application - Improved sensitivity for characterization of sulfonamides and trimethoprim in honey using QuEChERS extracts with LC-MS/MS (SSI)
A natural food as honey is subject of diverse restrictions for contaminants presence as the case of antibiotics including sulfonamides. It is a worldwide practice by Beekeepers to use antibiotics as therapeutic agents to treat bee bacterial brood diseases, however the use of sulfonamides (SA) and trimethoprim (TMP) in beekeeping practice is prohibited in EU. There are no a worldwide MRL’s for sulfonamides in honey in the EU, but a minimum required performance level (MRPL) was set for analytical methods at a level of 10 µg/kg of sulfonamides, encouraging the development of reliable laboratory methods for detection in diverse foods included honey. SAs and TMP posing threats to public health causing allergic reactions and increasing microorganism’s drug resistance. Considering MRLs and MRPL of SAs and TMP in food products from animals tend to be continually reduced to preserve human health safety, HPLC-MS/MS is an effective strategy to characterize and accurately measure those antibiotics. The present method is selective, fast, and very sensitive for 20 sulfonamides and trimethoprim.
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LCMS-8050 Application - Development of MRM-based detection of the plant metabolome using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (Japan)
Multiplexed metabolite screen using MRM-MS has become a powerful strategy to bring information of biological state. In the field of plant research, it is hoped that the metabolomics is used for developing new varieties of plants to get a valuable feature, for understanding for the stress-response from environmental conditions and so on. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is one of a widely used tool for metabolome analysis, and it have an advantage of widely applicable properties, to analyze high molecular weight, thermolabile and polar compounds without any derivatization. In this study, we attempted to develop a LC-MRM-based approach to determine metabolite profiles including both primary and secondary metabolites aiming at high throughput and comprehensive methods using triple quadrupole MS acquisition.
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LCMS-8050 Application - Rapid Screening and Quantitation of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis by Modified QuEChERS and LC-MS-MS (SSI)
Medical and recreational use of marijuana (Cannabis spp.) is expanding in the United States at a rapid pace, and domestic production has increased more than ten-fold in the last 25 years. This extremely high value crop is vulnerable to mold and insects so growers frequently apply pesticides and antifungals to protect their plants. These chemical residues may pose a danger to consumers, so highly sensitive and selective methods for their detection in the complex cannabis matrix are required. We developed a rapid and effective LC-MS-MS method with modified QuEChERS sample preparation for detection of nearly 200 chemical residues in dried cannabis ower and used the method to test a wide selection of products offered for commercial sale.
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LCMS-8040 Application - Rapid development of quantitative method for determination of plant growth regulators and streptomycin in fruits using LC/MS/MS (India)
Plant growth regulators (PGRs) and antibiotics are commonly used by farmers for enhancing growth of crops and to protect against infections respectively. However, extensive usages of these compounds is known to have adverse effect on human health. Each standard has different linearity range. It is challenging to quickly develop multi-analyte quantitation method for determination of varied compounds simultaneously. One interesting approach can be Method Scouting, which allows user to conduct all method development exercises automatically. This results in swift development of an optimum method which will suit all analytes. Highly sensitive quantitative method was developed quickly using Nexera Method Scouting system for determination of eight PGRs and streptomycin (shown in Figure 1) on LCMS-8040 (shown in Figure 2), a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer from Shimadzu Corporation, Japan.
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LCMS-8060 Application - Quantitative analysis of 646 pesticides (1,919 MRMs) by LC-MS/MS with fast 10.5 minute cycle time (SEG)
With an increasing global population, food security is increasingly under threat and there is a growing challenge for agriculture to produce more food, safely and more sustainably. The use of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides reduce crop losses both before and after harvest, and increase crop yields. However, pesticide residues resulting from the use of plant protection products on crops may pose a risk to human health and require a legislative framework to monitor pesticide residues in food. National programs for pesticide monitoring in the US, Europe and Japan have set Maximum Residue Levels (MRL’s) or tolerance information (EPA) for pesticides in food products. A default value of 0.01 mg/kg is applied for MRL enforcement, which therefore requires highly sensitive and specific analytical technologies to monitor an increasing number of pesticides. This paper describes the expanded capability of the LCMS-8060 to help accelerate method development work flows and support increased pesticide monitoring programs. Using the Shimadzu Pesticide MRM Library (the Library includes information on 766 certified reference materials) a single multi-residue LC/MS/MS method was developed for 646 pesticides (typically 3 MRM transitions for each targeted pesticide resulting in 1,919 transitions in total, with a polarity switching time of 5 msec).
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